TECHNOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES. MECHANISMS AND EQUIPMENT

Low-energy thermal processing technology of foamed concrete products in landfills using solar energy

Vestnik MGSU 3/2014
  • Dauzhanov Nabi Tokmurzaevich - Kyzylorda State University Named after Korkyt Ata (KGU im. Korkyt Ata) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Architecture and Construction Production, Kyzylorda State University Named after Korkyt Ata (KGU im. Korkyt Ata), 29A Ayteke bi St., Kyzylorda, 120014, Kazakhstan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Krylov Boris Aleksandrovich - Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (RAASN) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician, Department of Construction Sciences, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (RAASN), 24 Bolshaya Dmitrovka, Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 149-157

Based on the comprehensive research and industrial development there is a new method developed for accelerating the hardening of foamed products using thermal heating of products by soft modes, which allows to receive high quality material and organize energy-efficient and environmentally friendly production of foam concrete products.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.149-157

References
  1. Ukhova T.A. Energosberezhenie pri proizvodstve i primenenii izdeliy iz neavtoklavnogo porobetona [Energy Saving in the Process of Production and Application of Non-autoclaved Cellular Concrete Products]. Kriticheskie tekhnologii v stroitel'stve: trudy konferentsii [Critical Technologies in the Construction. Proceedings of the Conference]. Moscow, ÌGSU Publ., 1998, pp. 116—118.
  2. Sakharov G.P., Strel'bitskiy V.P. Porobeton i tekhniko-ekonomicheskie problemy resursosberezheniya [Porous Concrete and Technical and Economic Problems of Resource Saving]. Penobeton: sbornik nauchnykh trudov [The Foamed Concrete: Collection of Scientific Works]. Belgorod, 2003, no. 4, pp. 25—32.
  3. Pinsker V.A. Sostoyanie i problemy proizvodstva i primeneniya yacheistykh betonov [State and Problems of Production and Application of Cellular Concrete]. Yacheistye betony v sovremennom stroitel'stve: sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, 21—23 aprelya 2004 goda [Cellular Concretes in the Modern Construction: the collection of Reports of International Scientific and Technical Conference, 21-23 April, 2004]. Saint Petersburg, 2004, pp. 1—5.
  4. Kulikova L.V. Osnovy ispol'zovaniya vozobnovlyaemykh istochnikov energii [Basics of Renewable Energy Sources Application]. Moscow, 2008. Available at: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/altenergy/common/common2_3.shtm. Date of access: 28.01.14.
  5. Krylov B.A. Solnechnaya energiya i perspektivy ee ispol'zovaniya dlya intensifikatsii tverdeniya betona [The Solar Energy and the Perspectives of its Use for the Intensification of the Concrete’s Hardening]. Ispol'zovanie solnechnoy energii v tekhnologii betona: Materialy soveshchaniya po probleme: sbornik [Materials of the Meeting on the Problem: The Use of Solar Energy in the Technology of Concrete. Collection]. Ashkhabad, 1982, pp. 20—25.
  6. Bazhenov Yu.M. Kriterii otsenki povedeniya betona v zharkom i sukhom klimate [Criteria for Assessing the Behavior of Concrete in Hot and Dry Climates]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1971, no. 8, pp. 9—11.
  7. Mironov S.A., Malinskiy E.N. Osnovy tekhnologii betona v usloviyakh sukhogo zharkogo klimata [Basics of Concrete Technology in Dry Hot Climate]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1985, 317 p.
  8. Shakhova L.D., Chernositova E.S. Reologicheskie kharakteristiki penobetonnykh smesey [The Rheological Characteristics of the Foamed Concrete Mixes]. Teoriya i praktika proizvodstva i primeneniya yacheistogo betona v stroitel'stve: sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Theory and Practice of Production and Application of Cellular Concrete in Construction: Collection of Scientific Works]. Dnepropetrovsk, PGASA Publ., 2005, no. 2, pp. 89—94.
  9. Posobie po geliotermoobrabotke betonnykh i zhelezobetonnykh izdeliy s primeneniem svetoprozrachnykh i teploizoliruyushchikh pokrytiy (SVITAP) k SNiP 3.09.01—85 [Manual on Solar Heat Treatment of Aerated Concrete and Ferroconcrete Items with the Application of Translucent and Heat-insulating Coverings. Solar Perceptive and Heat-Accumulating Covering (SVITAP) to Construction Norms and Rules (SNiP) 3.09.01-85]. Moscow, NIIZhB Publ., 1987, 14 p.
  10. Krylov B.A., Aruova L.B. Kombinirovannyy metod ispol'zovaniya geliotekhnologii na poligonakh [Combined Method of Using Solar Technology at Landfi lls]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1996, no. 12, pp. 11—13.
  11. Aruova L.B. Vliyanie intensivnosti obezvozhivaniya i velichiny vlagopoter' na formirovanie struktury betonov [The Infl uence of Intensity of Drainage and Moisture Loss Values on the Structure of Concrete]. Poisk [Search]. Almaty, 2002, no. 3, pp. 32—33.
  12. Mironov S.A., Malinskiy E.N. Osnovy tekhnologii betona v usloviyakh sukhogo zharkogo klimata [The Basics of Concrete Technology in Dry Hot Climate]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1985, 317 p.
  13. Aruova L.B. Kharakter formirovaniya temperaturnykh poley pri geliotermoobrabotke betona [Character of Temperature Fields Formation in the Concrete During Heat Treatment Using Solar Energy]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1996, no. 6, pp. 12—14.
  14. Krylov B.A., Maslov V.P. Dubliruyushchie istochniki energii pri kombinirovannoy geliotermoobrabotke zhelezobetonnykh izdeliy [Duplicate Sources of Energy in Combined Heat Treatment of Concrete Products]. Materialy Vsesoyuznogo nauchno-prakticheskogo soveshchaniya po tekhnologii izgotovleniya zhelezobetonnykh izdeliy i konstruktsiy s ispol'zovaniem klimaticheskikh faktorov zharkikh rayonov [Materials of Scientific and Practical Conference on Manufacturing Concrete Products and Structures Using Climatic Factors of Hot Areas]. Dushanbe, 1988, pp. 44—49.

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Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich - Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Senior Lecturer, Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 226 Lenina st., Khujand, 735700, Tajikistan; applicant, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 142-149

Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.142-149

References
  1. IEA. World Energy Outlook 2004. International Energy Agency, Paris, IEA/OECD, 2004.
  2. Butti K., Perlin J. A Golden Thread: 2500 Years of Solar Architecture and Technology. London, 1980.
  3. United Nations on Climate Change. General Convention Kyoto, 1997.
  4. Gritsevich I. Protokol konferentsii po global'nomu klimatu v Kioto: novye pravila igry na sleduyushchee desyatiletie [Protocol of the Conference on Global Climate in Kyoto: New Game Rules for the Coming Decade]. Ekonomicheskaya effektivnost': Ezhekvartal'nyy byulleten' Tsentra po effektivnomu ispol'zovaniyu energii (TsENEF) [Economic Efficiency: Quarterly Bulletin of the Center on Eficcient Energy Use (TsENEF)]. Moscow, 1998, no. 18.
  5. Glikson A.L., Doroshenko A.V. Geliosistemy i teplovye nasosy v sistemakh avtonomnogo teplo- i kholodosnabzheniya [Heliosystems and Heat Pumps in the Systems of Autonomous Heat and Cooling Supply]. ABOK. 2004, no. 7, pp. 18—23.
  6. Tabunshchikov Yu.A., Akopov B.L. Energeticheskie vozmozhnosti naruzhnogo klimata [Energy Possibilities of Outside Climate]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 50—55.
  7. Butuzov V.A. Solnechnoe teplosnabzhenie: sostoyanie del i perspektivy razvitiya [Solar Heat Subbly: Situation and Development Prospects]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2000, no. 4, pp. 28—30.
  8. Dik Dolmans. Vozmozhnosti zatenyayushchikh geliosistem [Possibilities of Shading Heliosystems]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2010, no. 7, pp. 66—69.
  9. Popel' O.S. Effektivnost' primeneniya solnechnykh vodonagrevateley v klimaticheskikh usloviyakh sredney polosy Rossii [Efficiency of Solar Water Heaters Application in in Central Russia Climate Conditions]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2001, no.1, pp. 30—33.
  10. Integrirovannaya otsenka sostoyaniya okruzhayushchey sredy Respubliki Tadzhikistan. Programma OON po okruzhayushchey srede (UNEP) [Integrated Assessment of the Environment State in the Tajikistan Republic. United Nations Environmental Programme]. Komitet po okhrane okruzhayushchey sredy pri pravitel'stve Respubliki Tadzhikistan [Environmental Protection Committee under the Government of Tajikistan Republic]. Available at: http://hifzitabiat.tj/files/integrirovanaya_otsenka_sostoyaniya_os_rt_2005.pdf. Date of access: 14.01.2014.
  11. Kak nachat' ekonomit' 75 % zatrat na goryachee vodosnabzhenie i 40 % zatrat na otoplenie? [How to Start Saving 75 % of Expenses on Hot-water Supply and 40 % of Expenses on Heating?]. Sun-air-water.ru. Available at: http://www.sun-air-water.ru/geliosystems. Date of access: 14.01.2014.
  12. Tanaka S., Suda R. Zhilye doma s avtonomnym teplokhladosnabzheniem [Living Houses with Independent Heating and Cooling Supply]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989, 185 p.
  13. Sistema otopleniya za schet energii Solntsa uzhe segodnya! [Heating System by Means of Solar Energy Today!]. EngSystem Company. Available at: http://eng-system.com/id7533.htm. Date of access: 14.01.2014.
  14. Nigmatov I.I. Osobennosti arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo proektirovaniya zdaniy v usloviyakh Tsentral'noy Azii [Peculiarities of Architectural and Construction Design of Buildings in Central Asian Conditions]. Dushanbe,Tadzhik NIINTI Publ., 1993, 216 p.
  15. Energiya solntsa [Solar Energy]. Kompaniya Vozobnovlyaemaya energiya [Renewable Energy Company]. Available at: http://www.smarthome26.ru/sun-energy. Date of access: 14.01.14.

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THE USE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS AS PART OF THE PASSIVE HOUSE

Vestnik MGSU 4/2018 Volume 13
  • Bryzgalin Vladislav Viktorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Master student, Department of Design of Buildings and Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Solov’ev Aleksey Kirillovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Design of Buildings and Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 472-481

Subject: systems of passive solar heating, which can, without the use of engineering equipment, capture and accumulate the solar heat used for heating buildings. Research objectives: study of the possibility to reach the passive house standard (buildings with near zero energy consumption for heating) in climatic conditions of Russia using the systems of passive solar heating in combination with other solutions for reduction of energy costs of building developed in the past. Materials and methods: search and analysis of literature, containing descriptions of various passive solar heating systems, examples of their use in different climatic conditions and the resulting effect obtained from their use; analysis of thermophysical processes occurring in these systems. Results: we revealed the potential of using the solar heating systems in the climatic conditions of parts of the territories of the Russian Federation, identified the possibility of cheaper construction by the passive house standard with the use of these systems. Conclusions: more detailed analysis of thermophysical and other processes that take place in passive solar heating systems is required for creation of their computational models, which will allow us to more accurately predict their effectiveness and seek the most cost-effective design solutions, and include them in the list of means for achieving the passive house standard.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2018.4.472-481

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