ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Architecture of absurd (forms, positions, apposition)

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Fedorov Viktor Vladimirovich - Tver Technical University (TSTU) Doctor of Culturology, Professor, chair, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tver Technical University (TSTU), 22 Naberezhnaya Af. Nikitins, Tver, 170026, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Levikov Aleksandr Vasil'evich - Tver Technical University (TSTU) postgraduate student, Department of Philosophy and Psychology, Tver Technical University (TSTU), 22 Naberezhnaya Af. Nikitins, Tver, 170026, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 21-28

In everyday life we constantly face absurd things, which seem to lack common sense. The notion of the absurd acts as: a) an aesthetic category; b) an element of logic; c) a metaphysical phenomenon. The opportunity of its overcoming is achieved through the understanding of the situation, the faith in the existence of sense and hope for his understanding. The architecture of absurd should be considered as a loss of sense of a part of architectural landscape (urban) environment. The ways of organization of the architecture of absurd: the exaggerated forms and proportions, the unnatural position and apposition of various objects. These are usually small-scale facilities that have local spatial and temporary value. There are no large absurd architectural spaces, as the natural architectural environment dampens the perturbation of sense-sphere. The architecture of absurd is considered «pathology» of the environment. «Nonsense» objects and hope (or even faith) to detect sense generate a fruitful paradox of architecture of absurd presence in the world.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.21-28

References
  1. Moskvina R.R. Absurd [Absurd]. Sovremennyy filosofskiy slovar' [Modern Philosophical Dictionary]. Moscow, 1998, pp. 13—14.
  2. Revzin G. Prostramstvo polnogo absurda [Space of Absolute Absurd]. Gazeta “Kommersant” [Kommersant Newspaper]. 08.06.2009. Available at: http://www.kommersant.ru/doc. Date of access: 04.07.2013.
  3. Nevozmozhnyy mir. Iskusstvo. Kopii M.K. Eshera [Impossible World. Art. Copies of M.K. Escher]. Available at: http://im-possible.info/russian/art/escher/index.html. Date of access: 20.03.14.
  4. Kunert F. Arkhitekturnyy absurd [ Architectural Absurd]. Available at: http://www.outshoot.ru. Date of access: 04.07.2013.
  5. Keil R. Suburban Constellations: Governance, Land and Infrastructure in the 21st Century. Available at: http://urbantick.blogspot.ru. Date of access: 21.03.2014.
  6. Vendina O.I. Gorod kak «funktsiya» i kak «mesto zhizni». Sovremennye sdvigi v ponimanii gorodskogo razvitiya [City as a «Function» and «the Place to Live». Modern Changes in Urban Development Understanding]. Available at: http://www.youtube.com. Date of Access: 21.03.2014.
  7. Zharkova L. Landshaftnaya arkhitektura i blagoustroystvo [Landscape Architecture and Landscaping]. Available at: http://www.fineland.ru/pages/100306.htm. Date of Access: 21.03.2014.
  8. Fedorov V.V., Davydov V.A., Levikov A.V. Arkhitekturnye ruiny v sovremennom mire [Architectural Ruins in the Modern World]. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo Rossii [Architecture and Construction in Russia]. 2013, no. 11, pp. 14—21.
  9. Fedorov V.V., Davydov V.A., Levikov A.V. Arkhitekturnaya sreda v strukture prostranstv sotsial'nogo bytiya [The Architectural Environment in the Structure of Social Life Space]. European Social Science Journal. 2013, no. 9, vol. 2, pp. 8—16.
  10. Krymskiy S.B. Eksplikatsiya filosofskikh smyslov [Explication of Philosophical Senses]. Moscow, Ideya-Press Publ., 2006.
  11. Vil'ner M.Ya. Planirovochnoe predstavlenie o territorii [Planning Representation on the Territory]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo [Academia. Architecture and Construction]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 67—75.
  12. Nesterova A.A. Gorod dlya lyudey [City for People]. GRADO. Zhurnal o gradostroitel'stve i arkhitekture [GRADO. Magazine on Urban Planning and Architecture]. 2012, pp. 18—20.
  13. Urban Form at the Edge. 20th International Seminar on Urban Form. Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia 17th—20th July 2013. Available at: http://www.isuf2013.com. Date of Access: 21.03. 2014.
  14. Puchkov M.V. Semioticheskie vzaimosvyazi arkhitektury i yazyka [Semiotic Interaction of Architecture and Language]. Semiotika prostranstva [Semiotics of Space]. Ekaterinburg, Arkhitekton Publ., 1999, pp. 115—154.

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V.I. MUKHINA’S SCULPTURE «WORKER AND COLLECTIVEFARM GIRL»: CONSTRUCTION ASPECTS OF CREATION AND RECONSTRUCTION

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Molokova Tat’yana Alekseevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Chair, Department of History and Culture Studies; +7 (499) 183-21-29., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 35-41

The article covers the problems of reconstruction of the famous sculptural group designed by V.I. Mukhina «Worker and Collective Farm Girl», created in the 1930s for the Soviet pavilion of the universal exposition in Paris in 1937. The author considers the structural and cultural features of the monument and drives attention to the synthesis of architecture and sculpture in the pavilion designed by B.M. Iofan.The author also emphasizes some constructive features of the sculpture such as the scarf which is an important compositional and constructive element, and describes the process of preparation of the sculpture to construction in Paris and assembly in Moscow after The Paris World Exposition. The author touches the problem of the sculpture installation in Soviet period. The author performs a comparative analysis of the sculpture before and after its reconstruction and covers the aspects of construction works, including the construction of a new modern pavilion, or a pedestal for the sculpture.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.35-41

References
  1. Voronov N.V. Rabochiy i kolkhoznitsa [Worker and Collective Farmer Girl]. Moscow, Moskovski Rabochi Publ., 1990, p. 78.
  2. Samin D.K. Samye znamenitye zodchie Rossii [The Most Famous Architects of Russia]. Moscow, Veche Publ., 2004, 43 p.
  3. Kostina O. «Rabochiy i kolkhoznitsa». Skul’ptura i vremya [Worker and Collective Farmer Girl. Sculpture and Time]. Moscow, Sovetski Khudozhnik Publ., 1987, 100 p.
  4. Gur’yanova I. Kolkhoznitsa — eto ya [I Am the Collective Farm Girl]. Moskovskie vedomosti [Moscow Chronicles]. No. 10(158), March 20, 2000, p. 3.
  5. Moskovskiy Gosudarstvennyy Stroitel’nyy Universitet: istoriya i sovremennost’ [Moscow State University of Civil Engineering: History and Present Days]. Moscow, 2001, ASV Publ., pp. 130—131.
  6. Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Pamyatniki kul’tury Moskvy: iz proshlogo v budushchee [Landmarks of Moscow Culture: from the Past into the Future]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 121 p.
  7. Moskovskoe nasledie [Moscow Legacy]. 2009, no. 9, p. 46.

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RUSSIAN PAVILIONS AT UNIVERSAL EXPOSITIONS:CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECTURE

Vestnik MGSU 6/2013
  • Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 42-49

Russia was a regular participant of the World Expos and an organizer of several international exhibitions in Moscow, St.Petersburg and other Russian cities. The value of the Russia’s contribution into the history of the World Expos is substantial and versatile. Russia’s participation in the Universal Expositions produced a strong impact on the development of the exhibition economy, architecture, construction machinery, engineering, and urban development. In its turn, urbanization produced its impact on the development of Expos. Major Russian architects, sculptors and designers created exceptional and original works in a variety of styles; they employed versatile construction methods and techniques. Trade fairs served as the venues for experimental buildings constructed in furtherance of the most advanced designs and technology-related inventions. Russia’s participation in the construction of pavilions at the World Exhibitions gave way to a unique architectural trend, whereby three-dimensional solutions, the architecture of pavilions, landscape products, landscapes and even music got together in the organic unity. This artificial artistic medium represents a new type of the architectural ensemble.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.6.42-49

References
  1. Mezenin V.K. Parad vsemirnykh vystavok [Parade of Universal Expositions]. Moscow, Znanie Publ., 1990, 31 p.
  2. Mel’nikov N.P. Chudesa vystavki v Chikago [Miracles of the Chicago Expo]. Odessa, 1993, 24 p.
  3. Orlov M.A. Vsemirnaya parizhskaya vystavka 1900 g. v illyustratsiyakh i opisaniyakh [Paris World Exposition 1900 in Illustrations and Descriptions]. St.Petersburg, Tipografiya brat. Panteleevykh Publ., 1900, 43 p.
  4. Kirichenko E.I. F. Shekhtel’ [Shekhtel]. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy publ., 1973, 25 p.
  5. Kaufman S.A. V.A. Shchuko [Shchuko]. Moscow, 1946, 47 p.
  6. Ovchinnikova N.P. Sovetskie pavil’ony na mezhdunarodnykh vystavkakh [Soviet Pavilions at International Exhibitions]. Moscow, Znanie Publ., 1980, 52 p.
  7. Ching F.D.K. Vsemirnaya istoriya arkhitektury [Global History of Architecture]. Moscow, AST Publ., 2007, 681 p.
  8. Shpakov V.N. Istoriya vsemirnykh vystavok [History of World Expositions]. Moscow, AST Publ., 2008, 281 p.
  9. Navlitskaya G.B. Osaka [Osaka]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, 37 p.

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АRCHITECTURAL RUINS PHENOMENON

Vestnik MGSU 8/2013
  • Fedorov Viktor Vladimirovich - Tver Technical University (TSTU) Doctor of Culturology, Professor, chair, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tver Technical University (TSTU), 22 Naberezhnaya Af. Nikitins, Tver, 170026, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Skibina Elena Vladimirovna - Tver State Technical University (TvGTU) assistant lecturer, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Tver State Technical University (TvGTU), office 322, 22 nab. Af. Nikitina, Tver, 170026, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-13

Modern academic research has a large area of behaviorist and environmental studies focusing on the spatial factor employed to explain the reality. The concept of understanding ruins as monuments of the past dates back to the days of the Renaissance. Exposed to destruction in the past ages, they have acquired numerous meanings, thus, becoming a source of ideas about the past. It is appropriate to speak about “historic” and “modern” ruins. In the first case, the time distance between the moments of construction and perception of ruins is quite large. In the second case, ruins comprise the outcome of inaccurate design, construction or maintenance of buildings, natural disasters or wars. They also have a symbolic and semantic content. The interest in the phenomenon of ruins has brought forth the notion of«false ruins» (in landscape parks) and «future ruins» (paintings and fiction). The spatial and time scale of the urban environment (including ruins) generates a powerful symbolic content. Ruins often symbolize a pathological state of the society that strives to minimize the presence of such objects in the everyday life. Developing culture prefers creative motives and tends to replace destructive ones. Since the 1980s, the phenomenon of architectural ruins has been rapidly expanding its presence in the virtual space due to:1) the complexity of visual assessments because of the lack of familiar structural elements to be employed to estimate the size of buildings; 2) the violation of the balance of space, mass, shape, typical of architectural creations; 3) the dominance of the deaf mass (remains of columns, walls, etc.); 4) the lack of spatial reference, volume, symmetry, reinforcing irrationality in perception of ruins (the loss of the original image destroys the unity of form and content); 5) the loss of opinions on the functional purpose of buildings; 6) exclusive picturesque ruins; 7) background lighting, colour and texture of surfaces.The complexity of experiences related to the perception of ruins is determined by many circumstances. Special attention should be paid to: a) the presentation of ruins as a particular case of the architectural sphere; 2) the development of typology of ruins, important for the understanding of the phenomenon as a whole; 3) the study of particular architectural ruins in the virtual reality; 4) the objective of identifying the potential impact that the phenomenon of architectural ruins may produce on the mankind.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.8.7-13

References
  1. Kiyanenko K.V. Arkhitekturnaya nauka v SShA: «EDRA» i chelovekoorientirovannye issledovaniya [Architectural Science in the United States: EDRA and Human Oriented Researches]. Academia [Academy]. Moscow, 2011, no. 1, pp. 38—43.
  2. Nowak M. Five Rules for the Evolution of Cooperation. Science. 2006, vol. 314, pp. 1560—1563.
  3. O'Connell K. Tactical Urbanism Has Caught On in a Big Way. Architect, July 2013, pp. 38—40.
  4. Ukhnalev A.E. Ruiny. Vremya. Arkhitektura [Ruins. Time. Architecture] Arkhitekturnyy vestnik [Architectural Herald]. 1997, no. 4, pp. 61—63.
  5. Jodidio Ph. Architecture Now. London, Taschen, 2005, 447 p.
  6. Zenkin S.N. Frantsuzskiy romantizm i ideya kul'tury (aspekty problemy) [French Romanticism and Idea of Culture (Problem Aspects)]. Moscow, RGGU Publ., 2001, pp. 32—39.
  7. Sardarov A. Ruiny kak arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennoe yavlenie [Ruins as Architectural and Artistic Phenomenon]. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo [Architecture and Construction]. 2010, no. 5 (216). Available at: http://ais.by/story/11799. Date of access: 29.07.2013.
  8. Shpeer A. Vospominaniya [Memoirs]. Moscow, Zaharov publ., 2010. 688 p.
  9. Mitin I. Neskol'ko zamechaniy o ruinakh [Some Remarks on Ruins]. Available at: http://os.colta.ru/art/projects. Date of access: 24.05.2011.
  10. Morris U. Iskusstvo i zhizn' [Art and Life]. Moscow, 1973, 324 p.
  11. Shenle A. Apologiya ruiny v filosofii istorii [Apology of Ruin in Philosophy of History]. Available at: http://magazines.russ.ru/nlo/2009/95. Date of access: 14.02.2012.
  12. Losev A.F. Problema simvola i realisticheskoe iskusstvo [The Problem of Symbol and Realistic Art]. Moscow, 1995, 446 p.

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NEW ARHIVED DOCUMENTS CONCERNING THE CHURCH CONSTRUCTION IN VOZDVIZHENSKOE VILLAGE

Vestnik MGSU 3/2012
  • Chetyrina Natalya Arkadevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Department of History and Culturology; (499) 183-21-29, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 6 - 11

The paper considers civil engineering in retrospect. The paper presents the records of the two contracts that date back to 1837 and 1838. The contracts cover the two stages of construction of a famous church in Vozdvizhenskoe Village in the Moscow Province. These documents were stored in the Central Historic Archive, namely, in the collection of the town hall of Sergievskij Possad. These records of the two agreements in the collection of the brokers notes (or in other books of the same type) are of particular value, as the majority of authentic contracts have been lost. One of the contracts covers the organizational procedure and pre-construction works, while the other one covers the construction of the church. The first document gives the idea of environmental protection, employment of ecological technologies, and safe disposal and recycling of human biowaste in the course of dismantling of an old structure in Vozdvizhenskoe village. The second document that dates back to 1838 covers the sequence of construction works, starting from the foundation and ending with the arches, the types of building materials used, and peculiarities of stone masonry. The information recorded in the contract includes the names of the counterparties, day-to-day mode of life of seasonal workers, remuneration of labour and procedures that assure the quality of construction. This agreement makes it possible to outline the construction process that includes workers, bricklayers, the foreman, the contractor, the architect, and the customer. On the whole, both documents help us outline and assess some of the building practices of the 19th century. This issue is relevant nowadays, as our society has entered the phase of the market economy, while the experience accumulated by the past generations is of undeniable value.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.3.6 - 11

References
  1. Il’in M.A. Podmoskov’e [Moscow Region]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1974.
  2. Pamiatniki arhitekturi Moskovskoy oblasti [Architectural Monuments of the Moscow Region]. No. 2, Moscow, Stroiisdat Publ., 1999, p. 91.
  3. Penezhko O. Khramy Sergievo-Posadskogo blagochiniya [Sergijev-Possad Churches]. Vladimir, 2007, pp. 86—87, 231.
  4. Marreze L.M. Bab’e tsarstvo: dvoryanki i vladenie imushchestvom v Rossii (1700—1861) [The Female Kingdom: Noble Ladies and Property Ownership in Russia (1700—1861)]. Moscow, 2009.
  5. Samoylov A. Sergievo-Posadskiy tserkovnyy okrug [Sergijev-Possad Church District]. Moskovskie eparkhial’nye vedomosti [Moscow Church District News]. 2003, no. 9-10, p. 91.
  6. Chetyrina N.A. Snos starykh stroeniy kak primer stroitel’noy praktiki [Demolition of Old Structures and an Example of Building Practice]. Sovremennye issledovaniya gumanitarnykh, sotsial’nykh i ekonomicheskikh problem stroitel’stva i arkhitektury [Modern Research of Humanitarian, Social and Economic Problems of Construction and Architecture]. Moscow, 2010, pp. 325—328.
  7. M.V. Nikolaeva Chastnoe stroitel’stvo v Moskve i Podmoskov’e pervoy chetverti XVIII veka [Private Construction in Moscow and Moscow Region in the First Quarter of the 18th Century]. Podryadnye zapisi [Records of Contractors], Vol. 2, Moscow, URSS, 2004.

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RECONSTRUCTION OF MOSCOW AFTER THE 1812 FIRE OF MOSCOW: NEW LOOK OF THE CITY

Vestnik MGSU 6/2012
  • Molokova Tat'yana Alekseevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Chair, Department of History and Culturology, +7 (499) 183-21-29, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 17 - 22

considered in the article. The author analyzes the influence of the 1812 Patriotic War on the political and cultural life of Russia, as there had been a rise of national consciousness in Russia in the first decades of the 19th century related to the victory over Napoleon. The author drives particular attention to the historic fact that Moscow suffered a lot more than other Russian cities in the War of 1812; the city was completely destroyed by the fire. The author provides statistical data related to the city as of the autumn of 1812. Moscow reconstruction plan proposed by Mr. Gestle, architect, and the procedure of "Commissioning of Structures", drafted under the guidance of O.I. Bove, architect, are analyzed in detail. The author also covers the personal contribution made by O.I. Bove, his associates D.I. Zhilyardi and A.G. Grigor'ev, into the reconstruction of the city centre.
The article features the town-planning policy of 1820-1830 and patterns of late classicism in the Moscow architecture.
The article is dedicated to the year of the Russian history and one of its major events, the anniversary of the victory in the Patriotic War of 1812.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.6.17 - 22

References
  1. Gol’denberg P.I. Staraya Moskva [Old Moscow]. Moscow, Publishing House of the USSR Academy of Architecture, 1947, p. 57.
  2. Pokrovskaya Z.K. Osip Bove [Osip Bove]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1999, p. 103.
  3. Almazova N.M., Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P., Pavlinov V.V. Pamyatniki arkhitektury. Inzhenernye obsledovaniya [Architectural Monuments. Engineering Examinations]. Moscow, ASV Publ., no. 1, 2003, p. 89.
  4. Sytin P.V. Iz istorii moskovskikh ulits [Abstracts from the History of Moscow Streets]. Moskovskiy Rabochiy Publ., 1958, p. 110.
  5. Budylina M.V. Planirovka i zastroyka Moskvy posle pozhara 1812 goda [Planning and Building of Moscow after the Fire of 1812]. Moscow, Arhitekturnoe Nasledstvo [Architectural Heritage]. Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1951, no. 1, p. 157.
  6. Ikonnikov A.V. Tysyacha let russkoy arkhitektury [One Thousand Years of Russian Architecture]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1990, p. 311.

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Problems and perspectives of preservation of wooden architecture monuments in the Kostroma region

Vestnik MGSU 6/2014
  • Pilyak Sergey Aleksandrovich - Architectural, Ethnographic and Landscape Museum Preserve “Kostroma Region” Deputy Development Director, Architectural, Ethnographic and Landscape Museum Preserve “Kostroma Region”, 1B Prosveshcheniya str., Kostroma, 1560048, Russian Federation; +7 (4942) 31-31-12; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 27-34

Wooden folk architecture is a unique layer of world cultural heritage. Over a period of one and a half centuries of research of wooden architecture heritage in Russia different forms of monuments preservation were worked out. The most effective of them is creation of wooden architecture museums out in the open. The article considers the activities of the Kostroma Museum of wooden architecture for preservation of landmarks under the Federal target program «Culture of Russia». The Museum was created in order to preserve the irrecoverable loss of monuments of wooden architecture of the Kostroma region. The objects of wooden architecture require regular attention of restorers with the purpose of maintenance of monuments in the standard condition, timely restoration and conservation activities. The support of the Federal target program «Culture of Russia» has provided a series of repair-restoration, project and research works. The museumification of monuments as a large regional network, when creating sufficient transport and tourist infrastructure, would enrich the tourist and cultural map of the Kostroma region. The author sets out the prerequisites for creating the Program for the preservation of monuments of wooden architecture, examples of similar programs in force in other regions of the Russian Federation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.6.27-34

References
  1. Pilyak S.A. Podkhody k muzeefikatsii pamyatnikov derevyannoy arkhitektury [Approaches to the Preservation of Monuments of Wooden Architecture]. Kostromskaya sloboda: khudozhestvenno-etnograficheskiy zhurnal [Artistic and Ethnographic Journal «Kostroma Region»]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 69—73.
  2. Stubbs J.H., Makaš E.G., Bouchenaki M. Architectural conservation in Europe and Americas. Hoboken, New Jersey, John Willey & Sons, Inc., 2011, 730 p.
  3. Kornecki M., Marcinec R. Wooden Churches of Southern Little Poland: a Group of Unique Wooden Churches of the 15th to 18th Centuries in their Cultural Landscape. Warsaw, UNESCO, 2000, 206 p.
  4. Milchik M.I. Derevyannoye zodchestvo Rossii: problemy spaseniya [Wooden Architecture in Russia: Problems of Salvation]. Derevyannoye zodchestvo: Problemy. Restavratsiya. Issledovaniya: sbornik materialov konferentsii [Collection of the Conference “Wooden Architecture: Problems. Restoration. Research"]. Vologda, Vologzhanin Publ., 2005, pp. 8—10.
  5. Ritter M.A. Timber Bridges: Design, Construction, Inspection, and Maintenance. Washington, DC, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Engineering Staff, 1990, 944 p.
  6. Pilyak S.A. Kostromskiye ambary [Kostroma Barns]. Kostromskaya sloboda: khudozhestvenno-etnograficheskiy zhurnal [Artistic and Ethnographic Journal «Kostroma Region»]. 2013, no. 2, pp. 68—73.
  7. Pilyak S.A. O restavratsii pamyatnikov derevyannogo zodchestva muzeya-zapovednika «Kostromskaya sloboda» [On Restoration of the Monuments of Wooden Architecture in the Museum-reserve "Kostroma Region"]. Kostromskaya sloboda: khudozhestvenno-etnograficheskiy zhurnal [Artistic and Ethnographic Journal «Kostroma Region»]. 2013, no. 3—4, pp. 55—56.
  8. Snyder M.R. The Role of Heritage Conservation Districts in Achieving Community Improvement. A thesis presented to the University of Waterloo in fulfillment of the thesis requirement for the degree of Master of Arts in Planning. Waterloo, Ontario, Canada, 2008, 220 p.
  9. Rochefort N.I. Illyustrirovannoye urochnoye polozhenie: Posobie pri sostavlenii i proverke smet, proektirovanii i ispolnenii rabot [Illustrated Building Regulation: Manual for Fixing and Checking the Budget, Design and Execution of Work]. 6th Edition. Petrograd, K.L. Rikker Publ., 1916, 694 p.
  10. López G., José M., Descamps F. Workshop on Methodology for the Conservation of Polychromed Wooden Altarpieces: Document on Retablos 2002. The Getty Conservation Institute; Junta Andalucía Consejería de Cultura, Seville, 2004, 16 p.
  11. Drenin V.P. О primenenii novoy tekhnologii v restavratsii srubnykh konstruktsiy [On Application of New Technologies in the Process of Log Constructions Restoration]. Narodnoe zodchestvo: mezhvuzovskiy sbornik [Folk Architecture: Interuniversity Collection]. Petrozavodsk, PetrGU Publ., 2007, pp. 253—257.
  12. Rezolyutsiya II Vserossiskoy konferntsii po problemam sokhraneniya pamyatnikov derevyannogo zodchestva «Sovremennye etnograficheskie muzei i ikh rol' v razvitii natsionalnoy kultury i mezhetnicheskikh otnosheniy narodov Rossiiskoy Federatsii» [Resolution of the 2nd all-Russian Conference on the Problems of the Monuments of Wooden Architecture Preservation “Modern Ethnographical Museums and their Role in the Development of National Culture and Interethnic Relations of the Peoples of the Russian Federation”]. Kostromskaya sloboda: khudozhestvenno-etnograficheskiy zhurnal [Artistic and Ethnographic Journal «Kostroma Region»]. 2013, no. 3—4, pp. 96—98.
  13. Lisovskaya N.А. Programma sokhraneniya derevyannogo zodchestva Tomska [Preservation Program of Wooden Architecture in Tomsk]. Narodnoe zodchestvo: mezhvuzovskiy sbornik [Folk Architecture: Interuniversity Collection]. Petrozavodsk, PetrGU Publ., 2007, pp. 105—115.
  14. Chubenko V.V. Sokhranenie i ispolzovaniye pamyatnikov derevyannogo zodchestva na territorii Vologodskoy oblasti [Preservation and Use of Wooden Architecture Monuments on the Territory of the Vologda Region]. Kostromskaya sloboda: khudozhestvenno-etnograficheskiy zhurnal [Artistic and Ethnographic Journal «Kostroma Region»]. 2013, no. 3—4, pp. 11—15.
  15. Vakhrameeva Т.I. Vserossiyskie i regionalnye konferentsii po sokhraneniyu derevyannogo zodchestva: effektivnost' prinimayemykh resheniy [All-Russian and Regional Conferences on Preservation of Wooden Architecture: Efficiency of the Decisions]. Narodnoe zodchestvo: mezhvuzovskiy sbornik [Folk Architecture: Interuniversity Collection]. Petrozavodsk, PetrGU Publ., 2007, pp. 27—30.

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Social, ethnical, cultural and confessional features of architectural heritage of monasteries

Vestnik MGSU 6/2014
  • Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 35-43

Monasteries, their activity and lifestyle have always played an important role in the culture of various nations. Monasteries are objects of cultural heritage. Their architecture is connected with national features on a nation, particular canons of Christian (orthodox, catholic), Buddhistic or other religion. The article describes ancient monasteries in Russia amid the global development, historical national characteristics monasteries are analyzed, as well as architectural ensembles, reflecting the function and role of monasteries in public life, showing their spiritual and cultural heritage, monastic tradition, the historical value of the monastic landscape and its conservation conditions, the inclusion of the monasteries in the world cultural heritage is noted.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.6.35-43

References
  1. Bol'shaya illyustrirovannaya entsiklopediya [Big Illustrated Encyclopedia]. In 32 volumes. Moscow, AST, Astrel' Publ., 2010, vol. 18, p. 143.
  2. Komech A.I. Russkie monastyri. Istoriya i kul'tura X—XVII stoletiya [Russian Monasteries. History and Culture of X—XVII Centuries]. Moscow, Art-BMB Publ., 2001, p. 21.
  3. Klyuchevskiy V.O. Skazanie inostrantsev o Moskovskom gosudarstve [Legend of Foreigners about Muscovy]. Moscow, Prometey Publ., 1991, p. 167.
  4. Antonova L.V., Titova T.V. Arkhitekturnye shedevry Rossii [Architectural Masterpieces of Russia]. Moscow, Dom Slavyanskoy Knigi Publ., 2009, p. 44.
  5. Bryusova V.G. Ipat'evskiy monastyr' [Ipatiev Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1981, p. 27.
  6. Likhachev D.S., Savitskaya O.D. Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennye pamyatniki [Solovetskikh ostrovov [Architectural and Artistic Monuments of the Solovetsky Islands]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1980, p. 32.
  7. Skopin V.V., Shchennikova L.A. Arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennyy ansambl' Solovetskogo monastyrya [Architectural Ensemble of the Solovetsky Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1981, p. 53.
  8. Molokova T.A. Svyatitel' Filipp — patriot i stroitel' pravoslavnoy Rossii [St Philip — Patriot and Builder of Russian Orthodox]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2006, pp. 18, 20.
  9. Burov V.A. Istoriya keleynoy zastroyki Solovetskogo monastyrya XV—XIX vekov: monografiya [Exclusionary Story Building Solovetsky Monastery XV—XIX Centuries]. Institute of Archeology of Russian Academy of Sciences, Solovki State Historical, Architectural and Natural Museum-Reserve, Arkhangel'sk, 2011, p. 26.
  10. Maksakovskiy V.P. Vsemirnoe kul'turnoe nasledie [World Cultural Heritage]. Moscow, Eko-pros Publ., 2000, p. 381.
  11. Arenkova Yu.I., Mekhova G.I. Donskoy monastyr' [Don Monastery]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1970, p. 67.
  12. Petrova E.N. Russkie monastyri. Iskusstvo i traditsii [Russian Monasteries. Art and Traditions]. Saint Petersburg, Palace Edition, 1997, p. 112.
  13. Chelnokov A. Pokrovskiy stavropigial'nyy zhenskiy monastyr' u Pokrovskoy zastavy [Intercession Pokrovsky Monastery]. Moscow, Pokrovskiy stavropigial'nyy zhenskiy monastyr' Publ., 2010, p. 57.
  14. Shchenkov A.S., editor. Arkhitekturnoe nasledie na rubezhe XX—XXI vekov: Problemy restavratsii i okhrany naslediya [Architectural Heritage in 20—21st Centuries. Moscow, KRASAND Publ., 2010, p. 51.
  15. Pokrovskaya E.N., Koval'chuk Yu.L. Biokorroziya, sokhranenie pamyatnikov istorii i arkhitektury [Biocorrosion, Preservation of Historical Monuments and Architecture. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2013, p. 28, 57.

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RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE OF YEREVAN IN THE 20TH CENTURY. IDENTIFICATION OF THE MAIN STAGES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PLANNING STRUCTURE OF A DWELLING UNIT

Vestnik MGSU 5/2016
  • Azatyan Karen Rubenovich - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str., Yerevan, 0009, Armenia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 18-27

The article discusses some features of planning solutions of apartments in the architecture of Yerevan, which are typical to different periods, since the turn of 19-20th centuries to the present day. Housing is the chief determinant of human activity. In the process of societal development the house is the foundation of a family, and the family, on its turn, is the key to the stable state. Nevertheless, the time influences the residential architecture. Societal progress periodically affects the living environment. Therefore, housing formation process never reaches the stage of completion: it is always in an endless process of development. The above mentioned primarily concerns the evolution of the planning structure of the apartment. In this context, the dynamics of evolution of housing in Yerevan has accelerated in the second half of the 19th century. The centuries-generated space-planning system of apartment begins to develop in accordance with the rapid changes of social, urban planning and life processes of the time (extension of industry, formation of new socio-economic relations, rapid growth of population, acceleration of construction processes). The impetuous transformation of the dwelling structure is reflected in the complex process of evolution - starting from the traditional houses and ending with the apartments in high-rise buildings. The research of the problems of the traditional dwelling structure, its transformation in the first apartment buildings and diverse improvements of apartment planning solutions contributes to the definition of the main development stages of the dwelling units during the last century, which are observed in the article. Identification of the characteristics of each stage and the multilateral evaluation of different qualities of spatial-planning arrangement of apartments allow working out proper solutions for dwelling units in the future.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.5.18-27

References
  1. Sborshchikov S.B., Sborshchikova M.N. Razvitie metodov upravleniya programmami zhilishchnogo stroitel’stva na osnove prognozirovaniya [Development of the Control Methods of Housing Construction Programs Based on Prediction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1—1, pp. 221—226. (In Russian)
  2. Subbotin O.S. Kharakternye tipy maloetazhnykh zhilykh zdaniy i istoricheskoe (etnokul’turnoe) rayonirovanie territorii severnogo Kavkaza [Specific Types of Low-Rise Residential Buildings and the Historical (Ethno-Cultural) Zoning of the North Caucasus Territory]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 22—24. (In Russian)
  3. Azatyan K.R. Nachal’naya stadiya formirovaniya mnogokvartirnykh zhilykh domov v Erevane. Arkhitektura zhilykh sooruzheniy nachala XX veka [The Initial Stage of the Formation of Apartment Blocks in Yerevan. The Architecture of Residential Buildings in the Beginning of the 20th Century]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov EGUAS [Proceedings of Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction]. Erevan, 2010, vol. II (38), pp. 29—34. (In Russian)
  4. Gasparyan M.A. Arkhitektura Erevana XIX — nachala XX veka [Architecture of Yerevan in the 19th — early 20th century]. Erevan, Ushardzan Publ., 2008, 262 p. (In Russian)
  5. Shagov N.V., Verevkina I.D., Koksharova E.A. Razvitie tipovogo zhilishchnogo stroitel’stva v sovetskoy Rossii s 1917 po 1940 g. [Development of Standard Housing in Soviet Russia from 1917 till 1940]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 4, pp. 22—31. (In Russian)
  6. Azatyan K.R. Planirovochnye i funktsional’nye resheniya kvartir v period formirovaniya arkhitektury mnogokvartirnykh domov Erevana [Planning and Functional Solutions of Apartments in Yerevan during the Formation of the Apartment-Block Architecture]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov EGUAS [Proceedings of Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction]. Erevan, 2013, vol. I (48), pp. 3—18. (In Russian)
  7. Dolukhanyan L.K. Arkhitektura Sovetskoy Armenii: 20-e gody [Architecture of the Soviet Armenia: 1920s]. Erevan, Sovetakan grokh Publ., 1980, 85 p. (In Russian)
  8. Gatsunaev K.N. Dom Narkomfina kak ob”ekt kul’turnogo naslediya [Narkomfin House as a Monument of Cultural Heritage]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 7, pp. 7—17.
  9. Dudka E.N. Nerealizovannye konkursy 1920—1930-kh gg. v kontekste razvitiya arkhitekturnogo protsessa [Unrealized Competitions of the 1920—1930ies in the Context of the Architecture Development Process]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 11—16. (In Russian)
  10. Zurabyan Z.A. Osobennosti arkhitektury zhilogo doma na nachal’nom etape raz-vitiya mnogokvartirnogo gorodskogo zhilishcha Erevana [Characteristics of a Dwelling House Architecture During the Development of the Apartment Urban Housing in Yerevan]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov EGUAS [Proceedings of Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction]. Erevan, 2010, vol. III (39), pp. 21—24. (In Russian)
  11. Zhdanova I.V. Metody povysheniya kachestva seriynoy zhiloy zastroyki 70—80-kh gg. XX v. [Methods of Improving the Quality of Serial Apartment Block of the 70—80s of the 20th Century]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of the Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 22—26. (In Russian)
  12. Hakobyan T.D. Puti modernizatsii krupnopanel’nykh zhilykh zdaniy g. Erevana [Ways of Modernization of Large-Panel Residential Buildings in Yerevan]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 12, pp. 9—19. (In Russian)
  13. Rashidyan G.G. Razvitie arkhitektury massovogo zhilishcha Armenii i zadachi so-vremennogo etapa [Development of the Architecture of Mass Housing in Armenia and the Problems of the Present Stage]. Erevan, 1999, 88 p. (In Russian)
  14. Rashidyan G.G., Azatyan K.R. Osobennosti arkhitektury novykh zhilykh rayonov massovoy zastroyki Erevana [The Features of Architecture of the Mass Housing in New Residential Areas in Yerevan]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov EGUAS [Proceedings of Yerevan State University of Architecture and Construction]. Erevan, 2013, vol. IV (51), pp. 47—57. (In Russian)
  15. Azatyan K.R., Engoyan A.R., Khanoyan K.R. Usovershenstvovanie metoda tipovogo proektirovaniya zhilykh zdaniy v Erevane i vnedrenie blok-sektsionnoy sistemy v 1970-kh godakh [Improvement of the Standardized Design Methodology of Residential Buildings and Introduction of Bay System in Yerevan in 1970s]. Nauchnye trudy NUASA [Scientific Papers of National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia]. Erevan, 2014, vol. III (54), pp. 3—12. (In Russian)
  16. Rashidyan G.G., Azatyan K.R., Engoyan A.R. Novye podkhody v arkhitekture zhil’ya Erevana v 1970-ykh godakh [New Approaches to the Residential Architecture in Yerevan in the 1970s]. Vestnik inzhenernoy akademii Armenii [Proceedings of Engineering Academy of Armenia]. 2013, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 699—703. (In Russian)
  17. Schroeder U. Variabel nutzbare Hauser und Wohnungen. Bauverlag GmbH. Weisbaden und Berlin, 1980.
  18. Pinchak L.A. Zhilishchnyy fond Ukrainy: sostav, struktura, statistika [Housing Stock of the Ukraine: Composition, Structure, Statistics]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 9, pp. 118—124. (In Russian)

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RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE OF YEREVAN IN THE 20TH CENTURY. MAIN STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE PROCESS OF YARD PUBLIC SPACE ORGANIZATION

Vestnik MGSU 3/2018 Volume 13
  • Azatyan Karen Rubenovich - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str., Yerevan, 0009, Armenia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 301-308

Subject: for many centuries the yard was the social centre of residential development. However, the problems of its spatial organization often do not receive appropriate attention in modern cities. The city of Yerevan, in this sense, is also not an exception, where the new socio-economic conditions that emerged in the early 1990s led to radical changes in the residential development organization. Under this impact, a serious transformation has also been made to the yard space, which is the subject of this study. Research objectives: identification of the main stages of the yard space evolution in the residential building development of Yerevan in the 20th century and the revelation of its characteristic features. Materials and methods: the work is carried out on the basis of observations and published sources by the method of theoretical research, analysis and generalization of the material. Results: the work is composed of the following thematic subdivisions: the yard in the structure of traditional housing (in residential buildings of the 19th and early 20th centuries); development of the yard space in the new format of perimeter-quarter development (in the system of perimeter development of streets in the 1920-1950s); problems of yard organization in open compositions of building development (in the new forms of free building development by standardized elements in 1960s); attempts of yard restoration in the systematized compositions of building development (in the process of formation of large complexes of building development in 1970-1980s); loss of the yard space in contemporary conditions (in the residential building development formed since 1990s in the new socio-economic conditions). Conclusions: based on the results of the analysis, classification of the main stages of the yard space organization evolution during the last century is presented. This classification must be included in the process of the general study of development of residential architecture of Yerevan in the 20th century.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.3.301-308

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Social and cultural background of the emergence and development of fachwerk architecture

Vestnik MGSU 8/2015
  • Gavrikov Denis Sergeevich - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) degree-seeking student, Department of Architectural Design, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il’inskaya str., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Mezentsev Sergey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-17

The article is devoted to the preconditions of the occurrence and development of half-timbered architecture in different regions of the world. The starting point is giving account of the content of the concept of “Fachwerk”. Using the term “Fachwerk” the article refers to a type of building structure which uses three-dimensional farm inclined at different angles as the basis for carrying out wooden beams; beside, the article defines the construction materials used in construction of timber-framed buildings, and the technology of their construction. The history of the formation and development of Fachwerk is among objectives of the study of half-timbered architecture as well. The main methods of research are observation, analysis, comparison, historical methods. Some photographs of certain half-timbered buildings were used to make a reader familiar with the aesthetic impact of this kind of architecture. The oldest building of protofachwerk could be found on the territory of modern Turkey and China. Later, in the Middle Ages, half-timbered buildings appeared among the Germans, Gauls, and other Western European nations. Still preserved, half-timbered buildings date back to the 14th century. Improvement of building materials and technologies of construction, economic, religious and cultural changes and transition of Western peoples from Middle Ages to modern times played a significant role in the formation of half-timbered architecture. It is also noted that there is a direct link or correlation between the religious characteristics of a society and a form of Fachwerk corresponding to them. A special place in the article is taken by Protestantism which contributed to the progressive development of technology, including construction and thereby changed the vector of development of the Western society from traditionalism to modernity. In the 20th century Fachwerk in Europe experienced a new prosperity, thanks to its use as a stylistic foundation of Swiss-style buildings, styles, stick, hips, Jugend, Storybook, Adirondack. Regional variants of Fachwerk and its interpretations are now available in some regions of Western, Central, South and East Asia, Africa, North and South America, and Australia. In the course of the study we revealed the influence of socio-cultural factors in the half-timbered architecture in different regions of its distribution. It is concluded that Fachwerk is an indicator of predisposition of a particular culture to the progressive development.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.8.7-17

References
  1. Gavrikov D.S. Terminologicheskoe utochnenie ponyatiya «fakhverk» [Terminological Redetermination of the Term “Fachwerk”]. V mire nauchnykh otkrytiy [In the World of Scientific Discoveries]. 2010, no. 6.3 (12), pp. 115—117. (In Russian)
  2. Gerner M. Fachwerk. Entwicklung, Entstandsetzung, Neubau. Muenchen, Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, 2007, 224 p.
  3. Issel H. Holzbau: Fachwerk-, Block-, Ständer- und Stabbau. Leipzig, Reprint-Verlag, 2004, 197 p.
  4. Flenley J.R., King S. Late Quarternary Pollen Records from Easter Island. Nature. 1984, vol. 307, pp. 47—50. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/307047a0.
  5. Franklin B. The Way to Wealth: Preface to Poor Richard Improved. 1758, Bedford, MA, ApplewoodBooks, Inc., 1986, 30 p.
  6. Goethe J. Faust. Translated from German by B. Pasternak. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo khudozhestvennoy literatury Publ., 1953, 616 p. (In Russian)
  7. Weber M. The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism. 2013, Merchant Books; abridged edition edition, 132 p.
  8. Harrison L. Jews, Confucians, and Protestants: Cultural Capital and the End of Multiculturalism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2012, 230 p.
  9. Söries R. Von Kaisers Gnaden: protestantische Kirchenbauten im Habsburger Reich. Köln, Weimar, Böhlau Verlag, 2008, 225 p.
  10. Micklitza K., Micklitza A. Lausitz. Berlin, Trescher Verlag, 2013, 320 p.
  11. Schmidt R. Fachwerkkirchen im Vogelsberg. R. Schmidt, 2013, 19 p.
  12. Konovaloff A. Ornament am Fachwerk: Eine Untersuchung der Gestaltung von Bürgerhäusern in Hannoversch-Münden. Lit, 1985, 86 p.
  13. Großmann G.U. Fachwerk in Deutschland: Zierformen seit dem Mittelalter. Imhof, 2006, 144 p.
  14. Föppl A. Das Fachwerk im Raume. Books on Demand, 2012, 68 p.
  15. Tishler W.H. Fachwerk Construction in the German Settlements of Wisconsin. W.H. Tishler, 1986. 292 p.
  16. Großmann G.U. Runen und Fachwerk. Germanisches Nationalmuseum. Available at: http://www.gnm.de/fileadmin/redakteure/Museum/pdf/GUGro_mann_Runen_und_Fachwerk.pdf. Date of access: 31.03.2015.
  17. Mezentsev S.D., Gavrikov D.S. Fakhverkovye reministsentsii v arkhitekture rossiyskikh nemtsev v XVIII—XX vv. [Fachwerk Reminiscences in Architecture of Russian Germans in 18—20th Centuries]. Internet-vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [Internet-Vestnik of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Polythematic series]. 2013, no. 4 (29). Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/MezentsevGavrikov-2013_4(29).pdf. Date of access: 15.03.2015. (In Russian)
  18. Krivykh E.G. Fakhverk kak gumanitarnaya tekhnologiya [Fachwerk as a Humanitarian Technology]. Integratsiya, partnerstvo, innovatsii v stroitel’noy nauke i obrazovanii : sbornik materialov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Integration, Pertnership, Innovations in the Construction Science and Education : Collection of the Materials of International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2015, pp. 52—54. (In Russian)
  19. Ekonomov S.L. Garmoniya starogo i novogo [Harmony of the Old and the New]. Krasivye doma [Beautiful Houses]. 2005, no. 4 (57), 96 p. (In Russian)
  20. Popper K. The Open Society and Its Enemies. New One-Volume edition. 2013, Princeton University Press, 780 p.

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Heroic tunes and patriotic motives in moscow architecture of the 1940-1950s

Vestnik MGSU 8/2015
  • Gatsunaev Konstantin Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Philosophical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 18-29

Historically, Moscow architecture in its development has been following the political trends of the Russian society, and it is clearly reflected in the appearance and quality of Moscow buildings. The author discusses the most observable features and structural principles attributed to Soviet architecture in the middle of the 20th century and uses Moscow monuments as examples. The article is based on the analysis and systematization of spatial planning, architectural, design, and historical sources considering post-war Moscow architecture. The author proposes a historical approach to the problem of correlation between the architecture and post-war Soviet socio-cultural realities. The development of architecture demonstrates different features in different historical epochs. The victorious end of the World War II and crushing defeat of German Nazism generated intensive growth of patriotic emotions in the Soviet society. Heroic tunes and patriotic motives became the brightest features in Soviet architecture. The development of the Soviet architecture between 1945-1955 was determined by different factors. The author discusses the problem of consistency between the existing architectural environment of Moscow city centre and new architectural planning solutions, created by D.N. Chechulin. The importance of historical continuity and consistency of spatial planning policies of the urban development documentation such as the Master plot plan of Moscow (1951) is emphasized. New relations between Soviet government and Russian Orthodox Church were established in the end of the 1940s. Thereby, Soviet architects widely used the decorative elements and compositional principles of ancient Russian architecture. The column order of the Empire style became a required sample for Soviet architects. This style is built according to classical rules, although it has substantial deviations. The Government directives and skills of architects developed an own language of architectural forms typical for so-called “Stalin’s Empire” style.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.8.18-29

References
  1. Molokova T.A., Bunina E.V., Byzova O.M. Praviteli Rossii i razvitie stroitel’stva [Russian Rulers and the Development of Construction]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, 296 p. (Biblioteka nauchnykh razrabotok i proektov MGSU [The Library of Scientific Developments and Projects of MGSU]). (In Russian)
  2. Ikonnikov A.V. Arkhitektura i istoriya [Architecture and History]. Moscow, Arkhitektura Publ., 1993, 248 p.
  3. Mezentsev S.D. Problemy territorial’nogo planirovaniya i gradostroitel’stva: sotsial’no-filosofskiy aspekt [Problems of Spatial Planning and Urban Development: Social Philosophical Aspect]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 6, pp. 17—26. (In Russian)
  4. Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Pamyatniki kul’tury Moskvy: iz proshlogo v budushchee [Monuments of Culture of Moscow: from the Past to the Future]. 2nd edition, revised. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 168 p. (In Russian)
  5. Gregory D.A. Housing and Urban Development in the USSR. N.Y., State University of New York Press, 1985, 354 p.
  6. Taubman W. Governing Soviet Cities: Bureaucratic Politics and Urban Development in the USSR. N.Y., Praeger Publ., 1973, 166 p.
  7. Ikonnikov A.V. Arkhitektura Moskvy. XX vek [Architecture of Moscow. 20th Century]. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy Publ., 1984, 222 p. (In Russian)
  8. Khan-Magomedov S.O. Ivan Zholtovskiy [Ivan Zholtovsky]. Moscow, S.E. Gordeev Publ., 2010, 352 p. (In Russian)
  9. Molokova T.A. Problema sokhraneniya kul’turnogo naslediya: istoricheskiy aspekt [The Problem of Cultural Heritage Preservation: Historical Aspect]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2007, no. 2, pp. 13—16. (In Russian)
  10. Byzova O.M. Narodnoe obrazovanie Moskvy v gody Velikoy Otechestvennoy voyny 1941—1945 gg. [National Education in Moscow during the Great Patriotic War 1941—1945]. Vestnik Tambovskogo universiteta. Seriya: Gumanitarnye nauki [Tambov University Review. Series: Humanities]. 2012, no. 4 (108), pp. 339—342. (In Russian)
  11. Efremova M.G. Iz opyta raboty tresta Mosstroy № 1 v 30—50-e gg. XX v. [Mosstroy no. 1 Trust Working Experience in the 30—50s of the 20th]. Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [Internet Proceedings of the Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Polythematic series]. 2012, no. 3 (23), p. 25. Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/Efremova-2012_3(23).pdf. Date of access: 15.05.2015. (In Russian)
  12. Aleshchenko N.M. Moskva v planakh razvitiya i rekonstruktsii. 1918—1985 [Moscow in the Development and Reconstruction Plans. 1918—1985]. Moscow, Glavnoe arkhivnoe upravleniye goroda Moskvy Publ., 2009, 240 p. (In Russian)
  13. 16-y s”ezd VKP(b). Stenograficheskiy otchet [XVI Conference of the All-Union Communist Party. Stenographic report]. Moscow, Leningrad, Gosizdat Publ., 1930, 472 p. (In Russian)
  14. Ikonnikov A.V. Utopicheskoe myshlenie i arkhitektura [Utopian Thinking and Architecture]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2004, 286 p. (In Russian)
  15. Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Vliyanie ital’yanskoy arkhitektury na gradostroitel’stvo Rossii [The influence of the Italian Architecture on the Russian Town Planning]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 128—134. (In Russian)
  16. Kuleshov M., Pozdnev A. Vysotnye zdaniya Moskvy [High-Rise Buildings of Moscow]. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy Publ., 1954, 158 p. (In Russian)
  17. Oltarzhevskiy V.K. Stroitel’stvo vysotnykh zdaniy v Moskve [The Construction of High-rise Buildings in Moscow]. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo literatury po stroitel’stvu i arkhitekture Publ., 1953, 216 p. (In Russian)
  18. Pod”yapol’skiy S.S. Istoriko-arkhitekturnye issledovaniya. Stat’i i materialy [Historical and Architectural Researches. Articles and Materials]. Moscow, Indrik Publ., 2006, 320 p. (In Russian)
  19. Byzova O.M. Stroitel’stvo i vosstanovlenie chasovni v pamyat’ Otechestvennoy voyny 1812 goda v Pavlovskom Posade Moskovskoy oblasti [Construction and Restoration of a Pavlov Posad’s Chapel in the Memory of the Patriotic War of 1812]. Internet-Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya: Politematicheskaya [Internet Proceedings of the Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Polythematic series]. 2012, no. 3 (23), p. 23. Available at: http://vestnik.vgasu.ru/attachments/Buzova-2012_3(23).pdf. Date of access: 15.06.2015. (In Russian)
  20. Frolov V.P. Sotsial’nye, etnokul’turnye i konfessional’nye osobennosti arkhitekturnogo naslediya monastyrey [Social, Ethnical, Cultural and Confessional Features of Architectural Heritage of Monasteries]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 6, pp. 35—43. (In Russian)
  21. Kornfel’d Ya.A. Laureaty Stalinskoy premii v arkhitekture. 1941—1950 [The Laureates of the Stalin’s Prize. 1941—1950]. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel’stvo literatury po stroitel’stvu i arkhitekture Publ., 1953, 220 p. (In Russian)
  22. Baranovskiy P. Trudy, vospominaniya sovremennikov [Works and Memories of the Contemporaries]. Moscow, Otchiy dom Publ., 1996, 279 p. (In Russian)
  23. Molokova T.A. Vosstanovlenie Moskvy posle pozhara 1812 g.: novyy oblik goroda [Reconstruction of Moscow after the 1812 Fire of Moscow: New Look of the City]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 17—22. (In Russian)
  24. Frolov V.P. Pamyatniki otechestvennoy voyny 1812 g. [Monuments to the Patriotic War of 1812]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 23—28. (In Russian)
  25. Markuzon V.F. Semiotika i khudozhestvennye problemy predmetno-prostranstvennyy sredy [Semiotics and Artistic Problems in Subject-Spatial Environment.]. Esteticheskie problemy dizayna : materialy konferentsiy, seminarov, soveshchaniy [Aesthetic Design Problems : Materials of Conferences, Seminars, Meetings]. Moscow, VNIITE Publ., 1978, p. 52. (In Russian)
  26. Uspenskiy B.A. O semiotike iskusstva [Semiotics of Art]. Simpozium po strukturnomu izucheniyu znakovykh system [The Symposium on the Structural Study of Sign Systems]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1962, p. 127. (In Russian)

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Urban aspects in the creative heritage of D. Gilardi in Moscow

Vestnik MGSU 8/2015
  • Frolov Vladimir Pavlovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of History and Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 41-50

The interest to Domenico Gilardi, one of the leaders of Moscow classicism and Empire, to his masterpieces and geography of architectural heritage is expressed in different investigations. Russian and foreign scientists pay great attention to the features of his works, his place in the classical style and influence of the Italian school. One of the most important aspects of the architect’s creative work is urban planning, and especially his participation in creation of the architectural ensembles of Moscow, city-forming qualities of separate buildings. The article is dedicated to the 230th anniversary of the birthday and the 170th anniversary of the death of an architect Domenico Gilardi. The article discusses architectural features and creative ways of D. Gilardi, special attention is paid to his urban planning activity in Moscow, his contribution to the historic development of the capital city is analyzed. On the example of specific buildings and structures, which eventually became historical-cultural monuments of Moscow, the author shows the activity of the architect in a complex historical period of the city’s reconstruction after the fire of 1812. The author concludes that the main buildings of the architect D. Gilardi are still among the best examples of the architecture of the Russian Empire.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.8.41-50

References
  1. Arkhitektura i gradostroitel’stvo. Entsiklopediya [Architecture and Urban Planning. Encyclopedia]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2001, p. 412. (In Russian)
  2. Bol’shaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya [Great Russian Encyclopedia]. Moscow, BRE Publ., 2008, vol. 10, 767 p. (In Russian)
  3. Bol’shaya illyustrirovannaya entsiklopediya : v 32 tt. [Big Illustrated Encyclopedia : in 32 volumes]. Moscow, AST : Astrel’ Publ., 2010, vol. 10 : EVR-IZ, 504 p. (Arguments and Facts) (In Russian)
  4. Lasunsky O.G., editor. Voronezhskaya istoriko-kul’turnaya entsiklopediya. VIKE. Personalii [Voronezh Historical and Cultural Encyclopedia. VICE. Personalities]. 2nd edition, revised. Voronezh, Tsentr dukhovnogo vozrozhdeniya Chernozemnogo kraya Publ., 2009, 456 p. (In Russian)
  5. Tvortsy tekhniki i gradostroiteli Moskvy (do nachala XX veka) [Creators of Technology and Urban Planning of Moscow (The Beginning of the 20th Century)]. Moscow, Yanus-K, 2002, 376 p. (Masters of Science and Education of Moscow — 18—20 in Portraits and Characters) (In Russian)
  6. Arkhitekturnye ansambli Moskvy XV — nachala XX vekov. Printsipy khudozhestvennogo edinstva [Architectural Ensembles of Moscow of the 15th — early 20th Centuries. Principles of Artistic Unity]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1997, 472 p. (Russian Urban Planning Art) (In Russian)
  7. Grabar’ I.E. Dementiy Ivanovich Zhilyardi i ego shkola [Domenico Gilardi and his School]. Istoriya russkogo iskusstva [History of Russian Art]. Moscow, I. Knebel Publ., 1910, vol. 1. Arkhitektura. Dopetrovskaya epokha [Architecture. Pre-Peter Epoch]. Pp. 42—43. (In Russian)
  8. Yaralov Yu.S., Zemtsov S.M., editors. Zodchie Moskvy [Architects of Moscow]. Book 1. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy Publ., 1981, 302 p. (In Russian)
  9. Molokova T.A., editor. Praviteli Rossii i razvitie stroitel’stva [The Rulers of Russia and the Development of Construction]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, 296 p. (In Russian)
  10. Nikolaev E.V. Klassicheskaya Moskva. Ocherki arkhitektury moskovskogo klassitsizma i ampira [Classic Moscow. Essays on the Architecture of Moscow Classicism and Empire]. Moscow, Editorial URSS Publ., 2010, 272 p. (In Russian)
  11. Molokova T.A. Vosstanovlenie Moskvy posle pozhara 1812 g.: novyy oblik goroda [Reconstruction of Moscow after the 1812 Fire of Moscow: New Look of the City]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 17—22. (In Russian)
  12. Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Vliyanie ital’yanskoy arkhitektury na gradostroitel’stvo Rossii [Influence of Italian Architecture on Urban Planning of Russia]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 128—134. (In Russian)
  13. Angelini P., Navone N., Pfister A. Architetti neoclassici ticinesi fra Neva e Moscova: i fondi grafici degli archivi Adamini e Gilardi, catalogo della mostra (Venezia, 21 aprile — 20 maggio 2001). Fondazione Giorgio Cini — Archivio del Moderno, Accademia di Architettura, Università della Svizzera italiana, Venezia — Mendrisio, 2001, pp. 19—53, 87—90.
  14. Navone N., Tedeschi L. Dal mito al progetto. La cultura architettonica dei maestri italiani e ticinesi nella Russia neoclassica. Mendrisio : Mendrisio Academy Press, 2004, pp. 629—663.
  15. Pfister A., Angelini P. Gli architetti Gilardi a Mosca. La raccolta dei disegni conservati in Ticino. Mendrisio, Mendrisio Academy Press, 2006, 244 p.
  16. Il’in M., editor. Moskva: Pamyatniki arkhitektury XVIII –— pervoy treti XIX veka [The Architectural Monuments of 18th — the first third of the 19th Century]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1973, 354 p. (In Russian)
  17. Evsina N.A. Arkhitekturnaya teoriya Rossii vtoroy poloviny XVIII — nachala XX vv. [Architectural Theory of Russia of the 2nd Half of the 18th — early 10th Centuries]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1985, 316 p. (In Russian)
  18. Rzyanin M.I. Arkhitekturnye ansambli Moskvy i Podmoskov’ya XIV—XIX vekov [Architectural Ensembles of Moscow and Moscow region of the 14th — 19th Centuries]. M. : Stroyizdat, 1950. 232 p. (In Russian)
  19. Bykovtseva P. Zhilyardi — Gagarin — Gor’kiy. Dom na Povarskoy 25-a [House on Povarskaya 25A]. Moscow, Imli RAN Publ., 2003, 114 p. (In Russian)
  20. Korobko M.Yu. Usad’ba Kuz’minki [Estate Kuzminki]. Moscow, Veche Publ., 2009, 88 p. (Usad’by, dvortsy, osobnyaki Moskvy) (In Russian)
  21. Beletskaya E.I., Pokrovskiy Z.K. Zhilyardi [Gilardi]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 168 p. (In Russian)
  22. Kirichenko E.I. Khram Khrista Spasitelya v Moskve. Istoriya proektirovaniya i sozdaniya sobora. Stranitsy zhizni i gibeli. 1913—1931 [The Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow. History of Design and Creation. Pages of Life and Destruction]. Moscow, Planeta Publ., 1992, 280 p. (In Russian)
  23. Ikonnikov A.V. Tysyacha let russkoy arkhitektury : razvitie traditsiy [Thousand Years of Russian Architecture : Development of Traditions]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1990, 386 p. (In Russian)
  24. Arkin D.E. Obrazy arkhitektury i obrazy skul’ptury [Images of Architecture and Images of Sculpture]. Moscow, Iskusstvo Publ., 1990, 399 p. (In Russian)
  25. Bartenev I.A., Batazhkova V.N. Ocherki istorii arkhitekturnykh stiley [Essays on the History of Architectural Styles]. Moscow, Izobrazitel’noe iskusstvo Publ., 1983, 392 p. (In Russian)
  26. Serbovelikov N.G. Vosstanovlenie kupola raboty znamenitogo D. Zhilyardi [Restoration of the Dome by famous D. Gilardi]. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [Architecture and Construction]. 2006, no. 6, pp. 7—8. (In Russian)
  27. Komarova I.I. Arkhitektory. Kratkiy biograficheskiy slovar’ [Architects. Concise Biographical Dictionary]. Moscow, Ripol klassik Publ., 2000, 511 p. (Concise Biographical Dictionaries) (In Russian)
  28. Oleynichenko E.V. Knyaz’ S.M. Golitsyn — khozyain usad’by Kuz’minki [Prince S.M. Golitsyn — the owner of the Kuzminki estate]. Moscow, Veche Publ, 2008, 397 p. (In Russian)
  29. Samin D.K. Samye znamenitye zodchie Rossii [The Most Famous Architects of Russia]. Moscow, Veche Publ., 2004, 480 p. (In Russian)
  30. Filippova N.A. Formirovanie parkovoy struktury usad’by Kuz’minki — Vlakhernskoe [Formation of the landscape structure of the estate Kuzminki — Blachernae]. Russkaya usad’ba : Sbornik obshchestva izucheniya russkoy usad’by [Russian Estate. The Collection of The Society of Russian Manor Study]. Moscow, 1999, no. 5 (21), pp. 260—261. (In Russian)

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RESIDENTIAL ARCHITECTURE OF YEREVAN IN 20TH CENTURY: MULTIFUNCTIONALITY IN THE STRUCTURE OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS OF THE FIRST HALF OF THE CENTURY

Vestnik MGSU 9/2017 Volume 12
  • Azatyan Karen Rubenovich - National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural Drafting and Architectural Environment Design, National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA), 105 Teryan str., Yerevan, 0009, Armenia.

Pages 962-970

Subject: The buildings of the residential architecture of Yerevan of the 20th century make up not only a significant part of the city's housing stock but they are also the main components of the city’s image. Consequently, the study of architecture of these structures is important for solving the problems of city-building both in the present and in the future. In this context, a special place is occupied by residential architecture of the first half of the century one of the main features of which - the multifunctional structure - is the subject of this study. Research objectives: The goal of the study is to identify the features of the multifunctionality factor influence on the architecture of Yerevan's residential buildings of the first half of the 20th century. Materials and methods: The work was carried out on the basis of observations and published sources by the method of theoretical study, analysis and generalization of the material. Results: This work is composed of the following thematic units: the multi-use architecture and housing (i.e., the dwelling in the process of historical development of multi-use architecture); multifunctionality in the structure of the first multi-apartment houses of Yerevan (multi-use structure of apartment-houses of Yerevan in the 19th century); formation of the city’s multifunctional structure and the housing’s architecture (appearance of the city’s functionally integrated structure, formation of perimeter style of city-building, spatial organization of public services and their impact on the architecture of residential buildings of the first half of the 20th century); examples of multi-use residential buildings (some specific examples). Conclusions: The features of residential buildings caused by the multifunctionality of their architecture are identified as a result of the analysis and the key points of the results of the generalizing study are presented. These conclusions should be included in the process of general study of development of the residential architecture of Yerevan in the 20th century.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.9.962-970

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Configuration of Desargue in architectural and design engineering

Vestnik MGSU 9/2014
  • Ivashchenko Andrey Viktorovich - Union of Moscow Architects 90/17 Shosseynaya str., Moscow, 109383, Russian Federation; ivashchenkoa@inbox.ru, Union of Moscow Architects, 7 Granatnyy per., Moscow, 123001, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Znamenskaya Elena Pavlovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 154-160

The Desargue configuration plays an essential role not only in projective geometry, being the main configuration in projective and perspective correspondence of rows of points and lines, but is also rich in applications in architectural and design engineering. The article describes the main aspects of planar and spatial configuration of Desargue, and fundamental principles having particular importance in the shaping theory based on projectography. The described configuration properties indicate the possibility of wide application in architectural design and engineering and allow predicting the effects of perception of rather complex architectural forms. Examples of a number of buildings are given, where in modern design solutions of architects spatial configuration motives are visible. Planar configuration option is often used as decoration and fencing. The authors conclude that researching the configuration of Desargue in different variants and modifications not only contributes to better understanding of the theory of perspective and shadows, but also provides opportunity to detect relations of the problems, which are different at the first sight. However it is necessary to take into account, that many postulates of the theory are quite complicated and significant amount of time is needed for learning it.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.9.154-160

References
  1. Berzhe M. Geometriya [Geometry]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1984, vol. 1, 297 p.
  2. Vinogradov I.M., editor. Matematicheskaya entsiklopediya [Mathematical Encyclopedia]. Moscow, Sovetskaya entsiklopediya Publ., 1979, vol. 2, 1104 p.
  3. Gamayunov V.N. Proektivografiya. Geometricheskie osnovy khudozhestvennogo konstruirovaniya. [Projectography. Geometric Foundations of Artistic Design]. Moscow, MGPI Publ., 1976, 25 p.
  4. Prokhorov Yu.V., editor. Matematicheskiy entsiklopedicheskiy slovar' [Encyclopedic Dictionary of Mathematics]. Moscow, Sovetskaya entsiklopediya Publ., 1988, 848 p.
  5. Wieleitner H. Istoriya matematiki ot Dekarta do serediny 19 stoletiya [History of Mathematics from Descartes to the mid-19th century]. Moscow, Fizmatlit Publ., 1960, 468 p.
  6. Ivashchenko A.V., Kondrat'eva T.M. Proektivograficheskiy analiz mnogogrannikov Dzhonsona [Analysis of Johnson’s Polyhedra Using Projective Geometry Techniques]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 5, pp. 226—229.
  7. Hilbert D., Cohn-Vossen S. Anshauliche Geometrie. Berlin, Springer, 1996, 365 s.
  8. Chetverukhin N.F. Proektivnaya geometriya [Projective Geometry]. 7th edition. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe uchebno-pedagogicheskoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1961, 360 p.
  9. Coxeter H.S.M. Projective Geometry. New York, Blaisdell Publ., 1964, pp. 26—27.
  10. Lelong-Ferrand J. Les Fondements de La Geometrie. Presses universitaires de France; 1re ed edition, 1985, 287 p.
  11. Semple J., Kneebone G. Algebraic Projective Geometry. Oxford, 1952, 405 p.
  12. Ivashchenko A.V., Kondrat'eva T.M. Proektivograficheskie chertezhi mnogokomponentnykh sistem mnogogrannikov [Shape Generation by Means of a New Method of Orthographic Representation ("Proektivografiya"): Drawings of Multi-Component Polyhedra]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 155—160.
  13. Efimov N.V. Vysshaya geometriya [Higher Geometry]. 5th edition. Moscow, Nauka Publ.,1971.
  14. Voloshinov A.V. Matematika i iskusstvo [Mathematics and Art]. Moscow, Prosveshchenie Publ., 2000, 400 p.
  15. Sobolev N.A. Obshchaya teoriya izobrazheniy [The General Theory of Images]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2004, 672 p.
  16. Runge V.F., Sen'kovskiy V.V. Osnovy teorii i metodologii dizayna [Fondamentals of Design Theory and Methodology]. Moscow, MZ-Press, 2003, 252 p.

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CONTINUOUS TRAINING OF ARCHITECTS AND A PRACTICAL COURSE IN ARCHITECTURAL COMPOSITION

Vestnik MGSU 6/2012
  • Gogoleva Natal'ya Arkad'evna - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNSUACE) Candidate of Architectural Sciences, Associated Professor, Department of History of Architecture and Fundamentals of Architectural Design, +7 (831) 433-03-91, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNSUACE), 65 Il'inskaya St., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 130 - 135

The problem of training of architects in architectural composition is relevant at each stages of the training process. Continuous training in architectural composition is to assure better mastering of fundamentals of composition. Specialized training courses is to be incorporated into each stage of the training process, namely, into each specialized discipline that shapes up the compositional thinking in the field of architecture and town planning patterns.
The fundamental course is entitled "Three-dimensional spatial composition"; it is based on the theory of architecture and urban development, as well as practical classes in architectural analysis and modeling.
The author proposes new methods of teaching three-dimensional composition through a cycle of exercises and term papers. The systemic approach contemplates a good knowledge of the theory to serve as the basis for workshops and practical classes, as well as a new idea of continuous training.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.6.130 - 135

References
  1. Stepanov A.V., Mal’gin V.I., Ivanova G.I. Ob”emno-prostranstvennaya kompozitsiya [Three-dimensional Composition]. Moscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2004, 256 p.
  2. Gogoleva N.A. Problemy razvitiya kompozitsionnogo myshleniya [Problems of Development of Compositional Thinking]. Sovremennye tekhnologii v dizayn-obrazovanii [Advanced Technologies of Design Education]. Proceedings of the 5th All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference. IPC SIMBiP Publ., Sochi, 2008, 142 p.
  3. Panksenov G.I., Levin I.L. Kurs formal’noy kompozitsii v sisteme khudozhestvenno-graficheskoy podgotovki arkhitektorov [A Course of Formal Composition in the Training of Architects]. Nizhny Novgorod, NNGASU, 2001, 132 p.
  4. Gogoleva N.A. Organizatsiya kursa kompozitsii dlya arkhitektorov. Kompozitsionnaya podgotovka v sovremennom arkhitekturno-khudozhestvennom obrazovanii [Arrangement of a Course in Composition for Architects. Composition Training within the Framework of Contemporary Artistic Education]. Starikov A.A., Iovleva V.I., edited by. Proceedings of the Scientific and Technical Conference. Yekaterinburg, Arkhitekton Publ., 2002, 302 p.
  5. Golubev G.A. Etapy kompozitsionnoy podgotovki i sistema «master-klass» [Stages of Training in Composition and the System of Master-Classes]. Proceedings of the Scientific and Technical Conference. Yekaterinburg, Arkhitekton Publ., 2002, 302 p.
  6. Jones J.K. Metody proektirovaniya [Design Methods]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1986, 326 p.
  7. Gogoleva N.A. Ispol’zovanie nauchnykh metodov kompozitsii v restavratsii [Use of Scientific Methods of Composition in Restoration]. Proceedings of the Volga-Vyatka Branch of the International Slavic Academy of Education, Arts and Culture. Nizhny Novgorod, 2000, no. 6, pp. 39-44.
  8. Gogoleva N.A. Analiz kompozitsionnykh zakonomernostey pamyatnikov arkhitektury [Analysis of Patterns of Compositions of Architectural Monuments]. Nizhny Novgorod, NNSUACE, 1998, 46 p.
  9. Belousov E.D. Ob”emno-prostranstvennaya kompozitsiya. Printsipy prakticheskogo izucheniya. [Three-dimensional Composition. Principles of Practical Study]. Rostov-Don, RGAAI, 1990, 89 p.
  10. Fedorova T.Yu. Istoriya razvitiya propedevtiki [History of Propaedeutics]. Sovremennye tekhnologii v dizayn-obrazovanii [Advanced Technologies of Design Education]. Proceedings of the 2nd All-Russian Scientific and Practical Conference. RIO SIMBiP Publ., Sochi, 2005, 258 p.

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FORMULA OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE IS DYNAMICS OF SPACE

Vestnik MGSU 1/2012
  • Lapshina Elena Gennadyevna - Penza State University of Architecture and Construction Candidate of Architecture, Professor, applicant for academic degree of Doctor in NNGASU, Holder of the Chair of Architectural design base +7 (841) 2-49-59-29; fax: +7(841) 249-72-77, Penza State University of Architecture and Construction, 28, G. Titov str., Penza, 440028, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 17 - 21

The offered paper is to brief the critical analyze of space conceptions, which were constructed by some well-known architects during XX century in Russia and abroad.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.1.17 - 21

References
  1. Rappaport A.G. Osnovnye jetapy razvitija arhitekturnoj mysli [Main Steps of architecture ideas development] http://papardes.blogspot.com/2009/08/blog-post_8885.html.
  2. Gabrichevsky A.G. Teorija i istorija arhitektury [Theory and History of Architecture]. Izbr. Soch. T. 2. [Mane Works, T. 2]. Kiev, Samvatas, 1993, 302 p.
  3. Nekrasov A.I. Teorija arhitektury [The Theory of Architecture]. Moscow, Stroisdat, 1994, 478 p.
  4. Wright F.L. Novye principy v arhitekture [New principals of Architecture]. http://www.archi.com.ua/ru/biograf/wright/.
  5. Brinckmann A.E. Plastika i prostranstvo kak osnovnye formy hudozhestvennogo vyrazhenija [Plastic and Space as base forms of art gestalt]. Moscow, Isd. Vsesous. Academy of architecture, 1935, 175 p.
  6. Giedion S. Prostranstvo, vremja, arhitektura [Space, Time, Architecture] Moscow, Stroisdat, 1984, 455 p.
  7. Norberg-Schulz, Chr. Existence, Space and Architecture, NY, 1971, 120 p.
  8. Azizjan I.A., Dobricina I.A., Lebedeva G.S. Teorija kompozicii kak pojetika arhitektury [The Theory of composition as poetic of architecture]. Moscow, Progress – Tradition, 2002, 568 p.
  9. Jencks Charles. Aphorisms on Power. Architectural Design, no 1. London, 1995, Pp. 21—23.
  10. Eisenman Peter. En Terror: In Trails of Grotextes. Architectural Design, no 8. London, 1989, Pp. 40—43.
  11. Bokov A.V. Geometricheskie osnovanija arhitektury v kartine mira [Geometry Principles of Architecture in World Picture]. Moscow, 1995, 44 p.
  12. Dobricina I.A. Ot postmodernizma — k nelinejnoj arhitekture. Arhitektura v kon-tekste sovremennoj filosofii i nauki [From Postmodern to the Nonlinear Architecture. Architecture at Context of Contemporary Philosophy and Since]. Moscow, 2007.

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The sixtieth anniversary of volgograd state university of architecture and civil engineering. History of the landmark

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Kalashnikov Sergey Yurevich - Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Rector, Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE), 1 Akademicheskaya St., Volgograd, 400074, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Oleynikov Petr Petrovich - Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, Dean, Department of Architecture, Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE), 1 Akademicheskaya St., Volgograd, 400074, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Oleynikova Elena Petrovna - Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE) student, Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VSUACE), 1 Akademicheskaya St., Volgograd, 400074, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 8 - 17

Historic events associated with the location of Volgograd State University of Architecture
and Civil Engineering, peculiarities of its architectural and planning solutions, urban planning solutions
implemented in the initial plan of the town of Tsaritsyn, approved by the Russian Emperor
in 1820, are considered in the article. Attributes of buildings and structures adjacent to the buildings
of the future University in the period of formation of Eletskaya, Kashirskaya, Dubovskaya, and
Kolomenskaya streets are demonstrated by the authors.
The authors provide information concerning the institutions and organizations accommodated
in the building formerly owned by merchant Shlykov (Building A of Volgograd State University of
Architecture and Civil Engineering) in the period between the completion of its construction and
1952, when the Institute of Engineers of Municipal Economy was founded. They included a nonclassical
secondary school, a teacher training seminary, Stalingrad Exemplary Teacher Training
College and College of Utility Providers.
Photographs of buildings and structures constructed next to the building of the future University
of Architecture and Civil Engineering are provided. The authors also cover the problem of destruction
of multiple buildings in the Voroshilov district during the battle of Stalingrad. Architects and
authors of projects designated for the restructuring of existing and construction of new buildings of
the University in 1940-1990 are enlisted in the article.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.8 - 17

References
  1. Semenov V.P., editor. Ososkov P.A., Korostelev N.A., Gavrilov N.G., Syirnev N.N. Limanskiy V.I., general manager. Rossiya. Polnoe geografi cheskoe opisanie nashego Otechestva. Nastol’naya i dorozhnaya kniga dlya russkikh lyudey [Russia. Complete Geographical Description of Our Homeland. Desktop and Road Book for the Russian People], vol. 6. Srednee i Nizhnee Povolzh’e i Zavolzh’e [Middle and Lower Volga and Trans-Volga Regions], 1901.
  2. Vyaz’min A.M., Oleynikov P.P. Arkhitektory Volgograda [Architects of Volgograd]. Volgograd, Izdatel’ Publ., 2003, p. 234.
  3. Golovkin G.M. Vremya i lyudi. Ocherki istorii VolgGASU. [Time and People. Essays about the History of VSUACE]. Volgograd, 2007, ch. 1, p. 68.

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Universal human habitat. Basic principles

Vestnik MGSU 9/2012
  • Stepanov Vyacheslav Konstantinovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Architectural Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of Design of Buildings, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Starikov Aleksandr Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Design of Buildings, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 39 - 43

Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities were adopted
in 1993 by the United Nations. They have been valid since then. The number of disabled and
elderly people is ever growing due to injuries, accidents, environmental problems, deterioration of
health, population aging and demographic disorders.
The term "universal habitat" reads as "universal design" worldwide. The concept of "universal
design" was developed by Ronald Mace, American architect, in the 80ies of the twentieth century.
The idea was picked up in Japan and several European countries, especially in product design and
architecture.
Universal design is a logical development of principles of the barrier-free environment. Universal
design emerged in the late 20th century. The universal design is friendly in respect of all people
without restriction. The article describes basic principles of universal design, including its equitable
use, flexibility in use, simplicity and intuitive nature, perceptivity, low physical effort, size and space.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.9.39 - 43

References
  1. Standard Rules on the Equalization of Opportunities for Persons with Disabilities. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 48/96 at United Nations General Assembly on December 20, 1993.
  2. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 217 A (III), UN General Assembly on December 10, 1948.
  3. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 2200 A (XXI) UN General Assembly on December 16, 1966.
  4. The Convention on the Rights of the Child. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 44/25, United Nations General Assembly on November 20, 1989.
  5. The World Programme of Action concerning Disabled Persons. Adopted by General Assembly Resolution 37/52 United Nations General Assembly on December 3, 1982.
  6. Interview of Gregory Lekarev (Director, Department in charge of Disabled Persons, Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development). Novaya Gazeta [New Newspaper], December 3, 2010.
  7. Safronov K.E. Bezbar’ernaya gorodskaya sreda [Barrier-free Urban Environment]. Omsk, 2010.
  8. Stepanov V.K., Starikov A.S. Predposylki formirovaniya arkhitekturnoy sredy dlya sportsmenov invalidov [Prerequisites for Formation of the Architectural Environment for Disabled Athletes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 87—91.
  9. Stepanov V.K., Tesler K.I. Raschet kommunikatsionnykh parametrov obshchestvenno-torgovykh tsentrov s uchetom uchastiya v dvizhenii pokupateley-invalidov [Calculation of Communicative Parameters of Public Trade Centres with Account for Disabled Customers]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 92—96.
  10. Kalmet Kh.Yu. Zhilaya sreda dlya invalida [Human Habitat for Disabled Persons]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990.
  11. Wolfgang F.E. Preiser, Korydon H. Smith. Universal Design Handbook. The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. 2011.
  12. Carstens Diane Y. Site Planning and Design for the Elderly. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc. New York, 1985.
  13. Houglund J. David. Housing for the Elderly. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company Inc. New York, 1985.
  14. Stepanov V.K. Spetsializirovannye uchebno-lechebnye tsentry [Specialized Training and Treatment Centres]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1987.
  15. Stepanov V.K., Shchetinina N.N., Tyuricheva M.N., edited by Stepanov V.K. Arkhitekturnaya sreda obitaniya invalidov i prestarelykh [Architectural Habitat for Disabled and Elderly Persons]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989.
  16. Conell B.R., Jones M.L., Mace R.L., Mueller J.L., Mullick A., Ostroff E., Sanford J. The Principles of Universal Design. Centre for Universal Design, North Carolina State University, 1997.

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ARCHITECTURAL PLACEMAKING OF TECHNOLOGY PARKS: ENCOURAGEMENT OF CREATIVE THINKING

Vestnik MGSU 10/2012
  • Rykov Kirill Nikolaevich - Southern Federal University (UFU), Research and Design Organization "Southern Urban Planning Centre", Limited Liability Company (OOO «NPO YuRGTs») postgraduate student, Institute of Architecture and Arts, Southern Federal University (UFU), Research and Design Organization "Southern Urban Planning Centre", Limited Liability Company (OOO «NPO YuRGTs»), 39 pr. Budennovskiy, Rostov-Don, 344082, Russian Federation, 121/262A Gazetnyy per., Rostov-Don, 344000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 37 - 44

The present-day postindustrial or information-oriented society features an ever growing role of creative and intellectual abilities. This trend facilitates transformation of the workforce, as the portion of manual labor is reduced, while the one of intellectual labor goes up. As a result, architectural placemaking has to meet the new requirements driven by the specific nature of social and physiological constituents of the headwork. The aim of the article is the identification of new challenges that the high-quality architecture has to meet in its efforts to service the intellectual labour environment. For illustrative purposes, the author has chosen research and technology parks as the most typical postindustrial facilities.
According to the author, intellectual constituents of the architectural practice represent systematic and research components. This division is the result of the analysis of research and technology parks. The author has made an attempt to identify special conditions of effective creativity in architectural practice. They include comfort, availability, information system development, calm, sociality, significance and variability.
The list of conditions and general methods of their implementation presented by the author can be used in a wide range of project goals connected with the architectural design of research and technology parks and stimulation of creative potential of the people involved.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.37 - 44

References
  1. Toffler E. Tret’ya volna [The Third Wave]. Moscow, AST Publ., 1999, 261 p.
  2. Dyadichkin I.P. Obshchie mekhanizmy fiziologicheskogo obespecheniya umstvennogo i fizicheskogo truda [General Mechanisms of Physiological Support of Intellectual and Physical Labour]. Ìoscow, 1990, 351 p.
  3. Markov V.V. Osnovy zdorovogo obraza zhizni i profilaktiki bolezney [Basics of Healthy Lifestyle and Diseases Prevention]. Moscow, Akademiya Publ., 2001, 320 p.
  4. Revzin G.I. Zhurnal i+u [I+U Magazine]. 2011, no. 1, September 2011, pp. 14—15.
  5. Rykov K.N. Vliyanie na arkhitekturnuyu organizatsiyu universitetskogo tekhnoparka sotsial’nykh effektov i dinamiki vnutrennikh protsessov [Infl uence of Social Effects and Dynamics of Internal Processes on Architectural Organization of a University Technology Park]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton. News of Institutions of Higher Education]. 2011, no. 3(35). Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2011_3/3. Date of access: 3.09.2012.
  6. Rykov K.N. Osobennosti arkhitekturnoy organizatsii struktur tekhnoparkov [Peculiarities of Architectural Structure of Technology Parks]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton. News of Institutions of Higher Education]. 2010, no. 31. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2010_3/4. Date of access: 3.09.2012.

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