BEDDINGS AND FOUNDATIONS, SUBTERRANEAN STRUCTURES. SOIL MECHANICS

Method of calculating pilestrip foundations in case of karst hole formation

Vestnik MGSU 2/2014
  • Gotman Al'fred Leonidovich - Institute “BashNIIstroy” Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Deputy Director in Science, Scientific-Research Institute “BashNIIstroy”, Institute “BashNIIstroy”, 3 Konstitutsii st., Ufa, 450064, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Magzumov Rail' Nailovich - Institute “BashNIIstroy” junior research worker, Institute “BashNIIstroy”, 3 Konstitutsii st., Ufa, 450064, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 74-83

The paper presents pile strip foundations in the areas with karst risk. The analysis of karst hole formation mechanism shows the lateral soil pressure on the piles caused by the downfallen soil on the hole rims, which transfers around the hole edges during karst hole formation. In this case, the horizontal pressure of the pile reactive force in the area of the pile connection with the raft is transferred to the raft. Pile failure at the hole boundaries will lead to the increase of the raft bearing distance above the karst hole. The inadequate raft bearing capacity can provoke the emergency situation. The existing Codes on karst protective foundations design do not contain the analysis of pile and raft horizontal pressure under the downfallen soil.The goal of this work is to develop the method of pile strip foundations analysis in the areas with karst risk in case of karst hole formation. The analysis of stress-strain state of the system “foundation soil — pile foundation” was carried out using numerical modeling in geotechnical program MIDAS GTS. As a result of numerical investigations, the diagrams of lateral soil pressure onto the piles and the raft are plotted. The pile pressure is approximated with the linear or bilinear function in dependence on geometrical dimensions of the karst hole and strength characteristics of soil that generates the horizontal pressure.In the Codes, the analysis of a pile under lateral soil pressure is given for a pile with the free end. In the problem examined, the pile head has the hinged bearing in place of the connection with the raft. In view of the given boundary data, the pile design scheme is plotted. The inner forces and displacements of the pile are determined by integrating the differential equation of a pile bending. The consistent integrations are evaluated out of the boundary conditions. The boundary values of inner forces and displacements are evaluated from the equality conditions of displacements and inner forces in the pile at the level of the hole bottom that are evaluated in turn for the upward and downward pile section. The method of pile analysis is developed in case of lateral soil pressure approximation with the linear function.The method worked out allows recalculating a pile being at the edge of the karst hole and accepting the lateral pressure of the downfallen soil on the hole edges.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.2.74-83

References
  1. Davletyarov D.A. Raschet koeffitsienta zhestkosti svaynogo lentochnogo fundamenta pri obrazovanii karstovogo provala [Analysis of Stiffness Ratio of a Pile Strip Foundation in Case of Karst Hole Formation]. Geotekhnicheskie problemy proektirovaniya zdaniy i sooruzheniy na karstoopasnykh territoriyakh: Trudy Rossiyskoy konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem [Geotechnical Problems of Buildings and Structures Design in the Areas with Karst Risk]. Ufa, 2012, pp. 35—41.
  2. Ilyukhin V.A. Model'nye issledovaniya odnoryadnykh svaynykh fundamentov na vozdeystvie lokal'nogo provala v osnovanii [Model Investigations of the Influence of Local Holes in the Bed on One-row Pile Foundations]. Mekhanika gruntov: trudy NIIpromstroya [Soil Mechanics: NIIpromstroy Proceedings]. Ufa, 1986, pp. 77—90.
  3. Gotman N.Z., Gotman A.L., Davletyarov D.A. Uchet sovmestnoy raboty zdaniya i osnovaniya v raschetakh fundamentov pri obrazovanii karstovykh deformatsiy [Account for Combined Behavior of a Structure and Foundation Soil in Foundation Analysis in Case of Karst Strains Formation]. Vzaimodeystvie sooruzheniy i osnovaniy. Metody rascheta i inzhenernaya praktika: trudy Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii po geotekhnike [Interaction of Structures and Foundation Soils. Design Methods and Engineering Practice: Proceedings of International Conference on Geotechnics]. Saint-Petersburg, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 69—75.
  4. Aderkhold G.I. Klassifikatsiya provalov i mul'd osedaniy v karstoopasnykh rayonakh Gessena. Rekomendatsii po otsenke geotekhnicheskikh riskov pri provedenii stroitel'nykh meropriyatiy [Classification of Holes and Settlements in Karst Areas of Gessen. Recommendations on Evaluation of Geotechnical Risks while Construction]. Nizhniy Novgorod, NNGASU Publ., 2010, 112 p.
  5. Tolmachev V.V., Troitskiy G.M., Khomenko V.P. Inzhenerno-stroitel'noe osvoenie zakarstovannykh territoriy [Engineering and Construction Development of Karsted Areas]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 176 p.
  6. Khomenko V.P. Karstovo-obval'nye protsessy «prostogo» tipa: polevye issledovaniya [Karst Processes of the “Simple” Type: Field Investigations]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, 2009, no. 4, pp. 40—48.
  7. Sorochan E.A., Tolmachev V.V. Analiz avariy sooruzheniy na zakarstovannykh territoriyakh [Analysis of Breakdowns of Structures on Karsted Areas]. Rossiyskaya geotekhnika — shag v XXI vek: Yubileynaya konferentsiya, posvyashchennaya 50-letiyu ROMGGiF [Russian Geotechnics – a Step towards the XXI-th Century: the Conference Dedicated to the 50th Anniversary of ROMGGiF]. Moscow, 2007, vol. 1, pp. 154—162.
  8. Waltham T., Bell F.G., Culshaw M.G. Sinkholes and Subsidence. Karst and Cavernous Rocks in Engineering and Construction. Chichester: Praxis Publishing Ltd., 2005, 375 p.
  9. Jin Bei Zheng, Hu Zhang, Bao Qiang Liu, Gao Liu, You Ping Fan, Shuai Hua, Dai Xing Jiang Research on Pile Foundation of Transmission Tower Stability Analysis Based on Numerical Simulation in Karst Areas. Advanced Materials Research. 2012, vol. 594—597, pp. 316—319. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.594-597.316.
  10. Sartain N.J., Lancelot F. & O’Riordan N.J., Sturt R. Design Loading of Deep Foundations Subject to Sinkhole Hazard. Proceedinf of the 17th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2009, vol. 2, pp. 1267—1270. DOI: 10.3233/978-1-60750-031-5-1267.
  11. Gotman A.L., Magzumov R.N. Issledovanie NDS svay na granitse karstovogo provala [Investigation of Stress-strain State of Piles at the Boundary of a Karst Hole]. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov [Proceedings of Civil Engineers]. Saint Petersburg, 2013, no. 4 (39), pp. 125—132.
  12. Rengach V.N. Shpuntovye stenki (raschet i proektirovanie) [Sheet Piling (Analysis and Design)]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1970, 106 p.
  13. Costopoulos S.D., Makris N. Parametric Analysis of a Prestressed Tie-back. Proceeding of the 14th European Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. 2007, vol. 2, pp. 553—557.
  14. Mirsayapov I.T., Khasanov R.R. Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya napryazhennodeformirovannogo sostoyaniya gibkikh ograzhdeniy s rasporkoy v protsesse poetapnoy razrabotki grunta [Experimental Investigations of Stress-Strain State of Flexible Enclosures with the Brace in the Process of Step by Step Earthwork]. Izvestiya KazGASU, Osnovaniya i fundamenty, podzemnye sooruzheniya [Proceedings of KazGASU, Bases and Foundations, Underground Structures]. Kazan, 2011, no. 2 (16), pp. 129—135.
  15. Gotman A.L., Suvorov M.A. Protivoopolznevye mnogoryadnye konstruktsii iz svay [Landslide Protection Multi-row Pile Constructions]. Geotekhnicheskie problemy stroitel'stva, rekonstruktsii i vosstanovleniya nadezhnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy: materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnichesloy konferentsii [Geotechnical Problems of Construction, Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of Buildings and Structures Reliability: Proceedings of International Scientific and Technical Conference]. Lipetsk, LGTU Publ., 2007, pp. 21—26.

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Experimental evaluation of drainage filters sealing in peat soils

Vestnik MGSU 2/2014
  • Nevzorov Aleksandr Leonidovich - Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology, Bases and Foundations, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU), 17 Severnaya Dvina Emb., Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zaborskaya Ol'ga Mikhaylovna - Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU) Senior Lecturer, Department of Structural Mechanics and Strength of Materials, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU), 17 Severnaya Dvina Emb., Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Nikitin Andrey Viktorovich - Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Enginee, Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov (SAFU), 17 Severnaya Dvina Emb., Arkhangelsk, 163002, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 84-90

The article deals with research results of the sealing of pores in drainage filters by organic particles. Permeability tests were carried out with the constant gradient 1.5. The water flow through the sample of soil was top-down.The tests were carried out with 2 types of samples: the first part of samples had layers (from up to down) 300 mm peat and 2 layers of geotextile, the second part consisted of 250 mm peat, 200 mm fine sand and 2 layers of geotextile. Well decomposed peatsamples were used. Peat had the following characteristics: density is 1,05...1,06 g/cm3, specific density — 1,53...1,56 g/cm3, void ratio — 12,0...12,5. The duration of each test was 15 days. During testing the hydraulic conductivity of samples was decreased by 1.3...1.9.After completing the tests the hydraulic conductivity of sand and geotextile were measured. The content of organic matter in geotextile and fine sand was determined as well. Dry mass of organic matter in the first layer of geotextile in the first type of samples were 1,0…1,3 g per 75 cm2. The organic matter in the second layer of geotextile in the first type of samples and in the first layer of geotextile in the second type wasn’t exposed. Fine sands protected the drainage geotextile as a result of sealing of pore space of sands by organic matter.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.2.84-90

References
  1. Emel'yanova T.Ya., Kramarenko V.V. Obosnovanie metodiki izucheniya deformatsionnykh svoystv torfa s uchetom izmeneniya stepeni ego razlozheniya [Substantiation of the Study Method of Deformation Properties of Peat Taking into Account the Changes in its Decomposition Degree]. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta [Proceedings of Tomsk Polytechnic University]. 2004, no. 5, pp. 54—57.
  2. Kramarenko V.V., Emel'yanova T.Ya. Kharakteristika fizicheskikh svoystv verkhovykh torfov Tomskoy oblasti [Description of the Physical Properties of High-moor Peat in Tomsk Region]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Proceedings of Tomsk State University]. 2009, no. 322, pp. 265—272.
  3. Ivanov K.Å. Vodoobmen v bolotnykh landshaftakh [Water Cycle in Moor Landscapes]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1975, 280 p.
  4. Drozd P.À. Sel'skokhozyaystvennye dorogi na bolotakh [Agricultural Roads on Moors]. Minsk, Uradzhay Publ., 1966, 167 p.
  5. Nevzorov À.L., Nikitin À.V., Zarychevnych À.V. Gorod na bolote: monografiya [A City on the Bog: Monograph]. Northern (Arctic) Federal University named after M.V. Lomonosov. Arkhangelsk, NArFU Publ., 2012, 157 p.
  6. Dimukhametov M.Sh., Dimukhametov D.M. Fiziko-mekhanicheskie svoystva zatorfovannykh gruntov Kamskoy doliny g. Permi i ikh izmenenie v rezul'tate deystviya prigruzki [Physical and Mechanical Properties of Peat of Kama Valley in Perm City and their Changes as a Result of Pressure Action]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta [Proceedings of Perm State University]. 2009, no. 11, pp. 94—107.
  7. Bugay N.G., Krivonog A.I., Krivonog V.V., Fridrikhson V.L. Voloknisto-poristye materialy iz polimernykh volokon v meliorativnom i gidrotekhnicheskom stroitel'stve i pri ochistke vody [Fibrous-porous Materials of Polymer Fibers in Soil Reclamation and Hydraulic Engineering Construction and Water Treatment]. Prikladnaya gidromekhanika [Applied Hydromechanics]. 2007, vol. 9, no. 2—3, pp. 37—51.
  8. Chernyaev E.V. Srok sluzhby geotekstil'nykh materialov [Lifetime of Geotextile Materials]. Put' i putevoe khozyaystvo [Road and Track Facilities]. 2010, no. 7, pp. 37—39.
  9. Tkach V.V. Drenazhnyy fil'tr iz netkanogo polotna [Drainage from Nonwoven Materials]. Gidrotekhnika i melioratsiya [Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation]. 1983, no.10, pp. 76—77.
  10. Bugay N.G., Tkach V.V., Fridrikhson V.L. Podbor tkanykh i netkanykh ZFM pri ispol'zovanii ikh v trubchatykh drenazhakh s fil'truyushchey obsypkoy [Selection of Woven and Nonwoven Materials Applied in Tubular Drainage with Permeable Package]. Gidrotekhnika i melioratsiya [Hydraulic Engineering and Land Reclamation]. 1983, no. 6, pp. 52—53.

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Using hardening soil model for describing the behavior of varied density sandunder the load

Vestnik MGSU 2/2014
  • Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, chief research worker, Scientific and Technical Center “Examination, Design, Inspection”, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Orekhov Mikhail Vyacheslavovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) leading engineer, Scientific and Technical Center “Expertise, Design, Inspection”, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 91-97

The authors analyze the Hardening Soil Model possibilities for describing the soil behavior under the load, using numerical simulation of the stabilometric tests for varied density sand.According to the study, the assumption that dilatancy angle stays constant is correct only for the dense soil. On the other hand, for the loose or medium density soil this assumption is unacceptable. For the loose and medium density sands, the calculation error in volumetric strain analysis may exceed 50 %.In order to assess the adequacy of soil behavior description in the calculations using the model of "Hardening Soil" numerical simulations were performed using Plaxis triaxial testing of soil. In deviatoric loading the loose soil consolidants, the dilatancy development in the sand of average density has an alternating pattern, the dense sand deconsolodates. The values parameters of the model "Hardening Soil" were determined by the results of experimental data obtained in the AO «NIIES» in triaxial tests the «Liuberetskii» sand and on the recommendations of the program Plaxis. As the results of numerical studies, the soil model "Hardening Soil" describes quite well the development of volumetric strain with the full compressing the soil and the development of shear deformations in the deviatoric loading.In the case of deviatoric loading the relationship between the centerline and the volume deformation is essentially non-linear (Fig. 3a), in contrast to the theoretical assumption of constancy of the angle of dilatancy. In the dense sand at the approach to the limiting value the increment of volume strain (by absolute value) increases, and in the loose sand decreases.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.2.91-97

References
  1. Schanz T., Vermeer P.A., Bonnier P.G. The Hardening Soil Model: Formulation and Verification. Beyond 2000 in Computational Geotechnics. Balkema, Rotterdam, 1999, pp. 281—290.
  2. Schanz T. Zur Modellierung des mechanischen Verhaltens von Reibungsmaterialien. Mitt. Inst. f. Geotechnik, Universit?t Stuttgart, Stuttgart, 1998.
  3. Duncan J.M., Chang C.Y. Nonlinear Analysis of Stress and Strain in Soils. ASCE Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division, 1970, vol. 96, no. 5, pp. 1629—1653.
  4. Brinkgreve R.B.J., Broere W., Waterman D. 2008. Plaxis 2D-version 9. Finite Element Code for Soil and Rock Analyses. User Manual. Rotterdam, Balkema.
  5. Strokova L.A. Opredelenie parametrov dlya chislennogo modelirovaniya povedeniya gruntov [Determination of the Parameters for the Numerical Simulation of the Behavior of Soils]. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta [News of Tomsk Polytechnic University]. 2008, vol. 313, no. 1, pp. 69—74.
  6. Slivets K.V. Opredelenie vnutrennikh parametrov modeli Hardening Soil Model [Determining Inner Parameters of Hardening Soil Model]. Geotekhnika [Geotechnics]. 2010, no. 6, pp. 55—59.
  7. Ohde J.Zur. Theorie der Druckverteilung im Baugrund. Der Bauingenieur. 1939, vol. 20, pp. 451—453.
  8. Zaretskiy Yu.K. Vyazko-plastichnost' gruntov i raschety sooruzheniy [Viscoplasticity of Soils and Calculations of Constructions]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1988.
  9. Zaretskiy Yu.K., Vorontsov E.I., Malyshev M.V., Ramadan I.Kh. Deformiruemost' i prochnost' peschanogo grunta v usloviyakh ploskoy deformatsii pri razlichnykh traektoriyakh nagruzheniya [Deformability and Strength of Sand Soil in the Conditions of Plain Deformation in Case of Different Loading Trajectories]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Engineering]. 1981, no. 3, pp. 34—38.
  10. Zaretskiy Yu.K., Lombardo V.N. Statika i dinamika gruntovykh plotin [Statics and Dynamics of Ground Dams]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1983.

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Experimental investigations of the vertically loaded small scale bored piles

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Glazachev Anton Olegovich - Scientific-Research, Design-and-Engineering, Production Institute of a Building Complex of the Republic of Bashkortostan (BashNIIstroy) senior engineer, Department of Building Structures, Scientific-Research, Design-and-Engineering, Production Institute of a Building Complex of the Republic of Bashkortostan (BashNIIstroy), 3 Konstitutsii str., Ufa, 450064, Republic of Bashkortostan, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 70-78

At present, while evaluating bored piles load capacity in clay soils by CPT data, the depth of active area below the end face plane, within which the averaging of CPT values takes place, is taken as different in different Codes. Thus, for instance, in native Codes and Recommendations the depth of active area is taken from 2 to 4 pile diameters. In foreign Codes such as Belorussian, the depth of active area is taken up to 4 pile diameters and in European Codes - within 0,8-4 pile diameters. In order to specify the regularities of active area forming at different stages of loading, in-situ experimental investigations of large scale models have been carried out. At the test site, two small scale bored piles with the diameter of 130 mm were penetrated into the soil to the depth of 1100 m. The investigations were carried out in two stages: the first - pile static test with measuring of soil vertical displacements with the help of deep marks; the second - digging out soil around the pile and soil sampling at different depths. According to the results of the investigations carried out, the depth of the active area while reaching the limit state was determined to be about two pile diameters. With significant pile settlements (more than 0,58 d), the dimensions of this area do not exceed three pile diameters below the end face plane, and two diameters to the side from the pile axis. Within the lateral surface the significant variation of soil physical characteristics appears to be at the distance not less than 0,4 pile diameter from the lateral surface. Due to investigations’ results, it can be noted that in case of bored pile load less than the limit one, the depth of the active area is about two pile diameters. When the pile reaches its limit state, that provokes significant settlements, zone of compaction does not exceed three diameters to the depth and two diameters to the side from the pile axis.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.70-78

References
  1. Trofimenkov Yu.G. Staticheskoe zondirovanie gruntov v stroitel'stve [Cone Penetration Test of Soils in Construction]. Moscow, 1995, 127 p.
  2. Mariupol'skiy L.G. Issledovaniya gruntov dlya proektirovaniya i stroitel'stva svaynyh fundamentov [Investigations of Soils for Design and Construction of Pile Foundations]. 1989, 199 p.
  3. Ryzhkov I.B., Isaev O.N. Staticheskoe zondirovanie gruntov na sovremennom etape (po materialam 2 Mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma po staticheskomu zondirovaniyu) [Up-todate Cone Penetration Testing of Soils (from the Proceeding of the 2-nd International Symposium on CPT]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mehanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, 2012, no 1, pp. 28—32.
  4. Lunne T., Robertson P.K., Powell J.J.M. Cone Penetration Testing in Geotechnical Practice. London and New York: Spon Press, 2004, 312 p.
  5. Burns S.E., Mayne P.W. Penetrometers for Soil Permeability and Chemical Detection. Funding provided by NSF and ARO issued by Georgia Institute of Technology Report No GITGEEGEO-98-1, July 1998. Georgia Institute of Technology, 1998, 144 p.
  6. Rekomendatsii po opredeleniyu nesushchey sposobnosti svay-obolochek i burovykh svay po rezul'tatam staticheskogo zondirovaniya gruntov [Recommendations on Evaluation of Bearing Capacity of Hollow Shell Piles and Bored Piles According to CPT Data]. Moscow, 1990, 18 p.
  7. Clayton C.R., Milititsky J. Installation Effects and the Performance of Bored Piles in Stiff Clay. Ground Engineering. London, 1983, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 19—21.
  8. O'Neill M.W., Reese L.C. Behaviour of Axially Loaded Drilled Shafts in Beaumont Clay. Research Report 89.8. Center for Highway Research, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas, 1970, 749 p.
  9. Uriel S., Otero. C.S. Stress and Strain Beside a Circular Trench Wall. Proc. Int. Conf. SMFE. Tokyo, Japan, 1977, vol. 1, pp. 781—788.
  10. Gol'din A.L., Prokopovich V.S., Sapegin D.D. Uprugoplasticheskoe deformirovanie osnovaniya zhestkim shtampom [Elasto-plastic Deformation of a Basement Soil with Rigid Stamp]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mehanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, 1983, no 5, pp. 25—26.
  11. Mel'nikov A.V., Novichkov G.G., Boldyrev G.G. Issledovaniye deformirovannogo sostoyaniya peschanogo osnovaniya s ispol'zovaniem metoda tsyfrovoy obrabotki obrazov [Investigation of Sand Base Deformity Using the Method of Digital Processing of Images]. Geotehnika [Geotechnics]. Moscow, 2012, pp.18—31.
  12. Rogatin Yu.A., Galin Yu.N. Issledovaniye mekhanicheskikh svoystv peschanogo grunta na razlichnoy glubine [Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Sandy Soil at Different Depths]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mehanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, 1975, no 1, pp. 28—31.
  13. Fedorovskiy V.G., Kaganovskaya S.E. Zhestkiy shtamp na nelineyno-deformiruemom svyaznom osnovanii [Rigid Stamp on the Nonlinear Deformable Cohesive Basement Soil]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty I mehanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, 1975, no 1, pp. 41—44.
  14. Shemenkov Yu.M., Glazachev A.O. Raschet buronabivnykh svay po dannym staticheskogo zondirovaniya pri maloetazhnom zhilishchnom stroitel'stve [Analysis of Bored Piles According to Cpt Data at Low Housing Construction]. Zhilischnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. Moscow, 2012, no 9, pp. 58—59.

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Analysis of the properties of frame structures on elastic pliable foundation with sensitivity functions

Vestnik MGSU 7/2014
  • Dmitriev Gennadiy Nikiforovich - Chuvash State University (CSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures, Chuvash State University (CSU), 15 Moskovskiy pr., Cheboksary, 428015, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shatovkin Semen Aleksandrovich - Chuvash State University (CSU) Postgraduate Student, Department of Building Structures, Chuvash State University (CSU), 15 Moskovskiy pr., Cheboksary, 428015, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 75-84

The authors modified classical dummy-unit load method by adding elastic pliable foundation in the computation scheme. System attributes (internal force and foundation settlements) were obtained in symbolic form. Sensitivity functions were computed as direct system attributes differential with respect to a specific parameter. The developed method analyzes the structures’ properties with pliable foundation with sensitivity functions on the entire set of parameters. Using the above method, we observed the properties of the three-bay single-storey flat frame, computed sensitivity coefficients of a relative difference foundation settlements and the maximum bending moment of design frame parameters. Structural analysis without considering pliable base corresponds to a model with incompressible foundation. Practically such grounds are rare. Pliable base leads to displacement of the foundations, which in turn changes the stress-strain state of structures. Calculation of foundation settlements as freestanding unrelated elements also leads to errors. In general, settlement of any foundation leads to additional forces in the elements of the entire system, and hence to additional settlement of the remaining foundations. This issue is especially important for frame structures with freestanding foundations, such as joint foundation settlements caused by the stiffness of the structural elements of the frame. Thus, the analysis of foundation and frame elements collaboration based on sensitivity functions helps to assess the impact of system parameters on its properties. Purposeful reduction of the design parameters of the frame elements reduced the relative differential foundation settlements from 0.00213 to 0.00197 and the maximum bending moment from 781.2 kN∙m to 738.6 kN∙m.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.75-84

References
  1. Andreev V.I., Barmenkova E.V., Matveeva A.V. O nelineynom effekte pri raschete konstruktsii i fundamenta s uchetom ikh sovmestnoy raboty [On Nonlinear Effects in Calculating Structures and Foundations with Consideration of their Collaboration]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel'stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2010, no. 9, pp. 95—99.
  2. Morgun A.S., Met' I.N. Uchet pereraspredeleniya usiliy pri issledovanii napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya sovmestnoy raboty sistemy "osnovanie — fundament — sooruzhenie" [Accounting for Efforts’ Redistribution in the Study of Stress-Strain State of Collaboration System "Ground — Foundation — Structure"]. Nauchnye trudy Vinnitskogo natsional'nogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [ScientificWorks of Vinnytsia National Technical University]. 2009, no. 2. Available at: http://praci.vntu.edu.ua/article/view/1091. Date of access: 2.05.2014.
  3. Ivanov M.L. Razrabotka i chislennaya realizatsiya matematicheskoy modeli prostranstvennoy sistemy «zdanie — fundament — osnovanie» [Development and Numerical Implementation of Mathematical Model of "Building — Foundation — Ground" Spatial System]. Intellektual'nye sistemy v proizvodstve [Intelligent Systems in Manufacturing]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 24—35.
  4. Gorodetskiy A.S., Batrak L.G., Gorodetskiy D.A., Laznyuk M.V., Yusipenko S.V. Raschet i proektirovanie vysotnykh zdaniy iz monolitnogo zhelezobetona [Calculation and Design of Reinforced Concrete High-Rise Buildings]. Kiev, Fakt Publ., 2004, 106 p.
  5. Perel'muter A.V., Slivker V.I. Raschetnye modeli sooruzheniy i vozmozhnost' ikh analiza [Design Structural Models and the Possibility of Their Analysis]. Kiev, Stal' Publ., 2002, 600 p.
  6. Gorodetskiy A.S., Evzerov I.D. Komp'yuternye modeli konstruktsiy [Computer Structural Models]. 2nd edition. Kiev, Fakt Publ., 2007, 394 p.
  7. Haug E.J., Arora J.S. Applied Optimal Design: Mechanical and Structural Systems. New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1979, 506 p.
  8. Haug E.J., Choi K.K., Komkov V. Design Sensitivity Analysis of Structural Systems. Orlando, Academic Press, 1986, 381 p.
  9. Atrek E., Gallagher R.H., Ragsdell K.M., Zienkiewicz O.C. New Directions in Optimum Structural Design. Chichester, John Wiley & Sons Ltd., 1984, 750 p.
  10. Borisevich A.A. Obshchie uravneniya stroitel'noy mekhaniki i optimal'noe proektirovanie konstruktsiy [General Equations of Structural Mechanics and Optimum Structural Design]. Minsk, Dizain PRO Publ., 1998, 144 p.
  11. Gill P.E., Murray W., Wright M.H. Practical Optimization. Stanford, Academic Press, 1981, 401 p.
  12. Klepikov S.N. Raschet konstruktsiy na uprugom osnovanii [Calculation of Structures on Elastic Ground]. Kiev, Budivel'nik Publ., 1967, 183 p.
  13. Simvulidi I.A. Raschet inzhenernykh konstruktsiy na uprugom osnovanii [Calculation of Engineering Structures on Elastic Ground]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1973, 431 p.
  14. Rozenvasser E.N., Yusupov R.M. Chuvstvitel'nost' sistem upravleniya [Control Systems Sensitivity]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1981, 464 p.
  15. Sage A.P., White C.C. Optimum Systems Control. New Jersey, Prentice-Hall, 1968, 562 p.

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Numerical implementation of Voigt and Maxwell models for simulation of waves in the ground

Vestnik MGSU 11/2014
  • Sheshenin Sergey Vladimirovich - Moscow State University (MSU) Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Department of Composite Mechanics, Moscow State University (MSU), 1 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 939-43-43; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zakalyukina Irina Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Assosiate Professor, Department of Theoretical Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-24-01; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Koval’ Sergey Vsevolodovich - 26 Central Research Institute, branch of 31 State Project Institute of Special Building (31 SPISB) Doctor of Technical Science, Ciief Research Worker, Department of Special Construction and Seismic Resistance, 26 Central Research Institute, branch of 31 State Project Institute of Special Building (31 SPISB), 19 Smolenskiy Bul’var, Moscow, 119121, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 241-2248; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 82-89

A lot of papers have been dedicated to simulation of dynamic processes in soil and underground structures. For example, some authors considered wave distribution in underground water pipes for creation of vibration monitoring system, others considered theoretical and algorithm aspects of efficient implementation of realistic seismic wave attenuation due to viscosity development with the help of Finite Difference Method, etc. The paper describes the numerical simulation, designed for simulation of the stress-strain state in the ground subjected to wave processes. We consider the ground with a concrete structure immersed in. The purpose of the work is the description of small vibrations in hard soil, which can nevertheless make undesirable impact on the objects in the ground or on the surface. Explicit Wilkins type scheme is used for time integration. It has proven to be successful, including the use in a well-known LS-DYNA code. As a result we created our own computer code based on the finite element method (FEM). An example of its practical usage is given.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.11.82-89

References
  1. Tsvetkov R.V., Shardakov I.N., Shestakov A.P. Analiz rasprostraneniya voln v podzemnykh gazoprovodakh primenitel’no k zadache proektirovaniya sistem monitoringa [Analysis of Wave Propagation in Underground Pipelines in Relation to Monitoring Systems Design]. Vychislitel’naya mekhanika sploshnykh sred [Computational Mechanics of Continuous Media]. 2013, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 364—372. (In Russian).
  2. Kristek J., Moczo P. Seismic-Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Media with Material Discontinuities: A 3D Fourth-Order Staggered-Grid Finite-Difference Modeling. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. 2003, vol. 93, no. 5, pp. 2273—2280. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120030023.
  3. Kochetkov A. V., Poverennov E. Yu. Primenenie metoda kvaziravnomernykh setok pri reshenii dinamicheskikh zadach teorii uprugosti v neogranichennykh oblastyakh [Application of Quasi-uniform Nets Method in the Process of Solving the Dynamic Problems of the Elasticity Theory in Unbounded Domains]. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie [Mathematical Simulation]. 2007, no. 19, pp. 81–92. (In Russian).
  4. Glazova E.G., Kochetkov A.V., Krylov S.V. Chislennoye modelirovanie vzryvnykh protsessov v merzlom grunte [Numerical Simulation of Explosive Processes in Frozen Soil]. Izvestiya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. Mekhanika tverdogo tela [News of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Solid Mechanics]. 2007, no. 6, pp. 128—136. (In Russian).
  5. Potapov A.P., Royz S.I., Petrov I.B. Modelirovanie volnovykh protsessov metodom sglazhennykh chastits (SPH) [Modeling of Wave Processes Using Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)]. Matematicheskoye modelirovaniye [Mathematical Modeling]. 2009, no. 7. Vol. 21. Pp. 20—28. (In Russian).
  6. Potapov A.P., Petrov I.B. Modelirovanie volnovykh protsessov pri vysokoskorostnykh soudareniyakh metodom sglazhennykh chastits (SPH) [Modeling of Wave Processes in High-Speed Collisions by Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH)]. Vestnik Baltiyskogo federal'nogo universiteta im. I. Kanta [Proceedings of Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University]. 2009, no. 10, pp. 5—20. (In Russian).
  7. Zamyshlyaev B.V., Evterev L.S. Modeli dinamicheskogo deformirovaniya i razrusheniya gruntovykh sred [Models of Soil Dynamic Deformation and Destruction]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1990, 215 p. (In Russian).
  8. Kiselev F., Sheshenin S.V. Modelirovanie kontakta podzemnykh sooruzheniy s uprugovyazkoplasticheskim gruntom [Modeling of Underground Structures Interaction with Elastic Ground]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 1. Matematika i mekhanika [Proceedings of Moscow University. Series 1. Mathematics and Mechanics]. 2006, no. 3, pp. 61—65. (In Russian).
  9. Kondaurov V.I., Nikitin L.V. Teoreticheskie osnovy reologii geomaterialov [Theoretical Foundations of Rheology Theory for Geomaterials]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1990, 207 p. (In Russian).
  10. Rykov G.V., Skobeev A.M. Izmereniye napryazheniy v gruntakh pri kratkovremennykh nagruzkakh [Measurement of Stress in the Soil under Impulse Loadings]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1978, 168 p. (In Russian).
  11. Tukhvatullina A.V., Kantur O.V. Matematicheskie modeli deformirovaniya myagkikh gruntov [Mathematical Models of Soft Soil Deformation]. Sovershenstvovanie metodov rascheta i konstruktsiy podzemnykh sooruzheniy [Advancing Calculation Methods and Structures of Underground Constructions]. Moscow, 26 TSNII MO RF Publ., 2000. (In Russian).
  12. Del?pine N., Lenti L., Bonnet G., Semblat J.-F. Nonlinear Viscoelastic Wave Propagation: an Extension of Nearly Constant Attenuation Models. Jornal of Engineering Mechanics. 2009, vol. 135. Issue 11, pp. 1305—1314. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9399(2009)135:11(1305).
  13. Morochnik V., Bardet J.P. Viscoelastic Approximation of Poroelastic Media for Wave Scattering Problems. Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering. 1996, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 337—346. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0267-7261(96)00002-4.
  14. Keunings R. Progress and Challenges in Computational Rheology. Rheologica Acta. 1990, vol. 29, no. 6, pp. 556—570.
  15. Brandes K. Blast — Resistant Structures. Proceedings of the International Workshop on Blast — Resistant Structures. Tsinghua Univ., Beijing, China, 1992.
  16. Wilkins M.L. Calculation of Elastic-Plastic Flow. Methods of Computational Physics. 1964, Academic Press, New York, vol. 3.
  17. Reshetova G., Tcheverda V., Vishnevsky D. Parallel Simulation of 3D Wave Propagation by Domain Decomposition. Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics. 2013, no. 1, pp. 6—11. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jamp.2013.14002.
  18. ?erveny V., P?en??k I. Plane Waves in Viscoelastic Anisotropic Media—I. Theory. Geophysical. Jornal International. 2005, vol.161, no. 1, pp. 197—212.
  19. Daley P.F., Krebes E.S. SH Wave Propagation in Viscoelastic Media. CREWES Research Report. 2003, vol. 15, pp.1—25.
  20. Radim C., Saenger E.H., Gurevich B. Pore Scale Numerical Modeling of Elastic Wave Dispersion and Attenuation in Periodic Systems of Alternating Solid and Viscous Fluid Layers. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2006, vol. 120 (2), pp. 642—648. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1121/1.2216687.

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Problem of probabilistic calculation of the design on linearly and non-linearly deformable basis with casual parameters

Vestnik MGSU 12/2014
  • Mkrtychev Oleg Vartanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, head, Scientific Laboratory of Reliability and Seismic Resistance of Structures, Professor, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Dzhinchvelashvili Guram Avtandilovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Busalova Marina Sergeevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 106-112

In the article the problem of calculation of a construction basis system in case of earthquake is considered taking into account casual properties of basis soil in various points of the soil body. As a stochastic function in the calculation of linearly deformable basis, the deformation module, which accepts different values in the direction
x,
y,
z, was chosen. In the calculation of the system on non-linearly deformable basis as incidentally distributed sizes the following parameters were accepted: deformation module, shear modulus, specific adhesion, angle of internal friction. The authors of the article offer to consider initial seismic influence in the form of casual stationary process. In order to solve such problems modern software systems are proposed that solve differential equations of motion via direct integration with explicit schemes. The calculation in this case will be held on the synthesized accelerograms. A short review of the task solution of the beam lying on elastic basis, which was received by D.N. Sobolev at casual distribution of pastel coefficient in the direction
x, is provided in article. In order to define the objective, D.N. Sobolev gives expressions for a population mean and correlation function of stochastic function. As a result of the task solution population means and dispersions of function of movements and its derivatives were received. The problem formulation considered in the article is more complicated, but at the same time important from a practical standpoint.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.12.106-112

References
  1. Sheynin V.I., Mikheev V.V., Shashkova I.L. Statisticheskoe opisanie neodnorodnosti gruntovykh osnovaniy pri sluchaynom raspolozhenii sloev [Statistical Description of Heterogeneity of Soil Bases at Casual Arrangement of Layers]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Mechanics]. 1985, no. 1, pp. 23—26. (In Russian)
  2. Sobolev D.N. K raschetu konstruktsiy, lezhashchikh na staticheski neodnorodnom osnovanii [On Calculation of the Designs Lying on Statically Non-uniform Basis]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1965, no. 1, pp. 1—4. (In Russian)
  3. Sobolev D.N. Zadacha o shtampe, vdavlivaemom v statisticheski neodnorodnoe uprugoe osnovanie [Problem of the Stamp Pressed into Statistically Non-uniform Elastic Basis]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1968, no. 2 (56), pp.15—18. (In Russian)
  4. Sobolev D.N., Fayans B.L., Sheynin V.I. K raschetu plity na statisticheski neodnorodnom osnovanii [Calculation of a Plate on Statistically Non-Uniform Basis]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1969, no. 3, pp. 24—26. (In Russian)
  5. Mkrtychev O.V., Dzhinchvelashvili G.A. Modelirovanie seysmicheskogo vozdeystviya v vide sluchaynogo protsessa metodom kanonicheskogo razlozheniya [Modeling of seismic influence in the form of casual process by the method of initial decomposition]. Fundamental’nye nauki v sovremennom stroitel’stve : sbornik dokladov III nauchno-prakticheskoy i uchebno-metodicheskoy konferentsii MGSU, 22.12.2003 goda [Fundamental Sciences in Modern Construction. Collection of the Third Science-Practical, Educational and Methodical Conference of MGSU]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2003, pp. 79—84. (In Russian)
  6. Mondrus V.L. K voprosu ob opredelenii avtokorrelyatsionnoy funktsii v sluchaynom protsesse [A Question of Finding Autocorrelated Function in Casual Process]. Izvestiya Rossiyskoy akademii nauk. Mekhanika tverdogo tela [News of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Mechanics of Solids]. 1993, no. 5, pp. 185—190. (In Russian)
  7. Reshetov A.A. Modelirovanie sluchaynogo seysmicheskogo vozdeystviya metodom formiruyushchego fi l’tra [Modeling of Casual Seismic Infl uence by Shaping Filter Method]. Fundamental’nye nauki v sovremennom stroitel’stve : sbornik trudov VII Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy i uchebno-metodicheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 5-letiyu obrazovaniya IFO MGSU [The Collection of Works the 7th All-Russian Science-Practical, Educational and Methodical Conference Devoted to the 5th Anniversary of IFO MGSU “Fundamental Sciences in Modern Construction”]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2010, pp. 159—162. (In Russian)
  8. Petrov V.V., Krivoshein I.V. Ustoychivost’ form ravnovesiya nelineyno deformiruemykh gibkikh pologikh obolochek [Equilibrium of the Sustainable Forms of Nonlinear Deformable Flexible Shallow Shells]. ACADEMIA. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo [ACADEMIA. Architecture and Construction]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 14—18. (In Russian)
  9. Mamedov E.Z. Sobstvennoe kolebanie neodnorodnoy krugloy plastinki, lezhashchey na vyazko-uprugom osnovani [Characteristic Oscillation of Non-uniform Round Plate Lying on Visco-elastic Basis]. Arkhitektura i stroitel’stvo Rossii [Architecture and Construction of Russia]. 2013, no. 12, pp. 24—29. (In Russian)
  10. Myasnikova E.S. Otsenka nadezhnosti nelineyno i lineyno deformiruemogo osnovaniya [Reliability Estimation of Non-linearly and Linearly Deformable Basis]. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy vestnik Povolzh’ya [Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the Volga Region]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 51—55. (In Russian)
  11. Mkrtychev O.V., Myasnikova E.S. Otsenka nadezhnosti plity na lineyno deformiruemom osnovanii, s peremennym v plane modulem deformatsii [Assessment of Reliability of the Foundation Slab Resting on the Linearly Deformable Bed and Characterized by the Modulus of Deformation Variable in X- and Y-axis Directions]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 29—33. (In Russian)
  12. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Mirnyy A.Yu. Mekhanicheskie svoystva neodnorodnykh gruntov [Mechanical properties of non-uniform soil]. Stroitel’stvo — formirovanie sredy zhiznedeyatel’nosti : sbornik trudov 13 Mezhdunarodnoy mezhvuzovskaoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii molodykh uchenykh, doktorantov i aspirantov [Works of the 13th International Interuniversity Scientific and Practical Conference of Young Scientists, Doctoral and Postgraduate Students “Construction — Formation of Living Environment’’]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, pp. 790—794. (In Russian)
  13. Mkrtychev O.V., Yur’ev R.V. Raschet konstruktsiy na seysmicheskie vozdeystviya s ispol’zovaniem sintezirovannykh akselerogramm [Calculating Seismic Infl uences on the Structures with the Use of Synthesized Accelerograms]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 6, pp. 52—54. (In Russian)
  14. Mkrtychev O.V. Raschet elementov stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy na nadezhnost’ metodom statisticheskikh ispytaniy [Reliability Calculation of the Elements of Construction Designs by the Method of Statistical Tests]. Mezhvuzovskiy sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Interuniversity Collection of Scientific Works]. Moscow, RGOTUPS Publ., 1999, pp. 64—67. (In Russian)
  15. Herrera I., Bielak J. Soil-Structure Interaction as a Diffraction Problem. Proceedings of the 6th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. New Delhi, India, 1977, vol. 2, pp. 1467—1472.
  16. Bielak J., Loukakis K., Hisada Y., Yoshimura C. Domain Reduction Method for Three-Dimensional Earthquake Modeling in Localized Regions, Part I: Theory. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, April 2003, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 817—824. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120010251.
  17. Yoshimura C., Bielak J., Hisada Y. and Fernandez A. Domain Reduction Method for Three-Dimensional Earthquake Modeling in Localized Regions, Part II: Verification and Applications. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. April 2003, no. 93, pp. 825—840. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1785/0120010252.
  18. Basu U. Explicit Finite Element Perfectly Matched Layer For Transient Three-Dimensional Elastic Waves. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. January 2009, vol. 77, no. 2, pp. 151—176. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/nme.2397.
  19. Guo Shu-xiang, Lii Zhen-zhou. Procedure for Computing the Possibility and Fuzzy Probability of Failure of Structures. Applied Mathematics and Mechanics. 2003, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 338—343. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02438271.
  20. Lutes L.D. A Perspective on State-Space Stochastic Analysis. 8th ASCE Specialty Conference on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability. Indiana, July 20—26, 2000, pp. 1—5.

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Mathematical modeling of stress-strain state of the system HPP building - soil base with account for the phased construction of the building

Vestnik MGSU 12/2014
  • Orekhov Vyacheslav Valentinovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, chief research worker, Scientific and Technical Center “Examination, Design, Inspection”, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 113-120

The interaction process of a power plant building with the soil base is studied basing on mathematical modeling of the construction process of Kambarata-2 HPP, taking into account the excavation of foundation pit, the concreting schedule of the building construction, the HPP units putting into operation and territory planning. Mathematical modeling of stress-strain state of the system “power plant - soil base” in the process of construction was performed by using the computer program “Zemlya” (the Earth), which implements the method of finite elements. Such a behavior of soil was described using elastoplastic soil model, the parameters of which were determined from the results of the triaxial tests. As shown by the results of the research, the continuous change of settlement, slope, deflection and torsion of the bottom plate and accordingly change of stressed-strained state of power plant are noted during the construction process. The installed HPP construction schedule, starting from the construction of the first block and the adjacent mounting platform, is leading to the formation of initial roll of bottom plate to the path of the mounting pad. In the process of further construction of powerhouse, up to the 29th phase of construction (out of 40), a steady increase in its subsidence (maximum values of about 4.5 cm) is noted. Filling of foundation pit hollows and territorial planning of the construction area lead to drastic situation. In this case, as a territory planning points exceeded the relief, the plastic deformation in the soil evolves, resulting in significant subsidence of the bottom plate under the first block (up to 7.4 cm). As a result, the additional subsidence of the soil of bottom plate edges lead to the large vertical movement in relation to its central part and it is bent around the X axis, resulting in a large horizontal tensile stress values of Sz (up to 2.17 MPa) in the constructive elements of the upper part of the powerhouse. At the same time, the calculations performed on the assumption of instantaneous power plant construction forecast only a uniform slope of bottom plate in the direction of the headwater and do not allow us to track the process of stress-strain state of the power plant for adequate reinforcement of its elements.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.12.113-120

References
  1. Gol’din A.G., Rasskazov L.N. Proektirovanie gruntovykh plotin [Design of Earth Dams]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1987, 304 p. (In Russian)
  2. Farivar A.R., Mirghasemi A.A., Mahin Roosta R. Back Analysis of Tabarak Abad Dam Behavior During Construction. Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Dams for a Changing World — 80th Annual Meet. and 24th Congr. of ICOLD. Kyoto, Japan, 2012, pp. (4) 13—18.
  3. Zaretskiy Yu.K., Lombardo V.N. Statika i dinamika gruntovykh plotin [Statics and Dynamics of Earth Dams]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1983, 255 p. (In Russian)
  4. Orekhov V.V. Ob”emnaya matematicheskaya model’ i rezul’taty raschetnykh issledovaniy napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya osnovnykh sooruzheniy Rogunskoy GES [Volume Mathematical Model and the Results of Numerical Studies of the Stress-strain State of the Main Structures of the Rogun HPP]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydrotechnical Construction]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 12—19. (In Russian)
  5. Vladimirov V.B., Zaretskiy Yu.K., Orekhov V.V. Matematicheskaya model’ monitoringa kamenno-zemlyanoy plotiny gidrouzla Khoabin’ [Mathematical Monitoring Model for Rock-Earth Dam of the Hoa Binh HPP]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydrotechnical Construction]. 2003, no. 6, pp. 47—52. (In Russian)
  6. Zaretskiy Yu.K., Karabaev M.I., Tveritnev V.P. Matematicheskaya model’ monitoringa sistemy «zdanie GES — gruntovoe osnovanie» [Mathematical Monitoring Model of the System «Power Plant Building — Soil Foundation»]. Yubileynyy sbornik nauchnykh trudov Gidroproekta (1930—2000) [Jubilee Collection of the Scientific Papers of Hydroproject (1930—2000)]. No. 159, Moscow, AO «Institut Gidroproekt» Publ., 2000, pp. 692—703. (In Russian)
  7. Dolgikh A.P., Podvysotskiy A.A. Raschet prochnosti massivnykh zhelezobetonnykh elementov s ispol›zovaniem metoda ekvivalentnykh obolochek [Strength Calculation of Massive Concrete Elements Using the Method of Equivalent Shells]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydrotechnical Construction]. 2010, no. 8, pp. 23—26. (In Russian)
  8. Volynchikov A.N., Mgalobelov Yu.B., Orekhov V.V. O seysmostoykosti osnovnykh sooruzheniy Boguchanskoy GES [On Seismic Resistance of the Main Structures of Boguchanskaya HPP]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydrotechnical Construction]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 22—29. (In Russian)
  9. Ghiasian M., Ahmadi M.T. Effective Model for Dynamic Vertical Joint Opening of Concrete Arch Dam. Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Dams for a Changing World — 80th Annual Meet. and 24th Congr. of ICOLD. Kyoto, Japan, 2012, pp. (4) 41—46.
  10. Mohamad T. Amadi, Tahereh Amadi. Failure Analysis of Concrete Dam under Unexpected Loading. Proc. of the Int. Symp. on Dams for a Changing World — 80th Annual Meet. and 24th Cong. of ICOLD. Kyoto, Japan, 2012, pp. (5) 127—132.
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  12. Dai Huichao, Tain Bin. Design Calculation of "Soft" Gasket in Penstock Intended for Replacement of the Expansion Joint in the Place of Abutment of Dam Power House. Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Dam Engineering. Nanjing, China, A.A. Balkema, 2004, pp. 273—280.
  13. Mei Mingrong, Zhou Zhengdong. Analysis of Local Stress in Gravity Dam Caused by Drilling of Hole. Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Dam Engineering. Nanjing, China, A.A. Balkema, 2004, pp. 611—617.
  14. Mirzabozorg H., Ghaemain M. Nonlinear Seismic Response of Concrete Gravity Dams Using Damage Mechanics Dam-Reservoir Interaction. Proc. of the 4th Int. Conf. on Dam Engineering. Nanjing, China, A.A. Balkema, 2004, pp. 635—642.
  15. Zheng Dongjian, Zhong Lin. Interface Behaviour of Roller Concrete Dam. Proc. Of the 4th Int. Conf. on Dam Engineering. Nanjing, China, A.A. Balkema, 2004, pp. 1111—1117.
  16. Zaretskiy Yu.K., Vorontsov E.I., Garitselov M.Yu. Eksperimental’nye issledovaniya uprugoplasticheskogo povedeniya gruntov [Experimental Studies of Elastic-plastic Behavior of Soils]. Proektirovanie i issledovanie gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy : trudy vsesoyuznogo soveshchaniya [Proceedings of the All-Union Conference “Design and Study of Hydraulic Structures”]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1980, pp. 189—192. (In Russian)
  17. Zaretskiy Yu.K., Chumichev B.D., Vorob’ev V.N. Deformiruemost’ krupnooblomochnogo grunta [Deformability of Coarse Soil]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Gidroproekta [Collection of the Scientific Papers of Hydroproject]. Moscow, 1993, no. 154, pp. 10—15. (In Russian)
  18. Zaretskiy Yu.K., Chumichev B.D., Shcherbina V.I. Prochnost’ i deformiruemost’ gornoy massy pri izmenenii vlazhnosti i usloviy nagruzheniya [Strength and Deformability of Rock Mass with Changes in Humidity and Loading Conditions]. Sbornik Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Gidroproekta [Collection of the Scientific Papers of Hydroproject]. Moscow, 1993, no. 154, pp. 16—22. (In Russian)
  19. Orekhov V.V. Kompleks vychislitel’nykh programm «Zemlya–89» [Computing Programs Complex “Earth-89”]. Issledovaniya i razrabotki po komp’yuternomu proektirovaniyu fundamentov i osnovaniy : mezhvuzovskiy sbornik [Interuniversity Collection “Research and Development in Computer-aided Design of Foundations and Bases”]. Novocherkassk, 1990, pp. 14—20. (In Russian)
  20. Zaretskiy Yu.K. Vyazkoplastichnost’ gruntov i raschety sooruzheniy [Visco-Plasticity of Soils and Calculation of Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1988, 350 p. (In Russian)

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Geological background of the estimation of natural stresses in soil body

Vestnik MGSU 1/2015
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 44-53

Initial and boundary conditions are always given for solving the problem of calculating the interaction of tunnels and other underground structures with soil and rocks. The same conditions are set for calculating the surface buildings. These initial data for calculation are divided into three groups: 1) the geometrical shape of the layers of rocks (geological structure); 2) the parameters of the strength and compressibility of rocks; 3) compressive stresses in the array. These data all over the world are set with engineering surveys. In engineering surveys there are good methods of determining the source of the data 1 and 2. But there is no available methodology for determining the natural stress state. Therefore, compressive and tensile stresses are usually determined by mathematical modeling. The calculation of the compressive stresses is done on the basis of the following hypotheses: compressive stresses are created by the weight of rocks; they go down in proportion to the density of rocks; the main normal stress is has a vertical direction; normal stress in horizontal direction is smaller. The value of the horizontal stress is was calculated using Poisson’s ratio. This hypothesis of the nineteenth century was used another 50 years ago, when it was not known exactly about the movement of the continents and when compressive stresses in the earth’s crust have not yet been measured. Today a universal application of this hypothesis is not correct. Now the application of this hypothesis in many cases is not correct. In this research paper an attempt is made to specify the area, in which the above hypothesis can be used. This is done on the basis of current scientific evidence. Abroad this way of calculating tunnels and other underground structures and bases of buildings should be done taking into account the real field of natural stresses. The geological characteristics of the location of the axes of stresses in soil body are based on the study of fractures. Also the article shows the influence of the surface topography of the territory on stress in soil. In order to draw conclusions the author uses his observations of the construction in Siberia and Mongolia, as well as publications of other scientists. The author notes that in engineering surveys for construction of tunnels, high-rise dams, high rise buildings there is no good method of determining the natural stresses in rocks and soils, which is equal in accuracy to the methods of construction of geological sections and methods for determining the estimated characteristics of the soil. This gap needs to be filled. The possible direction of work is: to combine the methods of direct measurements of compressive stresses with indirect geophysical methods and computer modeling.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.1.44-53

References
  1. Suppe J. Fluid Overpressures and Strength of the Sedimentary Upper Crust. Journal of Structural Geology. December 2014, vol. 69, part B, pp. 481—492. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsg.2014.07.009.
  2. Nesterenko G.T., Barkovskiy V.M. O vozmozhnosti otsenki napryazhennogo sostoyaniya zemnoy kory po naturnym izmereniyam napryazheniy v shakhtakh i rudnikakh [On the Possibility of Estimating the Stress State of the Crust in Situ Measurements of Stress in Mines]. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory : sbornik trudov [Stress State of the Earth Crust : Collection of Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 12—20. (In Russian)
  3. Kutepov V.M. Zakonomernosti v raspredelenii estestvennykh napryazheniy v massivakh skal’nykh treshchinovatykh porod sklonov rechnykh dolin [Regularities in the Distribution of Natural Stresses in the Hard Fractured Rocks of the Slopes of River Valleys]. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory : sbornik trudov [Stress State of the Earth Crust : Collection of Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 135—147. (In Russian)
  4. Kropotkin P.N. Tektonicheskie napryazheniya v zemnoy kore po dannym neposredstvennykh izmereniy [Tectonic Stresses in the Earth’s Crust According to Direct Measurements]. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie zemnoy kory : sbornik trudov [Stress State of the Earth Crust : Collection of Works]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1973, pp. 21—31. (In Russian)
  5. Pashkin E.M., Kagan A.A., Krivonogova N.F. Terminologicheskiy slovar’-spravochnik po inzhenernoy geologii [Terminological Dictionary on Engineering Geology]. Moscow, KDU Publ., 2011, 950 p. (In Russian)
  6. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Akhpatelov D.M. Napryazhennoe sostoyanie gornykh massivov v pole gravitatsii [Stress State of Mountain Ranges in the Field of Gravity]. DAN SSSR [Proceedings of the USSR Academy of Sciences]. 1975, vol. 220, no. 2, pp. 1675—1679. (In Russian)
  7. Kalinin E.V., Panas’yan L.L., Shirokov V.N., Artamonova N.B. Modelirovanie poley napryazheniy v inzhenerno-geologicheskikh massivakh [Modeling Stress Fields in Engineering Geological Bodies]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 2003, 261 p. (In Russian)
  8. Wan Guillong. Modeling Field Tectonic Stresses the East Wing Tectonic Belt Badahan in Northern China Tektonic Era. Dixue gionyuan = Earth Sci. Front. 2012, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 194—199. Chinese. CV Eng.
  9. Xia C., Gui Y., Wang W., Du S. Numerical Method for Estimating Void Spaces of Rock Joints and the Evolution of Void Spaces under Different Contact States. Journal of Geophysics and Engineering. December 2014, vol. 11, no. 6, article number 065004. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1742-2132/11/6/065004.
  10. Osipov V.I., Medvedev O.P., editors. Moskva. Geologiya i gorod [Geology and a City]. Moscow, Moskovskie uchebniki i kartolitografiya Publ., 1997, 400 p. (In Russian)
  11. Chernyshev S.N. Treshchiny gornykh porod [Rock Fractures]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1983, 240 p. (In Russian)
  12. Chernyshev S.N., Dearman W.R. Rock Fractures. Butterworth-Heinemann, London, UK, 1991, 272 p.
  13. Haines S., Marone C., Saffer D. Frictional Properties of Low-Angle Normal Fault Gouges and Implications for Low-Angle Normal Fault Slip. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. December 2014, vol. 408, pp. 57—65. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.epsl.2014.09.034.
  14. Konyarova L.P. Opyt obobshcheniya massovykh opredeleniy pokazateley vodopronitsaemosti treshchinovatykh skal’nykh porod [Statistical Summary of Mass Estimations of the Permeability of Fractured Rocks]. Inzhenerno-geologicheskie svoystva gornykh porod i metody ikh izucheniya : sbornik trudov [Engineering and Geological Properties of Rocks and Methods of Their Research : Collection of Works]. Moscow, AN SSSR Publ., 1962. (In Russian)
  15. Beloyy L.D., editor. Otsenka tochnosti opredeleniya vodopronitsaemosti gornykh porod [Estimating Determination Accuracy of Rock Permeability]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1971, 150 p. (In Russian)

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CASESTUDY OF STABILIZATION OF STRUCTURAL-UNSTABLE SOILSUSING GROUTING

Vestnik MGSU 8/2013
  • Golovanov Aleksandr Mikhailovich - Rostov Research and Development Institute for Industrial Engineering Candidate of Technical Sciences, Honoured Inventor of the Russian Soviet Federal Socialist Republic, Director, Department of Foundation Soils and Foundations, Rostov Research and Development Institute for Industrial Engineering, 2/2 pr. Voroshilovskiy, Rostov-on-Don, 344006, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Pashkov Valeriy Ivanovich - Geotekhnika Group of Companies Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director, Geotekhnika Group of Companies, Building 55, 51/a Vostochnaya st., 344022, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Revo Galina Algirdasovna - Geotekhnika Group of Companies Executive Director, Geotekhnika Group of Companies, Building 55, 51/a Vostochnaya st., 344022, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Pashkov Deputy Director - Geotekhnika Group of Companies , Geotekhnika Group of Companies, Building 55, 51/a Vostochnaya st., 344022, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Nerchinskiy Oleg Vladimirovich - Geotekhnika Group of Companies Leading Engineer, Geotekhnika Group of Companies, Building 55, 51/a Vostochnaya st., 344022, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Turenko Chief Engineer - Geotekhnika Group of Companies , Geotekhnika Group of Companies, Building 55, 51/a Vostochnaya st., 344022, Rostov-on-Don, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 59-67

More than 20 years ago, Rostov-based Promstroyniiproekt Institute (Research and Development Institute for Industrial Engineering), backed by Geotechnika group of companies and other organizations, commenced using cement grouting to stabilize soil as part of foundation soils of buildings. It has turned out that consolidation of water saturated by clay accelerates grouting and assures higher strength than the silicification method. The article describes a new method of grouting and a case study of grouting stabilization of the foundation soil of a five-storey residential house, made by subsiding soils and subjacent fluid-plastic clay loams.The work was complicated by the fact that clay was displaced by the cement-sand mortar injected at the pressure insufficient for formation of discontinuous cavities. In these circumstances, the team of researchers developed and implemented an integrated solution to avoid clay clustering under the influence of the injected grout.The authors consider problems arising in the course of operation of buildings in the above geotechnical environment and describe the sequence of grouting operations. The article includes the work performance pattern and patterns of building control.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.8.59-67

References
  1. Balkema A.A., Grouting and Deep Mixing. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Ground Improvement Geosystems (Tokyo). Rotterdam, 1996, 795 p.
  2. Mitchell J.K., Katti R.K. Soil Improvement – State-of-the-Art (Preliminary). Proceedings of the 10th Conf. on Soil Mech. and Found. Stockholm, Engng, 1981, vol. 4, pp. 261—317.
  3. Wintercorn H.F., Pamukcu S., Fang H.-Y., editor. Soil Stabilization and Grouting. Foundation Engineering Handbook. Van Nostrend Reindhold, 1991, p. 317—378.
  4. Askalonov V. V Silikatizatsiya lessovykh gruntov [Silicification of Loessial Soils]. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1959.
  5. Golovanov A.M., Pashkov V.I., Revo G.A. Opyt zakrepleniya prosadochnykh i nasypnykh gruntov osnovaniy fundamentov zdaniy i sooruzheniy tsementatsiey [Case Study of Soil Silicification of Subsiding and Filled Foundation Soils of Buildings and Structures Using Grouting]. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Collection of Research Works]. Rostov-on-Don, OAO Institut “Rostovskiy PromStroyNiiProekt” Publ., 2004., pp. 68—71.
  6. Rzhanitsin B.A. Nekotorye itogi rabot v oblasti khimicheskogo zakrepleniya gruntov [Particular Findings of Works in the Field of Chemical Stabilization of Soils]. Zakreplenie i uplotnenie gruntov v stroitel'stve [Stabilization and Compaction of Soils in the Construction Industry]. Materialy VIII vsesoyuznogo soveshchaniya [Materials of the 8th All-Union Conference]. Kiev, 1974, pp. 109—111.
  7. Sokolovich V.E., Chalikova E.S., Veber I.B. Povyshenie effektivnosti silikatizatsii lessovykh gruntov [Improvement of Efficiency of Silicification of Loessial Soils]. Materialy V soveshchaniya po zakrepleniyu i uplotneniyu gruntov [Materials of the 5th Conference on Soil Stabilization and Compaction]. Novosibirsk, 1966, pp. 330—333.
  8. Sergeev V.I., Shimko T.G., Kuleshova M.L. Stepanova N.U. Razvitie in"ektsionnogo zakrepleniya kak odnogo iz osnovnykh metodov tekhnicheskoy melioratsii gruntov [Development of Injection Grouting as a Main Method of Engineering Amelioration of Soils]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 6—13.
  9. Golovanov A.M., Pashkov V.I., Sergeyev V.I. Sposob zakrepleniya grunta: patent na izobretenie ¹ 2103441 [Method of Soil Stabilization. Patent for Invention no. 2103441]. Application filed: June 07, 1998; published on January 27, 1998. Byulleten' izobreteniy i otkrytiy [Bulletin of Inventions and Discoveries]. 1998, no. 3.
  10. Isaev B.N., Badeev S.Yu., Tsapkova N.N. Sposob podgotovki osnovaniya: patent na izobretenie ¹ 2122068 [Method of Preparation of Foundation Soil. Patent for Invention no. 2122068]. Application filed: June 28, 1995; published on November 20, 1998. Byulleten' izobreteniy i otkrytiy [Bulletin of Inventions and Discoveries]. 1998, no. 32.

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CONSTRUCTION OF MOORINGS ON LOOSE SOILS HAVING ARTIFICIALLYIMPROVED PHYSICAL-MECHANICAL CHARACTERISTICS

Vestnik MGSU 8/2013
  • Korchagin Evgeniy Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor, Department of Hydraulic Engineering Works and Underground Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sakhnenko Margarita Aleksandrovna - Moscow State Academy of Water Transport (MGAVT) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Moscow State Academy of Water Transport (MGAVT), Building 1, 2 Novodanilovskaya nab., Moscow, 117105, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Stepanyan Georgiy Arutyunovich - Moscow State Academy of Water Transport (MGAVT) postgraduate student, Department of Waterways and Moorings, Moscow State Academy of Water Transport (MGAVT), Building 1, 2 Novodanilovskaya nab., Moscow, 117105, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 68-77

This paper covers the technology of stabilization of loose soils through the employment of silt-cement piles, or the so-called deep soil stabilization technology. It is applicable to various types of loose soils, including clay, sapropel, silt and peat. However, geotechnical and chemical properties of soils surely affect the stabilization efficiency and the choice for the stabilization material.The authors provide a brief overview of the soil stabilization technology employing silt-cement piles and based on the principle of dry mixing of water-saturated natural soil with cement. Thus, dry powder enters into the chemical reaction with the stream of water to reduce the content of water in the soil. The research into the bearing capacity of siltcement piles and the stabilized territory of moorings was performed in the Temryuk port.The co-objective of the research was to identify the operating conditions of cargo moorings in the Temryuk port constructed on loose soils. All conclusions were based on the field data, seismometric and laboratory tests. The analysis of and research into the operating conditions of moorings demonstrate the efficiency of the long-term operation of berthing facilities constructed on the soils stabilized by silt-cement piles. This methodology can be used to stabilize port territories, road beds of railways and highways constructed on loose soils.The authors also elaborate on the potential upgrade of categories of cargo moorings constructed on loose soils and stabilized by silt-cement piles. Calculation results and researches demonstrate that it is quite difficult to significantly upgrade loading categories in respect of open warehouse spaces, as silt-cement piles of the pre-set diameter cannot provide for the bearing capacity corresponding to the first category loading. The solution may consist in the change of the stabilization design with account for the thixotropic properties of clay soils. Structural solutions may consist in the selection of the pile foot designs that may stabilize loose clay soils, on the one hand, and meet the loading requirements, on the other hand.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.8.68-77

References
  1. Korchagin E.A. Ispol'zovanie mestnykh usloviy pri stroitel'stve portovykh sooruzheniy na slabykh gruntakh [Taking Advantage of the Local Environment in the Process of Construction of Moorings on Loose Soils]. Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [Works of Science and Practical Conference]. Moscow, MGAVT Publ., Al'tair Publ., 2010, pp. 26—28.
  2. Soil Classification System and Method of the Result of Classification. Journal of Japanese Society of Soil Mechanics and Foundation. 1973, vol. 21, no. 5, pp. 21—25.
  3. Marchenko A.S. Morskie portovye sooruzheniya na slabykh gruntakh [Sea Moorings on Loose Soils]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1976, 312 p.
  4. EuroSoilStab. CT 97-0351 Project No.: BE 96-3177. Design Guide Soft Soil Stabilization. Development of Design and Construction Methods to Stabilize Soft Organic Soils. London, Ministry of public works and water management, 2000, 94 p.
  5. Korchagin E.A. Opyt proektirovaniya, stroitel'stva i ekspluatatsii prichala v slozhnykh usloviyakh [Experience of Design, Construction and Operation of Mooring in the Severe Environment]. Moscow, Rechnoy transport XXI vek [River transport in the 21st century]. 2008, no. 1, pp. 63—64.
  6. Lunne T., Robertson P.K., Powell J.J.M. CPT in Technical Works. London, Blekis, 1997, 110 p.
  7. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy otchet “Razrabotka metodiki opredeleniya seysmicheskogo davleniya grunta na gruzovoy prichal v portu Temryuk” [Scientific and Technical Report on Development of Methodology for Identification of Seismic Pressure of Soil on the Cargo Mooring in the Temryuk Port]. Moscow, Tovarishchestvo Kafedry Mosty MIITA Publ., 1995, 180 p.
  8. Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy otchet po rabote «Issledovanie struktury ilotsementnykh svay na gruzovom prichale Kubanskogo Rechnogo Parokhodstva v p. Temryuk [Scientific and Technical Report on Research into the Structure of Silt-cement Piles in the Cargo Mooring, Kuban River Shipping Company, Temryuk]. Moscow, Assotsiatsiya MOL-INK Publ., Inzhmol Publ., 1996, 86 p.
  9. Stepanyan G.A. Issledovanie setki ilotsementnykh svay dlya prichalov 1 i 2 kategorii [Research into the Network of Silt-cement Piles for 1st and 2nd Category Moorings]. Materialy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii MGAVT [Works of MGAVT Science and Practical Conference]. Moscow, MGAVT Publ., 2012, pp. 17—19.
  10. Kostyukov V.D., Stepanyan G.A. K voprosu o povyshenii nesushchey sposobnosti territorii prichalov na slabykh osnovaniyakh [On the Issue of Improvement of the Bearing Capacity of the Territory of Moorings on Loose Soils]. Rechnoy transport XXI vek [River transport in the 21st century]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 70—72.

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ANALYSIS OF BEHAVIOR OF POLYMER SCREENS OF HIGH EARTHFILL COFFERDAMSON THE BASIS OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE CALCULATIONS

Vestnik MGSU 8/2013
  • Sainov Mikhail Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khokhlov Sergey Viktorovich - TempStroySistema Head of Dam and Bridges Department, TempStroySistema, 5 Universitetskiy prospect, Moscow, 119296, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 78-88

The article deals with the results of the numerical analysis of the stress-strain state of a 50 m high earthfill cofferdam. A geocomposite membrane (geo-membrane and geotextile layers) in its upper part (20 m) serves as a seepage control element. The grout curtain is installed in the lower part of the cofferdam and in the foundation. The cofferdam design implements the idea of using riprap to reduce the weight of the geocomposite membrane.The analysis proves that the high weight of the membrane considerably worsens the stress state of both the membrane and the whole dam. First of all, the load causes additional deflection of the membrane and consequently increases tensile stresses inside it. Second, due to the low value of the friction coefficient (approximately 0.3 0.4) in the point of contact between the geocomposite membrane and soil the dam upstream shell may slide down along the geocomposite membrane. Additional dam displacements may cause considerable tensile forces in the geomembrane. Their maximum values are comparable to the strength of the polymer material used for the manufacturing of the membrane. Any rupture of the membrane and geotextile layers may be expected. The analysis proves that it is necessary to get compensators in the polymer membrane allowing for the extension of the membrane absent of any tensile forces.The analysis proves that the geocomposite membrane does not affect the stressstrain state of the earth fill due to its small thickness. Non-linear effects of “earth – geomembrane” contacts are to be taken into account, because tensile forces appear inside geo-membranes due to the presence of friction forces.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.8.78-88

References
  1. Popchenko S.N., Glebov V.D., Igonin Kh.A. Opyt primeneniya polimernykh materialov v gidrotekhnicheskom stroitel'stve [Experience of Application of Polymeric Materials in Hydraulic Engineering]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic Engineering Construction]. 1973, no. 12, pp. 9—13.
  2. Radchenko V.P., Semenkov V.M. Geomembrany v plotinakh iz gruntovykh materialov [Geomembranes in Dams Made of Soil Materials]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic Engineering Construction]. 1993, no. 10.
  3. Brusse A.G., Glebov V.D., Detkov B.V. Polietilenovyy ekran peremychki Ust'-Khantayskoy GES [Polyethylene Screen of the Cofferdam of Ust-Khantaiskaya HPP]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic Engineering Construction]. 1971, no. 11, pp. 4—5.
  4. Gol'din A.L., Rasskazov L.N. Proektirovanie gruntovykh plotin [Design of Earthfill Dams]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2001, 384 p.
  5. Zinevich N.I., Lysenko V.P., Nikitenkov A.F. Tsentral'naya plenochnaya diafragma plotiny Atbashinskoy GES [Central Membrane Diaphragm of the Dam of Atbashi HPP]. Energeticheskoe stroitel'stvo [Construction of Power Generation Facilities]. 1974, no. 3, pp. 59—62.
  6. Glebov V.D., Lysenko V.P. Konstruirovanie plenochnykh protivofil'tratsionnykh elementov v plotinakh i peremychkakh [Design of Membrane Waterstop Elements of Dams and Cofferdams] Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic Engineering Construction]. 1973, no. 5, pp. 33—35.
  7. Ayrapetyan R.A. Proektirovanie kamenno-zemlyanykh i kamennonabrosnykh plotin [Design of Masonry-earthfill and Masonry-riprap Dams]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1975.
  8. Rekomendatsii po proektirovaniyu i stroitel'stvu protivofil'tratsionnykh ustroystv iz polimernykh rulonnykh materialov [Guidelines for Design and Construction of Waterstop Devices Made of Polymeric Roll Materials]. St.Petersburg, OAO VNIIG im. B.E.Vedeneeva Publ., SPb. NII AKKh im. K.D. Pamfilova Publ., 2001.
  9. SN 551—82. Instruktsiya po proektirovaniyu i stroitel'stvu protivofil'tratsionnykh ustroystv iz polietilenovoy plenki dlya iskusstvennykh vodoemov [Construction Rule 551—82. Guidelines for Design and Construction of Waterstop Devices Made of the Polyethylene Film for Artificial Reservoirs]. OOO Gidrokor Publ., 2001.
  10. Scuero A.M., Vaschetti G.L. Repair of CFRDs with Synthetic Geomembranes in Extremely Cold Climates. Proceedings, Hydro 2005 – Policy into Practice. Villach, 2005.
  11. Sembenelli P., Rodriquez E.A. Geomembranes for Earth and Earth-Rock Dams: State-of-the-Art Report. Proc. Geosynthetics Applications, Design and Construction. M. B. de Groot et al., Eds. A. A. Balkema, 1996, pp. 877—888.
  12. Korchevskiy V.F., Obopol' A.Yu. O proektirovanii i stroitel'stve Kambaratinskikh gidroelektrostantsiy na r. Naryne v Kirgizskoy Respublike [On Design and Construction of Kambarata Hydraulic Power Plants on the Narin River in the Kyrgyz Republic]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic Engineering Construction]. 2012, no. 2, pp. 2—12.
  13. Pietrangeli G., Pietrangeli A., Scuero A., Vaschetti G., Wilkes J. Gibe III: Zigzag Geomembrane Core for Rockfill Cofferdam in Ethiopia. 31st Annual USSD Conference. San Diego, California, April 11-15, 2011, pp. 985—994.

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Principles of classification of soilmasses for construction purposes

Vestnik MGSU 9/2013
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 41-46

The author proposes original grounds for the classification of the full range of soil masses as a supplement to the classification of soils provided in GOST 25100—2011. The author proposes four classes of soil masses, each class having several types and sub-types of soils. The classification will improve the accuracy of engineering and geological surveys and computer models of the geological environment developed for the purpose of design of buildings and structures. The author offers a classification of soils to identify the geological environment comprising one or more types of soil which are genetically and structurally distinct. Any soil mass type differs by its origin, and, as a consequence, its internal geological structure, stress-strain state and inherent geological processes. Any genetically isolated type of soils a specific program of research, both in terms of methods and in terms of density testing in the point of sampling. The behavior of rock masses together with the engineering structure is pre-determined by the properties of the rock, its relative position (geological structure), a network of cracks and other weakening factors, and the natural state of stress. The fracture network is of paramount importance. Cracks are characterized by direction, length, width, surface roughness of walls, and a distance between parallel cracks.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.9.41-46

References
  1. Pashkin E.M., Kagan A.A., Krivonogova N.F.; Pashkina E.M., editor. Terminologicheskiy spravochnik po inzhenernoy geologii [Reference Book of Terms of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, KDU Publ., 2011, 952 p.
  2. Panyukov P.N. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Gosgortekhizdat Publ., 1962.
  3. Bondarik G.K. Teoriya geologicheskogo polya [Geological Field Theory]. Moscow, MIMS Publ., 2002, 129 p.
  4. Belyi L.D. Obshie principial'nye polozheniya [General Principal Provisions]. In the book: Geologiya i plotiny [Geology and Dams]. Moscow — Leningrad, Gosenergoizdat Publ., 1959, pp. 9—19.
  5. Muller L. Der Felsbau. Ferdinand Enke Verlag. Stuttgart, 1963, 453 p.
  6. Bauduin C.M. Determination of Characteristic Values. In: U. Smoltczyk, editor, Geotechnical Engineering Handbook. Berlin, Ernst Publ., 2002, vol. I, pp. 17—50.
  7. Frank R., Kovarik J.B. Comparasion des niveaux de modele pour la resistance ultime des pieux sous charges axiales. Revue Francaise de Geotechnique. 2005, 110, pp. 12—25.
  8. Belyi L.D. Osnovy teorii inzhenerno-geologicheskogo kartirovaniya [Fundamentals of the Theory of Engineering Geological Mapping]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1964.

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Expantion of a spherical cavity in the plastic soil ground

Vestnik MGSU 10/2013
  • Vasenkova Ekaterina Victorovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) assistant lecturer, Department of Higher Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zuev Vladimir Vasil’evich - Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Informatics (МSUIEI) Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Applied Mathematics and Informatics, Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Informatics (МSUIEI), 20 Stromynka, Moscow, 107996, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 85-93

The problem of expansion of a spherical cavity is solved using models of the plasticity theory, proposed by Grigoryan S.S., Zuev V.V. and Ioselevich V.A. The theory allows us to take account of a number of significant features of the soil deformation behavior. It is shown that the solution can be reduced to the solution of the Cauchy problem for the system of three differential equations. Specific calculations were made for the loamy ground at different depths of the spherical cavity. Distribution of displacements and stresses in the soil mass as well as loading trajectories were obtained. It was found out how fully the suggested model reflects the real work of the soil in mass by comparing specific engineering solutions based on the theory, experimental and observation findings. For the same purpose, simpler problems are solved, those that axxept a solution in the presence of different hypotheses about the relation between stresses and deformations. The analysis of these solutions allow us to detect differences between commonly used schematizations and the pattern proposed by the current model.The tasks under concern are of practical use in the construction industry.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.10.85-93

References
  1. Grigoryan S.S., Zuev V.V., Ioselevich V.A. O zakonomernostyakh plasticheskogo uprochneniya gruntov [On the Issue of Regularities of Plastic Hardening of Soils]Trudy IV Vsesoyuz. s"ezda po teoreticheskoy i prikladnoy mekhanike [Works of the 4th All-union Congress on theoretical and applied mechanics]. Kiev, 1976, pp. 89—90.
  2. Zuev V.V., Shmeleva A.G., Osesimmetrichnoe udarnoe nagruzhenie uprugo-plasticheskoy sredy s razuprochneniem i peremennymi uprugimi svoystvami [Axisymmetric impact Loading of the elastoplastic medium having softening and variable elastic properties]. Vestnik SamGU. Estestvennonauchnaya seriya [Proceedings of Samara State University. Natural Science Series]. 2007, no. 2 (52), pp. 100—106.
  3. Zuev V.V., Shmeleva A.G. Modelirovanie povedeniya sloistykh zashchitnykh pregrad [Simulation of Behaviour of Laminar Proteective Barriers] Promyshlennye ASU i kontrollery. Matematicheskoe obespechenie ASU [Industrial Automated Control Systems and Controllers. Mathematical Support of Automated Control Systems]. 2009,. no. 12, pp. 28—30.
  4. Zuev V.V., Shmeleva A.G. Nekotorye aktual'nye zadachi dinamicheskogo nagruzheniya uprugo-plasticheskikh sred s uslozhnennymi svoystvami [Some Relevant Objectives of Dynamic Loading of Elastoplastic Media Having Complicated Properties]. Vestnik Nizhegorodskogo universiteta imeni N.I. Lobachevskogo [Proceedings of N.I. Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 2189—2191.
  5. Shmeleva A.G. Udarnoe nagruzhenie plasticheskikh sred [Impact Loading of plastic media]. LAP Lambert Academic Publishing. 2012, 128 p.
  6. Ter-Martirosyan A.Z. Ostatochnye deformatsii i napryazheniya v gruntovoy srede pri deystvii tsiklicheskoy nagruzki [Residual Deformations and Stresses in the Soil Ground Exposed to Cyclic Loading]. Stroitel'stvo — formirovanie sredy zhiz-nedeyatel'nosti : Sbornik nauchnykh trudov XXIII mezhdunarodnoy mezhvuzovskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii molodykh uchenykh, doktorantov i aspirantov [Construction — Formation of Life Environment. Research Works of the 23th Interuniversity Science and Practice Conference of Young Researchers, Doctoral Students and Postgraduates]. 14—21.04.2010, Moscow, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 2010, pp. 815—819.
  7. Burlakov V.N., Ter-Martirosyan A.Z. Dilatansiya, vliyanie na deformiruemost' [Dilatancy, Influence on Deformability]. Sb. tr. yubileynoy konf., posvyashchennoy 80-letiyu kafedry mekhaniki gruntov, 110-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya N.A. Tsytovicha, 100-letiyu so dnya rozhdeniya S.S. Vyalova, Moskva, Rossiya [Works of the Anniversary Conference dedicated to 80th birthday of Department of soil engineering, 110th anniversary of Tsytovich N.A., Moscow, Russia]. Moscow, 2010, pp. 105—112.
  8. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Said Ala Mukhammed Abdul Malek, Ainbetov I.K., Ter-Martirosyan A.Z. Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyanie dvukhsloynogo osnovaniya s preobrazovannym verkhnim sloem [Stress and Strain State of the Double Layer Base with Modified Upper Layer]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 81—95.
  9. Mata M., Casals O., Alcal J. The Plastic Zone Size in Indentation Experiments: the Analogy with the Expansion of a Spherical Cavity. International Journal of Solids and Structures. 2006, vol. 43, no. 20, pp. 5994—6013.
  10. Khodakov S. Physicochemical Mechanics of Grinding of Solids. Shuili Xuebao /Journal of Hydraulic Engineering. 1998, no 9, pp. 631—643.
  11. Dem?mes D., Dechesne C.J., Venteo S., Gaven F., Raymond J. Development of the Rat Efferent Vestibular System on the Ground and in Microgravity. Developmental Brain Research. 2001, vol. 128, no. 1, pp. 35—44.
  12. Feldgun V.R., Karinski Y.S., Yankelevsky D.Z., Kochetkov A.V. Internal blast loading in a buried lined tunnel. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2008, vol. 35. ¹ 3. Pp. 172—183.
  13. Feldgun V.R., Karinski Y.S., Yankelevsky D.Z., Kochetkov A.V. Blast Response of a Lined Cavity in a Porous Saturated Soil. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2008, vol. 35, no. 9, pp. 953—966.
  14. Aptukov V.N. Expansion of a Spherical Cavity in a Compressible Elastoplastic Medium. Report 1. Effect on Mechanical Characteristics, Free Surface, and Lamination. Strength of Materials. 1992, vol. 23, no. 12, pp. 1262—1268.
  15. Anand L., Gu C. Granular Materials: Constitutive Equations and Strain Localization. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2000, vol. 48, no. 8, pp. 1701—1733.
  16. Zou J.-F., Li L., Zhang J.-H., Peng J.-G., Wu Y.-Z. Unified Elastic Plastic Solution for Cylindrical Cavity Expansion Considering Large Strain and Drainage Condition. Gong Cheng Li Xue/Engineering Mechanics. 2010, vol. 27, no. 6, pp. 1—7.

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Approach to the classification of dispersed soil masses for construction

Vestnik MGSU 10/2013
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 94-101

For the first time classifications of soil in the base of buildings and structures were offered in the soil classification given in All Union State standard "Soil" 25100—2011. The soil masses can consist only of dispersed soil or of rocks and dispersed soil. In the second case strong rocks alternate with the precipitates which haven't received natural hardening. Classification tables are provided for the masses consisting entirely of soil, and also for soil masses of rocks and dispersed soil. For the second class the abbreviated name "SKADI" is offered. For the class of dispersed soil masses the classification by the principle of their origin is used: sedimentary, vulkanogenic-sedimentary, eluvial (aeration products), technogenic. For the class "SKADI", in which soil and rocks come together, the classification is: magmatic, metamorphic, sedimentary, vulkanogen-sedimentary, eluvial and technogenic. Subtypes are also classified by origin. For example, in the sedimentary soil type, the subtypes are: sea origin and continental origin. In the class "SKADI" in sedimentary type we distinguish: sea locally strengthened by nature, continental locally strengthened by nature, sea locally destroyed by aeration to the state of soil, continental locally destroyed by aeration to the state of soil, and mass of rocks with crushing zones. The reasons for the offered classifications are given and discussed. The offered classifications are intended for planning engineering-geological researches for construction. The reason is that the quantity of boreholes, types and number of tests of soil and rocks depend on soil class, type and subtype. The classifications can be useful in case of choosing the method for soil masses simulation to calculate the bases and to preliminary estimate the level of the base model complexity.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.10.94-101

References
  1. Bondarik G.K Teoriya geologicheskogo polya (filosofskie i metodologicheskie osnovy geologii) [The Theory of Geological Field (Philosophical and Methodological Basis of the Geology)]. Moscow, VIMS Publ., 2002, 129 p.
  2. Rats M.V. Neodnorodnost' gornykh porod i ikh fizicheskikh svoystv [The Heterogeneity of Rocks and their Physical Properties]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1967, 86 p.
  3. Chernyshev S.N. Fil'tratsionnaya neodnorodnost' massivov gornykh porod [The Filtration Heterogeneity of Rock Massifs]. In: Il'in N.I., Dzktser E.S., Zil'berg V.S., Chernyshev S.N. Otsenka tochnosti opredeleniya vodopronitsaemosti gornykh porod [Estimation of the Accuracy of Rock Permeability Determination]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1971, pp. 91—114.
  4. Rats M.V., Chernyshev S.N. Statistical Aspect of the Problem on the Permeability of the Jointy Rocks. Hydrology of Fractured Rocks. Pros. Intern. Assoc. Hydrol. Sympos. Dubrovnik. Paris, AIH – UNESCO Publ., 1967, pp. 114—119.
  5. All Union State standard of the Russian Federation GOST 25100—2011. Grunty. Klassifikatsiya. Mezhgosudarstvennyy standart [Soils. Classification. Interstate standard]. Moscow, 2013, 60 p.
  6. Chernyshev S.N. Printsipy klassifikatsii gruntovykh massivov [Principles of Classification of Soil Masses for Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 9, pp. 41—46.
  7. Afonin A.P., Dudler I.V., Ziangirov R.S., Lychko Yu.M., Ogorodnikov E.N., Spiridonov D.V., Drozdov D.S. Klassifikatsiya tekhnogennykh gruntov [Technogenic Soil Classification]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 1990, no. 1, pp. 115—121.
  8. Ogorodnikova E.N., Nikolaeva S.K., Nagornaya M.A. Inzhenerno-geologicheskie osobennosti namyvnykh tekhnogennykh gruntov [Engineering-Geological Features of Man-made Alluvial Grounds]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2013, no.1, pp. 16—26.

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Experience of classifying soil masses in permafrost zone within the general classification of soil masses for civil engineering

Vestnik MGSU 11/2013
  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 107-113

In this article we propose a classification for the masses of rock and soil, located in the bases of the buildings in permafrost zone. Classifications are made for masses consisting entirely of rock and soil with negative temperature, as well as for masses, including thawed soils and rocks. Updated in 2011 the Russian All-Union State Standard«Soil», which came into force in 2013, includes a classification of frozen soils, which are distinguished in a separate class. This is one of the differences of our inter-state standard, issued by the Eurasian Council for standardization, Metrology and certification, from the international English-language normative document (ISO). It is caused by the fact that on the territory of the European Union there is no permafrost soil, and only soils and rocks are discussed. In contrast, on the territory of Russia permafrost soil is widely distributed, in particular in the areas of extraction of exported raw materials. Permafrost is causing a significant, ongoing difficulties of construction and operation of buildings.The classification of soils in the Russian All-Union State Standard «Soil» and here is based on the type of physical and physico-chemical bonds between the particles in a soil. In frozen soils there are specific unstable bonds, due to the presence of ice. This fact calls for distinguishing the frozen soils into a separate class. In permafrost zone along with frozen soils that include ice, there are waterless soils and rocks with negative temperature. The list of soils in the permafrost zone, would be incomplete without:1) ice-soil (more than 90 % of ice), 2) chilled soil of the temperature below 0 °C, 3) soil with positive temperature. Cooled plastic or loose soils with negative temperatures lie in cryolithozone where there are soluble minerals or saline groundwater. Soils with positive temperature lie everywhere under permafrost at different depths, in summer they also arise over permafrost. In some places they occur in cryolithozone.In the classification of soils we will adhere to the principles set out in the first article of the series. In respect of the classes, we divide soils by the type of the bonds in them. Firstly, we single out frozen soils with the bonds created by ice, and, secondly, conditionally waterless soils with negative temperature, where there is no ice and bonds are physical and physico-chemical. For brevity, the second class of frozen masses is convenient to call the special soil of permafrost zone. At the level of subclasses we specify the classification by the same types of bonds in soils. In each of these two classes we detach subclasses: 1) rock mass, 2) disperse mass and 3) «skadi». Among the frozen soils there are specific fourth subclass — ice soils. The classification in respect of the types is made for masses consisting entirely of soils with negative temperatures, as well as for masses including thawed soils. The author offers justification and discussion of the proposed classifications.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.107-113

References
  1. Ershov E.D. Obshchaya geokriologiya [General Geocryology]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 2002, 682 ð.
  2. Pozin V.A., Korolev A.A., Naumov M.S. Ledovyy kompleks tsentral'noy Yakutii kak opytnyy poligon zheleznodorozhnogo stroitel'stva v ekstremal'nykh geoekologicheskikh usloviyakh [Ice Complex of Central Yakutia as Testing Ground of Railway Construction in Extreme Geoecological Conditions]. Inzhenernye izyskaniya [Engineering Investigations]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 12—18.
  3. Chernyshev S.N. Printsipy klassifikatsii gruntovykh massivov [Principles of Classification of Soil Masses for Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 9, pp. 41—46.
  4. Chernyshev S.N. Podkhod k klassifikatsii dispersnykh i skadi gruntovykh massivov dlya stroitel'stva [Approach to the Classification of Disperse Soil Masses for Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 10, pp. 94—101.
  5. Brown J., Ferrians O.J., Heginbottom J.A., Melnikov E.S. Circum-arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground ice Conditions, Scale 1:10 000 000. Interior-geolodgical Survey, Reston, Virdginia, 1997.
  6. Galanin A.A., Motorov O.V. Dinamika teplovogo polya promerzayushchikh otvalov mestorozhdeniya Kubaka (Kolymskoe nagor'e) [The Dynamics of the Thermal Field of the Freezing Dumps Kubaka (Kolyma Highlands)]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2013, no. 2, p. 46—56.
  7. Skapintsev A.E. Tipizatsiya inzhenerno-geokriologicheskikh usloviy i sozdanie inzhenerno-geokriologicheskikh kart uchastka proektiruemoy truboprovodnoy sistemy na territorii Vankorskogo mestorozhdeniya [Typification of Engineering Permafrost Conditions and Creation of Engineering and Permafrost Maps of the Projected Pipeline System Area in the Vankor]. Inzhenernye izyskaniya [Engineering Investigations]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 46—55.

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Justification and some features of model development and techniques of monitoring to determine the heat and moisture transfer in soilsin urban areas

Vestnik MGSU 12/2013
  • Kashperyuk Aleksandra Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) student, Department of Soils, Foundation Soils and Foundations; +7 (499) 129-18-72, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 68-76

Urban conditions are characterized by geographical and climatic features, geotechnical and hydrogeological conditions. But the main features are architecture, urban planning and engineering infrastructure solutions. This includes roads, water mains, electrical networks, sewage, heating system. Saturation of urban areas by engineering services depends on the size of the city, its population and climatic conditions. Metropoles and cities with long heating season are of particular importance in terms of this issue.The article discusses the need for full-scale investigation of the distribution of temperature field in the soil and underlying sediments during the engineering and environmental surveys in urban environment. In order to study the transfer of heat and moisture in clay soils and to assess its influence on their physical and mechanical properties the authors propose the principles of interaction simulation of the soil and the thermal field. We propose a preliminary methodology for monitoring the temperature and humidity of the soil mass under the influence of heat-conveying communications. Among these communications there are heating, water mains, hot water supply and sewerage.The location of the communications in the near-surface soil mass and the presence of sufficiently high temperature loads from mains are taken into account. To date there is no information on the monitoring of the nature of the distribution of the soils temperature field in urban areas and, accordingly, the spatial variability of the physical and mechanical properties of soils under natural conditions.The reason for it is in short term of geotechnical investigations for specified objects on the stage of project documentation development. Also in the conditions of a city it's almost impossible to place an experimental site with expensive facilities — wells and equipment and provide its safety for a long time (at last 1 year or more).The paper describes the laboratory setup and principles of equipment monitoring systems in field conditions, the basic principles of the experimental work techniques. The theoretical generalization of the results of methodological experiments and conduct large-scale field experiments is a challenge for further research.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.12.68-76

References
  1. Sergeev E.M., Golodkovskaya G.A., Ziangirov R.S., Osipov V.I., Trofimov V.T. Gruntovedenie [Soil Science]. 3rd edition. Moscow, Moscow State University Publ., 1971, 595 p.
  2. SNiP 11-02—96. Inzhenernye izyskaniya dlya stroitel'stva. Osnovnye polozheniya [Engineering Surveys for Construction. Fundamental Principles]. Moscow, Gosstroy Rossii Publ., 1997, 44 p.
  3. Korolev V.A., Fadeeva E.A. Sravnitel'nyy analiz termovlagoperenosa v dispersnykh gruntakh raznogo granulometricheskogo sostava [Comparative Analysis of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Disperse Soils of Different Particle Size Distribution]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 18—31.
  4. Korolev V.A., Fadeeva E.A., Akhromeeva T.Ya. Zakonomernosti termovlagoperenosa v nenasyshchennykh dispernykh gruntakh [Laws of Heat and Moisture Transfer in Unsaturated Disperse Soils]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 1990, no. 3, pp. 16—29.
  5. Grifoll J., Gastor J.M., Cohel Y. Non-isothermal Soil Water Transport and Evaporation. Advances in Water Resources. 2005, no. 28, pp. 1254—1266.
  6. Sklovskiy S.A., Pirueva T.G., Kashcheev V.P. Ekonomicheskaya effektivnost' teplovoy infrakrasnoy aeros"emki pri otsenke sostoyaniya podzemnykh teplovykh setey [Cost-effectiveness of the Thermal Infrared Aerial Photography in the Process of Assessment of Underground Heating Systems]. Available at: www.aerogeophysica.com. Date of access: 12.09.2013.
  7. Abramets A.M., Lishtvan I.I., Churaev N.V. Massoperenos v prirodnykh dispersnykh sistemakh [Mass Transfer in Natural Disperse Systems]. Minsk, Navuka i tekhnika Publ., 1992, 288 p.
  8. Lykov A.V. Teplomassoobmen [Heat and Mass Transfer]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1972, 562 p.
  9. Kobranova V.N. Petrofizika [Petrophysics]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1986, 392 p.
  10. Zlochevskaya R., Korolev V., Divisilova V. Temperaturnye deformatsii v slabykh vodonasyshchennykh glinistykh gruntakh [Temperature Deformations in Weak Water-saturated Clay Soils]. Stroitel'stvo na slabykh vodonasyshchennykh gruntakh [Construction on Weak Water-saturated Soils]. OGU Odessa Publ., 1975, pp. 88—91.
  11. Pashkin E.M., Kagan A.A., Krivonogova N.F. Terminologicheskiy slovar'-spravochnik po inzhenernoy geologii [Terminological Dictionary of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, Universitet Publ., 2011, 950 p.
  12. Trofimov V.T., Korolev V.A., Voznesenskiy E.A., Golodkovskaya G.A., Vasil'chuk Yu.K., Ziangirov R.S.; Trofimova V.T., editor. Gruntovedenie [Soil Science]. 6th edition. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2005, 1023 p.
  13. Voronkevich S.D., editor. Tekhnicheskaya melioratsiya gruntov [Technical Reclamation of Soils]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1981, 342 p.
  14. Yurdanov A.P. Termicheskoe uprochnenie gruntov v stroitel'stve [Curing Soils in Construction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 128 p.
  15. Kashperyuk A.A., Kashperyuk P.I., Potapov A.D., Potapov I.A Osobennosti temperaturnogo rezhima gruntov v gorode Moskve i ego vliyanie na inzhenerno-geologicheskie svoystva aktivnoy zony osnovaniy sooruzheniy [Features of Soil Temperature in Moscow and its Impact on the Geotechnical Properties of the Core Ground Structures]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 88—97.

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INTERACTION OF A LONG PILE OF FINITE STIFFNESS WITH SURROUNDING SOIL AND FOUNDATION CAP

Vestnik MGSU 9/2015
  • Ter-Martirosyan Armen Zavenovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor of the Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Head of Research and Education Center «Geotechnics», Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Trinh Tuan Viet - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Soil Mechanics, Bases and Foundations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 72-83

The article presents the formulation and analytical solution to a quantification of stress strain state of a two-layer soil cylinder enclosing a long pile, interacting with the cap. The solution of the problem is considered for two cases: with and without account for the settlement of the heel and the underlying soil. In the first case, the article is offering equations for determining the stresses of pile’s body and the surrounding soil according to their hardness and the ratio of radiuses of the pile and the surrounding soil cylinder, as well as formulating for determining equivalent deformation modulus of the system “cap-pile-surrounding soil” (the system). Assessing the carrying capacity of the soil under pile’s heel is of great necessity. In the second case, the article is solving a second-order differential equation. We gave the formulas for determining the stresses of the pile at its top and heel, as well as the variation of stresses along the pile’s body. The article is also formulating for determining the settlement of the foundation cap and equivalent deformation modulus of the system. It is shown that, pushing the pile into underlying layer results in the reducing of equivalent modulus of the system.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.9.72-83

References
  1. Nadai A. Theory of Flow and Fracture of Solids. Vol. 1. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1950, 572 p.
  2. Florin V.A. Osnovy mekhanicheskikh gruntov [Fundamentals of Mechanical Soil]. Vol. 1. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1959, 356 p. (In Russian)
  3. Telichenko V.I., Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Vzaimodeystvie svai bol’shoy dliny s nelineyno deformiruemym massivom grunta [Interaction between Long Piles and the Soil Body Exposed to NonLinear Deformations]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 22—27. (In Russian)
  4. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Nguen Zang Nam. Vzaimodeystvie svay bol’shoy dliny s neodnorodnym massivom s uchetom nelineynykh i reologicheskikh svoystv gruntov [Interaction between Long Piles and a Heterogeneous Massif with Account for Non-linear and Rheological Properties of Soils]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 3—14. (In Russian)
  5. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Trinh Tuan Viet. Vzaimodeystvie odinochnoy dlinoy svai s osnovaniem s uchetom szhimaemosti stvola svai [Interaction between a Single Long Pile and the Bedding with Account for Compressibility of the Pile Shaft]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 104—110. (In Russian)
  6. Mattes N.S., Poulos H.G. Settlement of Single Compressible Pile. Journal SoilMech. Foundation ASCE. 1969, vol. 95, no. 1, pp. 189—208.
  7. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 550 p. (In Russian)
  8. Ter-Martirosyan A.Z., Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Trinh Tuan Viet, Luzin I.N. Osadka i nesushchaya sposobnost’ dlinnoy svai [Settlement and Bearing Capacity of Long Pile]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2015, no. 5, pp. 52—60. (In Russian)
  9. Coyle H.M., Reese L.C. Load Transfer for Axially Loaded Piles in Clay. Journal Soil Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE. March1996, vol. 92, no. 2, pp. 1—26.
  10. Bartolomey A.A., Omel’chak I.M., Yushkov B.S. Prognoz osadok svaynykh fundamentov [Forecasting the Settlement of Pile Foundation]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1994, 384 p. (In Russian)
  11. Randolph M.F., Wroth C.P. Analysis of Deformation of Vertically Loaded Piles. Journal of the Geotechnical Engineering Division, American Society of Civil Engineers. 1978, vol. 104, no. 12, pp. 1465—1488.
  12. Van Impe W.F. Deformations of Deep Foundations. Proc. 10th Eur. Conf. SM & Found. Eng., Florence. 1991, vol. 3, pp. 1031—1062.
  13. Prakash S., Sharma H.D. Pile Foundation in Engineering Practice. John Wiley & Sons, 1990, 768 p.
  14. Malyshev M.V., Nikitina N.S. Raschet osadok fundamentov pri nelineynoy zavisimosti mezhdu napryazheniyami i deformatsiyami v gruntakh [Calculation of the Base Settlements in Non-Linear Relation between Stresses and Displacements of Soil]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov [Bases, Foundations and Soil Mechanics]. 1982, no. 2, pp. 21—25. (In Russian)
  15. Hansen J.B. Revised and Extended Formula for Bearing Capacity. Bulletin 28. Danish Geotechnical Institute, Copenhagen, 1970, pp. 5—11.
  16. Joseph E.B. Foundation Analysis and Design. McGraw-Hill, Inc, 1997, 1240 p.
  17. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Strunin P.V., Trinh Tuan Viet. Szhimaemost’ materiala svai pri opredelenii osadki v svaynom fundamente [The Influence of the Compressibility of Pile Material in Determining the Settlement of Pile Foundation]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel’stvo [Housing Construction]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 13—15. (In Russian)
  18. Vijayvergiya V.N. Load-Movement Characteristics of Piles. Proc. Port 77 conference, American Society of Civil Engineers, Long Beach, CA, March 1977, pp. 269—284.
  19. Seed H.B., Reese L.C. The Action of Soft Clay along Friction Piles. Trans., ASCE. 1957, vol. 122, no. 1, pp. 731—754.
  20. Booker J., Poulos H.G. Analysis of Creep Settlement of Pile Foundation. Journal Geotechnical Engineering division. ASCE. 1976, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 1—14.
  21. Poulos H.G., Davis E.H. Pile Foundation Analysis and Design. New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1980, 397 p.

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RESULTS OF COMPRESSION TESTING ON PSEUDO-COHESIVE SOIL

Vestnik MGSU 9/2015
  • Ofrikhter Vadim Grigor’evich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Construction Production and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolskiy Prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.
  • Ofrikhter Yan Vadimovich - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) student, Construction Department, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolskiy Prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.

Pages 61-72

Natural non-treated sand reinforced with randomly oriented short polypropylene fibers of 12 mm in length was tested to determine creep characteristics. This study is a part of the research aimed at encouraging fibrosand (FRS) application in subsoils, embankments and retaining wall constructions. Fiber content was accounted for 0.93 %. Twin specimens were put to creep tests (1-D compression) using the two curve method. The test results were analyzed and checked with the use of ageing, hardening and hereditary creep theories. On the basis of approximation of the test results the creep deformation equation at constant stress for tested fibrosand was obtained. The assessment of fibrosand secondary compression was carried out by the FORE method. As a result, the value of the void ratio by the end of the secondary compression had been eu=0.7041. For determination of the beginning of the secondary compression the rate equation was superimposed on the empirical curve. The point of the graph divergence is the beginning of the secondary compression process. The secondary compression had begun by the time moment being equal to 9360 min. The void ratio by the beginning of the secondary compression had amounted to 0.70574. Fibrosand is a specific type of improved soil relating to so-called pseudo-cohesive soil. This type of soil is characterized by cohesion like cohesive soils, but, at the same time, by the filtration coefficient of about 1 m per day like non-cohesive soils. Pseudo-cohesive soil testing helps to understand the distinctive features of the stress-strain state of this kind of materials. Municipal solid waste also relates to them.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.9.61-72

References
  1. Meschyan S.R. Eksperimental’naya reologiya glinistykh gruntov [Experimental Rheology of Clayey Soils]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1985, 342 p. (In Russian)
  2. Meschyan S.R. Experimental Rheology of Clayey Soils. Leiden, Netherlands, CRC Press, 1995, 460 p.
  3. Vyalov S.S. Reologicheskie osnovy mekhaniki gruntov [Rheological Bases of Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1978, 447 p. (In Russian)
  4. Maslov N.N. Fiziko-tekhnicheskaya teoriya polzuchesti glinistykh gruntov v praktike stroitel’stva [Physical and Technical Theory of Clayey Soils Creep in the Construction Practice]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1984, 176 p. (In Russian)
  5. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Reologicheskie svoystva gruntov i raschety osnovaniy sooruzheniy [Rheological Features of Soils and Calculation of Building Foundations]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 200 p. (In Russian)
  6. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Ter-Martirosyan A.Z., Sobolev E.S. Polzuchest’ i vibropolzuchest’ gruntov [Creep and Vibrocreep of Soils]. Perspektivnye napravleniya razvitiya teorii i praktiki v reologii i mekhanike gruntov : trudy XIV Mezhdunarodnogo simpoziuma po reologii gruntov [Promising Directions of Theory and Practice Development in Rheology and Soil Mechanics : Works of the 14th International Symposium on Soil Rheology]. Kazan’, KGASU Publ., 2014, pp. 8—23. (In Russian)
  7. Murthy V.N.S. Geotechnical Engineering: Principles and Practices of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2003, 1029 p.
  8. Mesri G. Primary and Secondary Compression. Soil Behavior and Soft Ground Construction (ASCE GSP). 2003, vol. 119, pp. 122—166.
  9. Havel F. Creep in Soft Soils. Doctoral Thesis for the Degree of Doctor Engineer. Trondheim, Norway, NGI, 2004. Available at: http://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:124915/FULLTEXT01.pdf. Date of access: 14.05.2015.
  10. Fatahi B., Le T.M., Le M.Q., Khabbaz H. Soil Creep Effects on Ground Lateral Deformation and Pore Water Pressure under Embankments. Geomechanics and Geoengineering. 2013, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 107—124. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17486025.2012.727037.
  11. Degago S.A., Grimstad G., Jostad H.P., Nordal S. Misconception about Experimental Substantiation of Creep Hypothesis A. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Paris, Presses des Ponts, 2013, pp. 215—218.
  12. Nakai T., Shahin H.M., Kyokawa H. Rational Expression of Time-Dependent Behavior from Normally Consolidated Soil to Naturally Deposited Soil. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Paris, Presses des Ponts, 2013, pp. 255—258.
  13. Ye Y., Zhang Q., Cai D., Chen F., Yao J., Wang L. Study of New Method of Accelerated Clay Creep Characteristic Tests. Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering. Paris, Presses des Ponts, 2013, pp. 461—464.
  14. Grimstad G., Asrafi M.A.H., Degago S.A., Emdal A., Nordal S. Discussion of Soil creep Effects on Ground Lateral Deformation and Pore Water Pressure under Embankments. Geomechanics and Geoengineering. 2015. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17486025.2014.985338. Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17486025.2014.985338?journalCode=tgeo20#.VfAc9GcVhpF/. Date of access: 15.04.2015.
  15. Meschyan S.R. Metodika opredeleniya kharakteristik polzuchesti skeleta glinistykh gruntov primenitel’no k usloviyam odnomernogo uplotneniya [Methods of Estimating the Creep Characteristics of Clayey Soil Skeleton in Relation to One-Dimension Compaction Conditions]. Izvestiya akademii nauk Armyanskoy SSR. Seriya: Fiziko-matematicheskie nauki [News of the Academy of Sciences of the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. Series: Physical and Mathematical Sciences]. 1964, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 119—131. (In Russian)
  16. Meschyan S.R. Mekhanicheskie svoystva gruntov i laboratornye metody ikh opredeleniya [Mechanical Features of Soils and Laboratory Methods of Their Estimation]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1974, 192 p. (In Russian)
  17. Meschyan S.R. Nachal’naya i dlitel’naya prochnost’ glinistykh gruntov [Initial and Creep-Rupture Strength of Clayey Soils]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1978, 207 p. (In Russian)
  18. Handy R.L. First-order Rate Equations in Geotechnical Engineering. Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering. 2002, vol. 128, no. 5, pp. 416—425.
  19. Ofrikhter V.G., Ofrikhter Ya.V. Otsenka mekhanicheskoy polzuchesti fibropeska po rezul’tatam kompressionnykh ispytaniy [Estimation of the Mechanical Creep of Fibrosand according to the Results of Compression Tests]. Izvestiya KGASU [News of the Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering]. 2014, no. 4 (30), pp. 222—229. (In Russian)
  20. Casagrande A., Fadum R.E. Notes on Soil Testing for Engineering Purposes. Harvard Soil Mechanics Series, 1940, vol. 8, 74 p.
  21. Taylor D.W. Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics. New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc., 1948, 700 p.

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BEARING CAPACITY OF A HORIZONTALLY LOADED SINGLE PILE SUPPORT WITH SLEEPERS

Vestnik MGSU 9/2015
  • Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich - Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (UMech) Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Advisor, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, Department of Industrial and Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (UMech), 22 Pavla Korchagina Str., Moscow, 129626, Russian Federation.
  • Mokhovikov Evgeniy Sergeevich - Ryazan Institute (branch) of Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (UMech) senior lecturer, Department of Architecture and Urban Planning, Ryazan Institute (branch) of Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (UMech), 26/53 Pravo-lybedskaya str., Ryazan, 390000, Russian Federation.

Pages 51-60

The supports of a overhead wiring used in transport take up substantial loads both because of wires and constructions holding them and wind, dynamic and other extraordinary impacts. In case of using single-member piles a question about their stability appears. For this reason different sleepers constructions are used. In order to improve the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded single pile supports of the contact systems used in urban, road and rail transport, power lines, etc.., it is recommended to use sleepers as horizontally laid under the ground in the depth of support beams. The calculation methods for different support sleepers of different lengths and cross sections are not well investigated. The proposed calculation method allows determining the carrying capacity of horizontally loaded bearings with soil pieces of different structural dimensions and their location in the soil, which allows choosing the best option for cost and material consumption. The calculations offered by the authors prove the efficiency of sleepers use in order to increase the bearing capacity of horizontally loaded piles and the possibility to chose their size.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.9.51-60

References
  1. Goroshkov Yu.I., Bondarev N.A. Kontaktnaya set’ [Overhead Wiring]. 2nd edition, revised. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1981, 400 p. (In Russian)
  2. Glushkov G.I. Raschet sooruzheniy, zaglublennykh v grunt [Calculation of Structures Buried in the Ground]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1977, 295 p. (In Russian)
  3. Gudushauri I.I., Dzhioev L.N. Issledovanie fundamentov opor liniy elektroperedachi v neskal’nykh gruntakh [Investigation of Pile Foundations of Power Lines in Soil]. Moscow, Leningrad, Gosenergoizdat Publ., 1963, pp. 50—68. (In Russian)
  4. Buslov A.S., Bakulina A.A. Vliyanie kol’tsevogo ushireniya na nesushchuyu sposobnost’ gorizontal’no nagruzhennoy monosvaynoy opory [Effect of a Round Cap on the Bearing Capacity of a Laterally Loaded Pile]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering], 2012, no. 4, pp. 63—68. (In Russian)
  5. Bakulina A.A. Issledovanie nesushchey sposobnosti odnostoechnykh opor s ukrepleniem verkhnego sloya grunta pri gorizontal’nykh nagruzkakh [Investigation of the Bearing Capacity of One Member Supports with Strengthening the Upper Soil Layer at Horisontal Loadings]. Aktual’nye problemy razvitiya nano- mikro- i optoelektroniki : trudy Vserossiyskoy konferentsii s elementami nauchnoy shkoly dlya molodezhi [Current Development Problems of Nano, Micro and Optoelectronics : the Works of All-Russian Conference with Elements of Scientific School for the Youth]. Ryazan, RITs RGRTU Publ., 2010, pp. 171—174. (In Russian)
  6. Buslov A.S. Rabota svay na gorizontal’nuyu nagruzku za predelami uprugosti v svyaznykh gruntakh [Operation of Piles in Case of Horizontal Loads beyond Elasticity in Cohesive Soils]. Tashkent, FAN Publ., 1979, 106 p. (In Russian)
  7. Berezantsev V.G. Raschet odinochnykh svay i svaynykh kustov na deystvie gorizontal’nykh sil [Calculation of Horizontal Impacts on Single Piles and Pile Groups]. Moscow, Voenizdat Publ., 1946, 51 p. (In Russian)
  8. Kobrinets V.M., Barchukova T.N. Metod rascheta po deformatsiyam gruntovogo osnovaniya gorizontal’no nagruzhennogo fundamenta iz korotkoy svai-kolonny [Calculation Method for the Deformations of Horizontally Loaded Soil Foundation of a Short Pile-Column]. Budivel’ni konstruktsii : zb. nauk. prats’ [Building Structures : Collection of Scientific Articles]. Kiev, DP NDIBK Publ., 2008, no. 71, book 1, pp. 463—469. (In Russian)
  9. Laletin N.V. Raschet svaynykh ankerov na deystvie gorizontal’noy sily [Calculation of the Horizontal Impact on Pile Anchors]. Sbornik trudov Voronezhskogo inzhenerno-stroitel’nogo instituta [Collection of Papers of the Voronezh Engineering and Construction Institute]. Voronezh, 1964, no. 10, vol. 1, pp. 119—133. (In Russian)
  10. Broms B.B. Lateral Resistance of Piles in Cohesive Soils. Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division. Proceedings of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 1964, vol. 90, no. 2, pp. 27—63.
  11. Angel’skiy D.V. K raschetu svaynykh osnovaniy na gorizontal’nuyu nagruzku [To the Calculation of Pile Foundations in Case of Horizontal Loadings]. Trudy MADI [Works of Moscow Automobile and Road Construction University]. Moscow, Gostransizdat Publ., 1937, no. 7, pp. 41—49. (In Russian)
  12. Mironov B.B. K raschetu odinochnykh svay i vysokikh svaynykh rostverkov na deystvie gorizontal’nykh sil [To the Calculation of Single Piles and High Pile Foundation Frames in Case of Horizontal Impacts]. Trudy LIIZhTa [Works of Leningrad Institute of Engineers of Railway Transport]. Leningrad, 1963, no. 207, pp. 112—156. (In Russian)
  13. Poulos H.G. The Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles. Part I: Single Piles. ASCE Journal of the Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering Division. 1971, vol. 97, no. 5, pp. 711—731.
  14. Snitko N.K., Chernov V.K. Deformatsionnyy raschet i ustoychivost’ szhato-izognutykh svay [Deformation Calculation and Stability of Beam Piles]. Mekhanika gruntov, osnovaniya i fundamenty : sbornik trudov LISI [Soil Mechanics, Bases and Foundations : Collection of Works of Leningrad Engineering and Construction Institute]. Leningrad, 1976, no. 1 (116), pp. 8—14. (In Russian)
  15. Annenkov A.P. O vliyanii ugla naklona svai na nesushchuyu sposobnost’ fundamentov [On the Influence of Slope Angle of a Pile on the Bearing Capacity of Foundations]. Stroitel’nye konstruktsii, osnovaniya i fundamenty : Mezhvuzovskiy sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Building Structures, Bases and Foundations : Interuniversity Collection of Scientific Works]. Perm’, 1976, no. 179, pp. 36—38. (In Russian)
  16. Dobrovol’skiy K.I. Ispytanie svay i gruntov probnoy nagruzkoy v svyazi s raschetom nizkikh svaynykh rostverkov [Test of Piles and Soils with a Test Load while Calculating Low Pile Foundation Frames]. Tiflis : Zakavkazskiy institut inzhenerov putey soobshcheniya Publ., 1935, 198 p. (In Russian)
  17. Buslov A.S., Mokhovikov E.S. Vliyanie lezhney na peremeshcheniya gorizontal’no nagruzhennykh fundamentov opor kontaktnoy seti [Influence of Solepieces on the Displacements of Horizontally Loaded Support Bases of a Contact System]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 8, pp. 44—53. (In Russian)

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