ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES TO THE STUDY OF URBAN PLANNING

Vestnik MGSU 8/2012
  • Mezentsev Sergey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Philosophical Sciences, Professor, Department of Philosophy, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 26 - 33

The author considers one of the most relevant theoretical problems of urban planning - philosophical
and scientifi c methodology of research. The tasks of research involve the analysis and
identifi cation of the essence of systematic, synergistic, socio-humanistic, ecological and cybernetic
approaches and their general academic signifi cance, particularly, in the fi eld of urban planning.
The systematic approach. The unity of the technological system, the strategy of the system
behavior, and the design consistency, etc. - these are the core constituents of new methods of
technical thinking. If resolution of minor technological problems and development of small systems
lead to differentiation of knowledge and to growing specialization of research, development of major
systems leads to integration and synthesis of knowledge. This integration may be illustrated by the
urban planning which incorporates design development, implementation, testing and operation of
multi-component systems.
The synergеtic approach. The synergеtic approach is employed to study the urban environment
and culture as well as their development. It encompasses the phenomena which are considered
by the systematic approach as unimportant or minor facts, namely, random connections,
volatile relationships, brevity of their existence, spontaneity, etc. These phenomena are based on
the fact that the urban community is heterogeneous; it is composed of multiple separate individuals
and social groups.
The socio-humanistic approach. Modern scientifi c theories are not not only to contribute to
the analysis of the current situation, but also to contribute to the process of formation of the technical
activity on the basis of the principle of humanism. Contemporary engineers fi nd a connection
between technical components and processes with non-technical ones, including human factors,
organizational structures, socio-cultural processes, etc.
The ecological approach. Further development of technologies, namely, construction-related
technologies, should be based on the understanding of their nature as self-suffi cient values and follow
the laws of the social ecology to improve the environment and to avoid numerous anthropogenic
and environmental disasters. Therefore, before any urban planning project is implemented, each
environmental consequence is to be considered in relation to man and society.
The cybernetic approach. Any contemporary activity in the fi eld of technology, including urban
planning, should be based on the management principles developed within the framework of sociology,
including social foresight, social prediction, social planning and social technologies.
In contrast to many other sciences, which succeed in the sphere of methodology of research,
urban planning does not always meet up-to-date requirements. The author believes that there is a
need of adherence to the above methods in urban planning. The author argues that the result of
their application at the stage of urban design will substantially reduce any negative effects at the
stage of construction and operation of technical facilities.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.8.26 - 33

References
  1. Bertalanfi L. fon. Obshchaya teoriya sistem — kriticheskiy obzor [General Theory of Systems: Critical Review]. Issledovaniya po obshchey teorii sistem [Research of the General Theory of Systems]. Collected translations. Moscow, Progress Publ., 1969, pp. 23—82.
  2. Blauberg I.V., Yudin E.G. Stanovlenie i sushchnost’ sistemnogo podkhoda [Formation and Essence of the Systems Approach]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, 270 p.
  3. Liseev I.K., Sadovskiy V.N., editors. Sistemnyy podkhod v sovremennoy nauke [The Systems Approach to Modern Science]. Moscow, Progress Publ., 2004, 560 p.
  4. Khaken G. Sinergetika: Ierarkhii neustoychivostey v samoorganizuyushchikhsya sistemakh i ustroystvakh. [Synergetics: Instability Hierarchies of Self-Organizing Systems and Devices]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1985, 423 p.
  5. Veber M. Izbrannoe. Obraz obshchestva [Selected Works. The Image of the Society]. Moscow, Yurist Publ., 1994, 704 p.
  6. Veber M. Issledovaniya po metodologii nauki [Studies of the Methodology of Science]. Moscow, INION AN SSSR Publ., 1980, 202 p.
  7. Kommoner B. Zamykayushchiysya krug: priroda, chelovek, tekhnologiya. [The Closed Circle: Nature, Man and Technology]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1974, 272 p.
  8. Viner N. Kibernetika, ili upravlenie i svyaz’ v zhivotnom i mashine [Cybernetics or Control and Communication in the Animal and in the Machine]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, 433 p.
  9. Lenk Kh. Razmyshleniya o sovremennoy tekhnike [Refl ections on Modern Technology]. Moscow, Aspekt Publ., 1996, p. 55—56.
  10. Gusakov A.A. Sistemotekhnika stroitel’stva [Systems Engineering of Construction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1993, 368 p.
  11. Glazychev V.L. Gorodskaya sreda. Tekhnologiya razvitiya: nastol’naya kniga [The Urban Environment. Technology of Development: a Handbook]. Moscow, Lad’ya Publ., 1995. p. 20.
  12. Rozin V.M. Gorodskaya kul’tura, chelovek, okruzhayushchaya sreda (Filosofskometodologicheskie problemy gradostroitel’nogo proektirovaniya) [Urban Culture, Man, Environment (Philosophical and Methodological Problems of Urban Design)] Voprosy filosofi i [Issues of Philosophy]. 1980, no. 1, pp. 53—62.
  13. Pochegina L.F. Mezhdunarodnaya khartiya po arkhitekturnomu obrazovaniyu i gumanizatsiya arkhitektury [International Charter for Architectural Education and Humanization of Architecture]. International Conference. Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011, vol. 2, pp. 750—751.
  14. Fromm E. Imet’ ili byt’? [To Have or to Be?]. Moscow, AST Publ., 2000, 448 p.
  15. Skvortsova L.M. Sotsial’noe prostranstvo goroda: ekologicheskie proekty budushchego [The Social Space of the City: Ecological Projects of the Future]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 414—418.
  16. Fokina Z.T. Tendentsiya urbanizatsii i izuchenie ekologii goroda [Trend for Urbanization and Study of the Urban Ecology]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 2, vol. 2, pp. 253—259.
  17. Gusakov A.A. Sistemotekhnika [Systems Engineering]. Moscow, Novoe Tysyacheletie Publ., 2002, p. 22.
  18. Voronin V.A. Dekompozitsiya metodologicheskikh osnov proektnogo upravleniya v stroitel’stve [Decomposition of Methodological Principles of Project Management in Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 530—534.
  19. Slavgorodskaya A.N. Upravlenie tipovymi proektami pri realizatsii gorodskikh stroitel’nykh programm v Moskve [Management of Model Projects for Urban Construction Programs in Moscow]. Conference. Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011, vol. 1, pp. 740—741.
  20. Toshchenko Zh.T. Sotsiologiya. Obshchiy kurs. [Sociology. General Course]. Moscow, Prometey: Yurayt-M Publ., 2001, 511 p.

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SYSTEM ENGINEERING OF FUNCTIONAL MODELING OF INTELLIGENT BUILDINGS

Vestnik MGSU 10/2015
  • Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Rector, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Batov Evgeniy Igorevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Information Systems, Technology and Automation in Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 188-193

The authors’ scientific hypothesis is that a selection of the most appropriate smart building solution for a particular building can be done properly only using functional modeling. “Intelligent” building was examined from the point of view of systems theory and cybernetics for the purpose of identifying essential factors which should be taken into account in functional modeling. The goal of an “intelligent” building, as a system, was identified as a continuous adaptation to the building occupants’ life-cycle. Building Intelligence Quotient serves the purpose of a quantification of the system’s goal. The system state is a set of building parameters which can be measured by sensors and meters. Two main factors that influence the changes of the system state are: occupants’ activities and outside environment changes. A functional model of an “intelligent” building should be able to provide the ability to simulate such influence. Based on the conducted system analysis, system engineering principles, which can be particularly helpful for a functional model development of “intelligent” buildings, were selected: the principle of a functional system, the probabilistic-statistical principle, the principle of simulation modeling, the principle of interactive graphics, the feasibility study principle.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.10.188-193

References
  1. Ashby W.R. An Introduction to Cybernetics. Second Impression. London, Chapman & Hall Ltd, 1957, pp. 86—93.
  2. Surmin Yu.P. Teoriya sistem i sistemnyy analiz [Theory of Systems and System Analysis]. Kiev, MAUP Publ., 2003, p. 64. (In Russian)
  3. Volkov A.A. Intellekt zdaniy: formula [Intelligence of Buildings: the Formula]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 54—57. (In Russian)
  4. Volkov A.A. Intellekt zdaniy. Chast’ 2 [Intelligence of buildings. Part 2]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 213—216. (In Russian)
  5. Volkov A.A. Gomeostaticheskoe upravlenie zdaniyami [Homeostatic Management of Buildings]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [House Construction]. 2003, no. 4, pp. 9—10. (In Russian)
  6. Gusakov A.A. Sistemotekhnika stroitel’stva [System Engineering of the Construction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1993, 368 p. (In Russian)
  7. Mozer M.C. Lessons from an Adaptive Home. Smart Environments: Technologies, Protocols, and Applications. Edited by D.J. Cook and S.K. Das. 2005, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/047168659X.ch12.
  8. National Building Information Model Standard Project Committee: National BIM Standard — United States. Data access: https://www.nationalbimstandard.org/.
  9. BuildingSmart. Data access: http://www.buildingsmart.org.
  10. Volkov A.A. Kompleksnaya bezopasnost’ uslovno-abstraktnykh ob”ektov (zdaniy i sooruzheniy) v usloviyakh chrezvychaynykh situatsiy [Integrated Safety of conditionally abstract objects (buildings and structures) in emergency situations]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2007, no. 3, pp. 30—35. (In Russian)
  11. Volkov A.A. Sistemy aktivnoy bezopasnosti stroitel’nykh ob”ektov [Active Safety Systems of Construction Sites]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [House Construction]. 2000, no. 7, p. 13. (In Russian)
  12. Volkov A.A., Yarulin R.N. Avtomatizatsiya proektirovaniya proizvodstva remontnykh rabot zdaniy i inzhenernoy infrastruktury [Computer-Aided Design of Repairs of Buildings and the Engineering Infrastructure]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 9, pp. 234—240. (In Russian)

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SYSTEMS ANALYSIS FOR OBJECTS AND PROCESSES OF DESIGN AUTOMATION IN CONSTRUCTION

Vestnik MGSU 1/2012
  • Lavdansky Pavel Aleksandrovich - MSUCE Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of Construction of Nuclear Facilities 7-(926)-910-40-51, MSUCE, 26, Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Pavlov Aleksandr Sergeevich - MSUCE Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher, Research and Education Center in Engineering construction, Сomputer-aided design, Сonstruction, Information technology +7-(499)-183-24-74, MSUCE, 26, Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Ignatiev Oleg Vladimirovich - People's Friendship University of Russia Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, head Department of Information Technologies in Lifelong Learning +7-(495)-434-32-44, People's Friendship University of Russia, 6, Mikluho-Maklaj, Moscow, 117198; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 177 - 181

The paper provides the basic principles of system engineering for development of computer aided design systems. The authors also considers the problems of data transmission and identification in such systems.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.1.177 - 181

References
  1. Gusakov A.A. Sistemotehnika stroitel'stva [Building’s system engineering]. Moscow, Stroyizdat, 1993. 368 p.
  2. Malykha G.G. Nauchno-metodologicheskie osnovy avtomatizacii proektirovanija v mezhdunarodnyh stroitel'nyh proektah [Scientific and methodological principles of design automation in international construction projects], Moscow, MSUCE, 1999, 299 p.
  3. Pavlov A.S. Nauchnye osnovy peredachi informacii i raspoznavanija objektov v sistemah stroitel'nogo proektirovanija [Scientific principles of information transmission and objects identification in construction computer aided design systems], Moscow, MSUCE, 2003, 357 p.
  4. Vainstein M.S. Metodologija mnogofunkcional'noj avtomatizacii pojelementno-invariantnogo proektirovanija zdanij i sooruzhenij [Methodology of multifunctional automation of elemental and invariant design process of structures and buildings], Moscow, MSUCE, 2005, 377 p.

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SYSTEM TECHNICAL ANALYSIS OF INFORMATION AND DOCUMENTATION IN STRUCTURAL DESIGN

Vestnik MGSU 1/2012
  • Ignatiev Oleg Vladimirovich - People's Friendship University of Russia Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, head Department of Information Technologies in Lifelong Learning +7-(495)-434-32-44, People's Friendship University of Russia, 6, Mikluho-Maklaj, Moscow, 117198; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Pavlov Aleksandr Sergeevich - MSUCE Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chief Researcher, Research and Education Center in Engineering construction, Сomputer-aided design, Сonstruction, Information technology +7-(499)-183-24-74, MSUCE, 26, Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lavdansky Pavel Aleksandrovich - MSUCE Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of Construction of Nuclear Facilities 7-(926)-910-40-51, MSUCE, 26, Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 182 - 187

The authors review the general types of documentation used in construction. Much attention is given to the different kinds of information contained in electronic files as well as data processing and transmission.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.1.182 - 187

References
  1. Gusakov A.A. Sistemotehnika stroitel'stva [Building’s system engineering]. Moscow, Stroyizdat, 1993. 368 p.
  2. Malykha G.G. Nauchno-metodologicheskie osnovy avtomatizacii proektirovanija v mezhdunarodnyh stroitel'nyh proektah [Scientific and methodological principles of design automation in international construction projects], Moscow, MSUCE, 1999, 299 p.
  3. Pavlov A.S. Nauchnye osnovy peredachi informacii i raspoznavanija objektov v sistemah stroitel'nogo proektirovanija [Scientific principles of information transmission and objects identification in construction computer aided design systems], Moscow, MSUCE, 2003, 357 p.
  4. Vainstein M.S. Metodologija mnogofunkcional'noj avtomatizacii pojelementno-invariantnogo proektirovanija zdanij i sooruzhenij [Methodology of multifunctional automation of elemental and invariant design process of structures and buildings], Moscow, MSUCE, 2005, 377 p.

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ANALYSIS OF REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PRICING SYSTEM IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

Vestnik MGSU 10/2012
  • Lyapin Anton Valer'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director, Institute of Engineering Expertise, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lyapin Valeriy Yur'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Hydraulics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 254 - 259

Formation of the pricing system and underlying investment and construction activities were analyzed by the authors in their research. It is noteworthy that the pricing system has a common basis with other human systems, as it incorporates such constituents as process, people, software, etc. Correct interaction between these elements ensures conformity between the anticipated and the practical performance of the system. The basis for the effective operation of the existing system and reduction of potential risks consists in early identification and analysis of requirements set by the user. Absent of implementation of an effective requirement management process, the pattern of the system development will look chaotic and unpredictable. In the process of the data analysis, the data set is converted into a set of the user requirements describing the anticipated behavior of the system in the course of its interaction with the operating environment.
The requirements of users comprise an important constituent of the system design. They affect the entire development process from the beginning to the very end. In accordance with the principles of the system engineering, the authors have identified the key pricing system parameters; their implementation assures the appropriate functionality with a view to the formation of the contract price at various stages of the life-cycle of the investment project. Analysis of the above requirements makes it possible to convert them into a technical vision of the desired product that can demonstrate the required functionality.
The methodology proposed by the authors contemplates decomposition of the levels of requirements; therefore, the authors employ a three-level model that describes the expected functionality of the system. The model includes an organizational level (basic processes, participants, information flows), a methodological level (method of calculating the cost of design, construction and operation, regulatory and methodological documents) and a technology level (information systems and technologies). A three-level functional decomposition of the system is used to simplify the comparison of the elements of the system architecture and the user acceptance.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.254 - 259

References
  1. Gryunshtam V.A. Kontseptsiya smetnogo tsenoobrazovaniya v stroitel’stve [The Concept of Estimate-based Pricing in the Construction Industry]. TsiSN 6s-2009 Publ., pp. 1—41.
  2. ISO/MEC 15288:2002 Systems Engineering. Process Life Cycle. Switzerland, International Organization for Standardization, 2002, 72 p.
  3. ISO/IEC 15288:2002, Systems Engineering — System Life Cycle Processes. Switzerland, International Organization for Standardization, 2002, 72 p.
  4. Hull E., Jackson K., Dick J. Requirements Engineering. 2005, Springer, 229 p.
  5. Metodika opredeleniya stoimosti stroitel’noy produktsii na territorii Rossiyskoy Federatsii (MDS 81-35. 2004). [Method of Determining the Cost of Construction Products in the Russian Federation (MDS 81-35. 2004)].
  6. Ardzinov V.D. Tsenoobrazovanie i sostavlenie smet v stroitel’stve [Pricing and Cost Estimation in the Construction Industry]. St.Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2006, 234 p.
  7. Stepanov I.S. Ekonomika stroitel’stva [Construction Economics]. Moscow, Yurayt-izdat Publ., 2007, 620 p.
  8. Ginzburg A.V., Mazur I.I., Shapiro V.D. Investitsionno-stroitel’nyy inzhiniring: spravochnik dlya professionalov [Investment and Construction Engineering. Handbook for Professionals]. Moscow, Ekonomika Publ., 2007, 1216 p.
  9. Dikman L.G., Dikman D.L. Organizatsiya stroitel’stva v SShA [Construction Organization in the USA]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 376 p.
  10. Liberman I.A. Upravlenie zatratami v stroitel’nom komplekse [Cost Management in the Construction Industry]. Moscow, Mart Publ., 2005, 304 p.

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