SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

The aspects of fire safety at landfills

Vestnik MGSU 1/2014
  • Aleshina Tat'yana Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sci- ences, Associate Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 119-124

Starting with 2008 and till 2013 there have been alarm messages about fires occurring at landfill places in Russia. Landfill fires are especially dangerous as they emit dangerous fumes from the combustion of the wide range of materials within the landfill. Subsurface landfill fires, unlike typical fires, cannot be put out with water. The article includes the analysis of the sources and causes of conflagrations at landfills. There maintains the necessity to eliminate the reasons, which cause the fires. There are quantification indices of environmental, social and economic effects of fires at landfills all over Russia. Surface fires generally burn at relatively low temperatures and are characterized by the emission of dense white smoke and the products of incomplete combustion. The smoke includes irritating agents, such as organic acids and other compounds. Higher temperature fires can cause the breakdown of volatile compounds, which emit dense black smoke. Surface fires are classified as either accidental or deliberate. For the ecologic security there is a need in the execution of proper hygienic requirements to the content of the places as well as international recommendations. In addition to the burning and explosion hazards posed by landfill fires, smoke and other by-products of landfill fires also present a health risk to firefighters and others exposed to them. Smoke from landfill fires generally contains particulate matter (the products of incomplete combustion of the fuel source), which can aggravate pre-existing pulmo- nary conditions or cause respiratory distress and damage ecosystem. The monitoring of conducting preventive inflamings and transition to alternative, environment friendly methods of waste disposal is needed.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.1.119-124

References
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Biological wastewater treatment in brewhouses

Vestnik MGSU 3/2014
  • Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Water Disposal and Water Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bertsun Svetlana Petrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Master, Department of Water Disposal and Water Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 205-211

In the article the working principles of wastewater biological treatment for food companies is reviewed, including dairies and breweries, the waters of which are highly concentrated with dissolved organic contaminants and suspended solids. An example of successful implementation is anaerobic-aerobic treatment plants. Implementation of these treatment plants can achieve the required wastewater treatment at the lowest operational expenses and low volumes of secondary waste generated. Waste water from the food companies have high concentration of various organic contaminants (fats, proteins, starch, sugar, etc.). For such wastewater, high rates of suspended solids, grease and other contaminants are characteristic. Wastewater food industry requires effective purification flowsheets using biological treatment facilities. At the moment methods for the anaerobic-aerobic purification are applied. One of such methods is the treatment of wastewater at ASB-reactor (methane reactor) and the further tertiary treatment on the OSB-reactor (aeration). Anaerobic process means water treatment processes in anoxic conditions. The anaerobic treatment of organic contamination is based on the process of methane fermentation - the process of converting substances to biogas. The role of biological effluent treatment is discussed with special attention given to combined anaerobic/aerobic treatment. Combining anaerobic pre-treatment with aerobic post-treatment integrates the advantages of both processes, amongst which there are reduced energy consumption (net energy production), reduced biological sludge production and limited space requirements. This combination allows for significant savings for operational costs as compared to complete aerobic treatment without compromising the required discharge standards. Anaerobic treatment is a proven and energy efficient method to treat industrial wastewater effluents. These days, more and more emphasis is laid on low energy use, a small reactor surface area, low chemical usage and reduced sludge handling costs. When stringent discharge limits have to be met, in many cases anaerobic treatment is followed by aerobic post treatment. During aerobic polishing, final traces of organic pollution (COD/BOD) and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous can effectively be removed. Besides the decrease in the biosolids quantity, the quality of the aerobic sludge is often improved. With anaerobic pre-treatment biodegradable carbohydrates are less easily present in the aerobic reactor inlet. As a result, the number of filamentous bacteria causing bulking sludge in activated sludge plants, is significantly reduced. This results in an improved settleability of the aerobic sludge and consequently a more stable and secure operation of the activated sludge plant. Finally, due to the higher mineralization grade dewaterability of aerobic sludge from activated sludge plants after anaerobic pre-treatment it is often better than without anaerobic pre-treatment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.205-211

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  15. Thaveesri J., Daffonchio D., Liessens B., Vandermeren P., Verstraete W. Granulation and Sludge Bed Stability in Upfl ow Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactors in Relation to Surface Thermodynamics. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1995, no. 61(10), pp. 3681—3686.

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Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

Vestnik MGSU 3/2014
  • Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 212-219

In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.212-219

References
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  2. Lampert F. Vybrosy parov benzina i reshenie etoy problemy v stranakh Evropeyskogo Soyuza [Gasoline Vapor Emissions and Solution of this Problem in the Countries of the EU]. Sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konfe-rentsii «Ekologicheskaya i pozharnaya bezopasnost' sovremennykh AZS» [Collection of the International Scientific-Practical Conference "Environmental and Fire Safety of Modern Gas Stations"]. Moscow, 1998, ðð. 35—39.
  3. Belyaev A.Yu. Otsenka vliyaniya avtozapravochnykh stantsiy (AZS) na geologicheskuyu sredu [Assessment of the Impact of Gas Stations on the Geological Environment]. Sbornik Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii «Lomonosov—2000: molodezh' i nauka na rubezhe XXI veka» [Collection of International Conference «Lomonosov—2000: Youth and Science of the 21st Century»]. Moscow, 2000, pp. 178.
  4. Belyaev A. Yu., Kashperyuk P.I. Issledovaniya zagryazneniya poverkhnostnogo stoka s territorii AZS (na primere mnogofunktsional'nykh avtozapravochnykh kompleksov «BP» v g. Moskve) [Investigation of Pollution of Surface Runoff Caused by a Filling Station (on the Example of Multifunctional Filling Stations «BP», Moscow)] Sbornik Akademicheskie chteniya N.A. Tsitovicha [Collection of Academic Readings N.A. Tsitovich]. Moscow, 2003, pp.190—194.
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Sustainability of life support systems in emergency situations

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Rector, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Information Systems, Technology and Automation in Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 929-52-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shilova Lyubov’ Andreevna - Russian Energy Agency of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation Chief Specialist, Agency of Energy Security Analysis of the Department of Energy Security and Special Programs, Russian Energy Agency of the Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation, 40/2 Shchepkina street, Moscow, 129110, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 107-115

Modern humanity development is impossible without scientific and technological progress, energy, industry, transport. Despite the fact that industrialization and the constant increase of production capacity have helped people to expand their limits significantly, we should not forget that today our dependence on the established infrastructure is steadily increasing. It is most vivid in case of natural hazards or disasters, which lead to disruption of normal living conditions. Any of these negative phenomena is called "emergency situation". However, the occurrence of emergency situations in life support systems leads to the following negative consequences: disorganization of life support systems functioning on the object, local, regional, national levels; exclusion or complete destruction life support systems; partial or complete reduction of the opportunities for ensuring the needs of the population; danger to life and health of the population. Despite the considerable number of scientific publications, many theoretical and methodological aspects of creating mechanisms and resistance patterns of objects and systems require further investigation that is due to: the possibility of emergency situations doesn’t decrease; acceleration of scientific and technical progress; existing threat of war together with the continuous improvement of weapons; threat of terrorist acts, etc. The authors present a research of the opportunity to construct a sustainability model of life support systems under different emergency situations in respect of modern current trends in the development of information-analytical systems and principles of systems engineering approach. The development of a general stability model, in that case, must consider common sequence of actions, ranging from signs of disaster to the recommendations for eliminating its consequences for life support systems, and the issues of effective interaction between individual subsystems involved in this process at all stages.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.107-115

References
  1. Bardulin E.N., Ipatov D.N. Upravlenie riskami v usloviyakh chrezvychaynykh situatsiy [Risk Management in Emergency Situations]. Vestnik SPbUGPS [Proceedings of St.Petersburg University of State Fire Service]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 7—13.
  2. Burkova I.V., Tolstykh A.V., Uandykov B.K. Modeli i metody optimizatsii programm obespecheniya bezopasnosti [Models and Methods of Security Programs Optimization]. Problemy upravleniya [Management Problems]. 2005, no. 1, pp. 51—55.
  3. Volkov A.A. Kompleksnaya bezopasnost' uslovno-abstraktnykh ob"ektov (zdaniy i sooruzheniy) v usloviyakh chrezvychaynykh situatsiy [Integrated Safety of Conditionally Abstract Objects (Buildings and Structures) in Emergency Situations]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2007, no. 3, pp. 30—35.
  4. Volkov A.A. Kompleksnaya bezopasnost' zdaniy i sooruzheniy v usloviyakh ChS: formal'nye osnovaniya situatsionnogo modelirovaniya [Integrated Safety of Buildings and Structures in Emergency Situations: Formal Foundations of Situational Modeling]. Obsledovanie, ispytanie, monitoring i raschet stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy zdaniy i sooruzheniy: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Inspection, Testing, Monitoring and Calculation of Constructions and Structures: Collection of Works]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, pp. 55—62.
  5. Volkov A.A. Osnovy gomeostatiki zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Fundamentals of Homeostatic Buildings and Structures]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and civil Engineering]. 2002, no. 1, pp. 34—35.
  6. Volkov A.A. Intellekt zdaniy. Chast' 1 [Intelligence of buildings. Part 1]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 186—190.
  7. Volkov A.A. Sistemy aktivnoy bezopasnosti stroitel'nykh ob"ektov [Active Safety Systems of Construction Sites]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo [House Construction]. 2000, no. 7, p. 13.
  8. Volkov A.A. Intellekt zdaniy. Chast' 2 [Intelligence of buildings. Part 2]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 213—216.
  9. Volkov A.A. Ierarkhii predstavleniya energeticheskikh sistem [Hierarchies of Description of Energy Systems]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 190—193.
  10. Volkov A.A., Pikhterev D.V. K voprosu ob organizatsii informatsionnogo obespecheniya stroitel'nogo ob"ekta [On the Issue of Arrangement of Information Support of a Construction Facility]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 460—462.
  11. Kopeychenko Yu.V., Ternyuk N.E. Sistema upravleniya chrezvychaynymi situatsiyami [Emergency Management System]. Sayt Mezhregional'noy obshchestvennoy organizatsii «Evro-Aziatskoe geofizicheskoe obshchestvo» Krasnodarskogo kraevogo otdeleniya [Site of Trans-regional Non-governmental Organization “Euro-Asian Geophysical Society” of the Krasnodar Regional Branch]. Available at: http://eago.gelendzhik.ws/content/view/317/41. Date of access: 24.10.2014.
  12. Barbera J.A., Macintyre A.M., Shaw G.L., Seefried V.I., Westerman L., De Cosmo S. Emergency Response & Recovery Competencies: Competency Survey, Analysis, and Report. Institute for Crisis, Disaster, and Risk Management, The George Washington University, May 25, 2005.
  13. Rubin C.B. Long Term Recovery from Disasters — the Neglected Component of Emergency Management. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management. 2009, vol. 6, no. 1. DOI: 10.2202/1547-7355.1616.
  14. Stambler K., Barbera J.A. Engineering the Incident Command and Multiagency Coordination Systems. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management. 2011, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 29—32. DOI: 10.2202/1547-7355.1838.
  15. Wolbers J., Groenewegen P., Mollee J., Bim J. Incorporating Time Dynamics in the Analysis of Social Networks in Emergency Management. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management. 2013, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 555—585. DOI: 10.1515/jhsem-2013-0019.

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Determination of low-frequency energy effect in built-up areas

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Grafkina Marina Vladimirovna - Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, chair, Department of Ecological Safety of Motor Vehicles, Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI), 38 Bolshaya Semenovskaya, 107023, Moscow, Russian Federation; +7 (499)267-16-05; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Nyunin Boris Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Ecological Safety of Motor Vehicles, Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI), 38 Bolshaya Semenovskaya, 107023, Moscow, Russian Federation; +7 (499)267-16-05; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sviridova Evgeniya Yur'evna - Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assosiate Professor, Department of Ecological Safety of Motor Vehicles, Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI), 38 Bolshaya Semenovskaya, 107023, Moscow, Russian Federation; +7 (499)267-16-05; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 116-124

The article is devoted to the topical direction - study of electromagnetic fields and infrasound built-up areas. These negative factors are not perceived by basic human receptors, and often people underestimate the danger posed by the sources of electromagnetic fields and infrasound. Currently, environmental monitoring system of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields in built up areas includes a study of the amplitude spectrum. The negative impact of these factors is evaluated separately without taking into account their mutual influence on the biological object. However, in the literature there is the data showing the effect of noise on the electrical characteristics of the human body. In this regard, the authors consider appropriate definition of the integral energy of low-frequency effects on built-up areas that will objectively evaluate the overall level of various kinds of fields at the point in space at a given time and their negative impact on biological objects. The authors propose a new approach to ecological monitoring of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields on the basis of determining the energy parameters. The paper theoretically proved it possible to determine the total energy impact of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields, taking into account the mutual influence of these factors on biological object. The article presents an algorithm of the synergistic index of the low-frequency energy of negative impact on the basis of measurements of integrated intensities of infrasound and low-frequency electromagnetic fields. Definition of the synergistic energy of low-frequency effects allows objectively assessing the negative effects of electromagnetic fields and infrasound on biological objects, as well as fundamentally new challenges to improve environmental safety of built-up areas and the protection of the population from the effects of these factors.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.116-124

References
  1. Balodis V. Electric and Magnetic Fields. Environmental Issues. 2008, no. 5, 81 p.
  2. Blanc M. Biological Effects of Environmental Electromagnetic Fields. Washington (DC), 2005, 376 p.
  3. Feychting K. EMF. Boston, 2003, 301 p.
  4. Peter A. Electric and Magnetic Fields (EMF) and Health. The 2nd International Conference on Electromagnetic Safety. 2001, 125 p.
  5. Sheppard A. Electromagnetic Fields. Report to the Montana Department of Natural Resources. 2005, 10 p.
  6. Silverman H. Negative Effect of Electromagnetic Fields. Lester, 1999, 198 p.
  7. Stevents I. Electromagnetic Fields and Human Being. Lids, 1996, 206 p.
  8. Bingi V.N. Printsipy elektromagnitnoy biofiziki [Principles of Electromagnetic Biophysics]. Moscow, 2011, 592 p.
  9. Tverdislov V.A., Sidorova A.E. Biofizicheskaya ekologiya. Noosfera kak ierarkhiya aktivnykh sred [Biophysical Ecology. Noosphere as an Hierarchy of Active Environments]. Problemy biologicheskoy fiziki [Problems of Biological Physics]. Moscow, Lenland Publ., 2011, pp. 42—58.
  10. Sidorova A.E., Yakovenko L.V., Antonov V.A. Vozdeystvie elektromagnitnykh poley promyshlennoy chastoty na ustoychivost' bio- i urboekosistem [Impact of Electromagnetic Fields of Industrial Frequency on Stability of Bio and Urban and Ecological Systems]. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territoriy [Ecology of Urbanized Territories]. 2007, no. 1, pp. 15—22.
  11. Kosacheva T.I., Alekseev V.N., Svidovyy V.I. Dannye morfologicheskikh issledovaniy veka posle vozdeystviya infrazvuka [Data on Morphological Researches of a Century after Infrasound Influence]. Problemy teorii i praktiki ukrepleniya obshchestvennogo i individual'nogo zdorov'ya v sovremennykh usloviyakh [Problems of the Theory and Practice of Public and Individual Health Promotion in Modern Conditions]. St. Petersburg, 1999, pp. 128—129.
  12. Zykina E.V., Eliseeva T.L., Tryapitsyn A.B. Eksperimental'naya ustanovka dlya issledovaniya vliyaniya shuma na elektrotekhnicheskie kharakteristiki tela cheloveka [Experimental Setup for Studying the Effects of Noise on the Electrical Characteristics of the Human Body]. Zashchita naseleniya ot povyshennogo shumovogo vozdeystviya: sbornik dokladov III Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii s mezhdunarodnym uchastiem [Proceedings of the 3rd Russian Scientific and Practical Conference with International Participation "Protecting the Population from High Noise Exposure"]. St. Petersburg, 2011, pp. 232—237.
  13. Katsay V.V. Zavisimosti soprotivleniya tela cheloveka ot shuma i prilozhennogo napryazheniya [Dependences of a Human Body Resistance on Noise and the Applied Tension]. Elektrobezopasnost', 2005, no. 1, pp. 3—6.
  14. Grafkina M.V., Nyunin B.N., Sviridova E.Yu., Teryaeva E.P. Razvitie sistemy ekologicheskogo monitoringa elektromagnitnykh i infrazvukovykh nizkochastotnykh poley na zastroennykh territoriyakh [Development of the System of Environmental Monitoring of Electromagnetic and Infrasonic Low-frequency Fields in Built-up Territories]. Internet-zhurnal «Stroitel'stvo unikal'nykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy» [Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures]. 2012, no. 4. Available at: www.unistroy.spb.ru. Date of access: 25.02.2014.
  15. Grafkina M.V., Nyunin B.N., Sviridova E.Yu. Sovershenstovovanie sistemy monitoringa elektromagnitnoy bezopasnosti zhilykh pomeshcheniy [Monitoring System Improvement of Electromagnetic Security of Living Areas]. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova [Proceedings of Belgorod State Technological University named After V. G. Shoukhov]. 2013, no. 4, pp. 40—42.
  16. Intensivnost' zvuka [Sound Intensity]. Br?el & Kj?r, Denmark, 2000, 44 p.

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Model of complex integrated use of alternative energy sources for highly urbanized areas

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Ivanova Elena Ivanovna - State University of Land Use Planning (GUZ) Candidate of Architecture, Associate Professor, Department of Architecture, State University of Land Use Planning (GUZ), 15 Kazakova str., Moscow, 105064, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Cherkasova Polina Andreevna - State University of Land Use Planning (GUZ) student, Department of Architecture, State University of Land Use Planning (GUZ), 15 Kazakova str., Moscow, 105064, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 125-134

The increase of population and continuous development of highly urbanized territories poses new challenges to experts in the field of energy saving technologies. Only a multifunctional and autonomous system of building engineering equipment formed by the principles of energy efficiency and cost-effectiveness meets the needs of modern urban environment. Alternative energy sources, exploiting the principle of converting thermal energy into electrical power, show lack of efficiency, so it appears to be necessary for reaching a visible progress to skip this middle step. A fuel cell, converting chemical energy straight into electricity, and offering a vast diversity of both fuel types and oxidizing agents, gives a strong base for designing a complex integrated system. Regarding the results of analysis and comparison conducted among the most types of fuel cells proposed by contemporary scholars, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is approved to be able to ensure the smooth operation of such a system. While the advantages of this device meet the requirements of engineering equipment for modern civil and, especially, dwelling architecture, its drawbacks do not contradict with the operating regime of the proposed system. The article introduces a model of a multifunctional system based on solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and not only covering the energy demand of a particular building, but also providing the opportunity for proper and economical operation of several additional sub-systems. Air heating and water cooling equipment, ventilating and conditioning devices, the circle of water supply and preparation of water discharge for external use (e.g. agricultural needs) included into a closed circuit of the integrated system allow evaluating it as a promising model of further implementation of energy saving technologies into architectural and building practice. This, consequently, will positively affect both ecological and economic development of urban environment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.125-134

References
  1. Glazychev V.L. Sotsial’no-ekologicheskaya interpretatsia gorodskoy sregy [Socio-ecological Interpretation of the Urban Environment]. Nauka Publ., Moscow, 1984, pp. 124—126.
  2. Zaytsev A.V. Energosberegayushchie tekhnologii sovremennoy tekhniki bytovogo i zhilishchno-kommunal'nogo naznacheniya [Energy-saving Technologies and Modern Technology of Domestic Housing and Utilities Use]. Tekhniko-tekhnologicheskie problemy servisa [Technical and Technological Problems of Service]. 2010, no. 3 (13), pp. 46—51.
  3. Baygozin D.V., Pervukhin D.N., Zakharov G.B. Razrabotka printsipov intellektual'nogo upravleniya inzhenernym oborudovaniem v sisteme «umnyy dom» [Development of the Principles of Intellectual Control Engineering Equipment in the "Smart Home" System]. Izvestiya Tomskogo politekhnicheskogo universiteta [Bulletin of the Tomsk Polytechnic University]. 2008, no. 5 (313), pp. 168—172.
  4. Maikov I.L., Director L.B., Zaychenko V.M. Reshenie zadach optimizatsii energeticheskikh sistem s neskol'kimi avtonomnymi energoustanovkami [Solution of Optimization Problems of Energetically Autonomous Systems with Multiple Power Plants]. Upravlenie bol'shimi sistemami: sbornik trudov [Managing Large Systems. Collection of Works]. 2010, no. 31, pp. 110—127.
  5. Lepesh G.V. Energosberezhenie — prioritetnaya zadacha XXI veka: kolonka glavnogo redaktora [Editor's Note. Energy-saving Technologies as the Priority of XXI Century]. Tekhniko-tekhnologicheskie problemy servisa [Technical and Technological Problems of Service]. 2010, no. 1 (11), pp. 3—6.
  6. Butuzov V.A. Solnechnoe teplosnabzhenie v Rossii: sostoyanie del i regional'nye osobennosti [Solar Heating in Russia: Status and Regional Features]. Energosovet [Energy Advice]. 2011, no. 5 (18), pp. 39—41.
  7. Panferov S.V., Telegin A.I., Panferov V.I. Nekotorye problemy energosberezheniya i avtomatizatsii v sistemakh teplosnabzheniya zdaniy [Some Problems of Energy Saving and Automation in Heating Systems of Buildings]. Vestnik Yuzhno-ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Proceedings of the South Ural State University]. 2010, no. 22 (198), pp. 79—85.
  8. Rats G.I., Mordinova M.A. Razvitie al'ternativnykh istochnikov energii v reshenii global'nykh energeticheskikh problem [Development of Alternative Energy Sources in Addressing Global Energy Challenges]. Izvestiya Irkutskoy gosudarstvennoy ekonomicheskoy akademii [News of the Irkutsk State Academy of Economic Studies]. 2012, no. 2, pp. 132—135.
  9. Bagotskiy V.S., Skudin A.M. Khimicheskie istochniki toka [Chemical Power Sources]. Moscow, Energoizdat Publ., 1981, pp. 156, 284—288.
  10. Lavrus V.S. Istochniki energii [Energy Sources]. Informatsionnoe izdanie NiT [Information Science & Technology Edition]. 1997, pp. 15, 43—46.
  11. Bagotsky Vladimir S. Fuel Cells: Problems and Solutions. Hoboken: Wiley Interscience, the electrochemical society series, 2009, pp. 135—160.
  12. Srinivasan Supramaniam. Fuel Cells. From Fundamentals to Applications. Springer Sience+Business Media, 2006, pp. 637—640.
  13. Fergus J.W., Hui R., Li X., Wilkinson D. P., Zhang J. SOFC Materials Properties & Performance. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2009, pp. 5—16.
  14. Garshin A.P., Gropyanov V.M., Zaytsev G.P., Semenov S.S. Keramika dlya mashinostroeniya [Pottery for Mechanical Engineering]. Moscow, Nauchtekhlitizdat Publ., 2003, pp. 383—385.
  15. Esposito V., D’Ottavi C., Ferrari S., S. Licoccia, E. Traversa. New Chemical Routes for Preparation of Ultrafine NiO-YSZ Powders for SOFC Anode Applications. SOFC VIII. Edited by S.C. Singhal, M. Dokiya. The Electrochemical Society, 2003, pp. 643—652.
  16. Singhal S.C. Progress in Tubular SOFC Technology. SOFC VI. Edited by S.C. Singhal, M. Dokiya. The Electrochemical Society, 1999, pp. 39—51.
  17. Ivanov-Shic A.K., Murin I.V. Ionika tverdogo tela [Ionics of a Solid Body]. Saint Petersburg, St. Petersburg State University Publ., 2010, vol 2. pp. 909—925.
  18. Panchenko A.V. Biotoplivo kak al'ternativnyy istochnik energii [Biofuels as an Alternative Source of Energy]. Energobezopasnost' i energosberezhenie [Energy Security and Energy Efficiency]. 2007, no. 6.
  19. Singhal S.C., Eguchi K. Operation on Alternative Fuels. ch. 9, SOFC XII. The Electrochemical Society, 2011, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 2641—2700.
  20. Akikusa Jun, Yamada Takashi, Kotani Takafumi, Murakami Naoya. Development of Intermediate-Temperature SOFC Module and System. SOFC IX. Edited by S.C. Singhal, J. Mizusaki. The Electrochemical Society, 2005, vol. 2, pp. 102—112.

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Microbiological specifics of the phosphate removal systems with the help of reinforced materials

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Ruzhitskaya Ol’ga Andreevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Wastewater Disposal and Aquatic Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, 129337, Moscow, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 1832765; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 135-141

The author presents the results of microbiological studies aimed at investigating the deep removal of phosphates from household wastewater. A method for deep cleaning of waste water using reinforced materials is provided. The living culture study in activated sludge and biofilm in the light microscope showed activating effect of the reinforced loading material on the life of microflora in activated sludge and biofilm. A steel wire in the the feed material has a significant impact on the number and variety of species of protozoa in the activated sludge, and also leads to rapid development of Chlorella sp. The study of the living culture of activated sludge and biofilm in the light microscope showed that the reinforced material activates the vital functions of the activated sludge microflora and biofilms, as well as the diversity of their species composition. The studies have confirmed that chlorella multiplies in an environment rich with iron, absorbs phosphorus from the environment and actively produces oxygen, providing bacterial biomass with it. This fact explains the increase in the removal of organic contaminants, as well as the influence of the reinforced material on the second step of nitrification.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.135-141

References
  1. Ruzhitskaya O.A., Salomeev V.P., Gogina E.S. Ispol'zovanie armirovannogo zagruzochnogo materiala dlya intensifikatsii protsessov ochistki stochnykh vod ot fosfatov i organicheskikh zagryazneniy [Using Reinforced Feed for Intensification of Wastewater Treatment from Phosphates and Organic Contaminants]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering]. 2013. no. 6, pp. 43—47.
  2. Gogina E.S., Makisha Nikolay. Reconstruction of Waste Water Treatment Plants in Russia, Approaches and Solutions. Applied Mechanics and Materials. 2013, vol. 361—363, pð. 628—631.
  3. Andreeva V.M. Rod Chlorella [Genus Chlorella]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1975.
  4. Leonova L.I., Stupina V.V. Vodorosli v doochistke stochnykh vod [Algae in the Advanced Treatment of Wastewater]. Kiev, Naukova Dumka Publ., 1990.
  5. Chong F.M.Y., Wong Y.S., Tam N.F.Y. Performance of Different Microalgal Species in Removing Nickel and Zinc from Industrial Wastewater. Chemosphere. 2000, no. 1, pp. 251—257.
  6. Fytianos K., Voudrias E., Raikos N. Modelling of Phosphorus Removal from Aqueous and Wastewater Samples Using Ferric Iron. Environmental Pollution. 1998, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 123—130.
  7. Blackall L.L., Cricetti G.R., Saunders A.M., Bond Ph. L. A Review and Update of the Microbiology of Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal in Wastewater Treatment Plants. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. 2002, vol. 81, no. 1—4, pp. 681—691. DOI: 10.1023/A:1020538429009.
  8. De-Bashan L.E., Moreno M., Hernandez J.P., Bashan Y. Removal of Ammonium and Phosphorus Ions from Synthetic Wastewater by the Microalgae Chlorella Vulgaris Coimmobilized in Alginate Beads with the Microalgae Growth-promoting Bacterium Azospirillum Brasilense. Water Research. 2002, vol. 36, no. 12, pp. 2941—2948.
  9. De-Bashan L.E., Hernandez J.P., Morey T., Bashan Y. Microalgae Growth-promoting Bacteria as «Helpers» for Microalgae: a Novel Approach for Removing Ammonium and Phosphorus from Municipal Wastewater. Water Research. 2004, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 466—474.
  10. Sriwiriyarat T., Randall C. W. Performance of IFAS Wastewater Treatment Processes for Biological Phosphorus Removal. Water Research. 2005, vol. 39, no. 16, pp. 3873—3884.
  11. Guzzon A., Bohn A., Diociaiuti M., Albertano P. Cultured Phototrophic Biofilms for Phosphorus Removal in Wastewater Treatment. Water Research. 2008, vol. 42, no. 16, pp. 4357—4367.
  12. Moelants N., Smets I.Y., Van Impe J.F. The Potential of an Iron Rich Substrate for Phosphorus Removal in Decentralized Wastewater Treatment Systems. Separation and Purification Technology. 2011, vol. 77, no. 1, pp. 40—45. DOI: 10.1016/j.seppur.2010.11.017.
  13. Boelee N.C., Temmink H., Janssen M., Buisman C.J.N., Wijffels R.H. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal from Municipal Wastewater Effluent Using Microalgal Biofilms. Water Research. 2011, vol. 45, no. 18, pp. 5925—5933. DOI: 10.1016/j.watres.2011.08.044.
  14. Lopez-Vazcues C.M., Hooijmans C.M., Brdjanovic D., Gijzen H.J., van Loosdrecht M.C.M. Factors Affecting the Microbial Populations at Full-scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal (EBPR) Wastewater Treatment Plants in the Netherlands. Water Research. 2008, vol. 42, no. 10—11, pp. 2349—2360.
  15. Krzemieniewski M., Debowski M., Janczukowicz W. The Influence of Different Intensity Electromagnetic Fields on Phosphorus and Cod Removal from Domestic Wastewater in Steel Packing Systems. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies. 2004, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 381—387.

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Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

Vestnik MGSU 4/2014
  • Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich - Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Senior Lecturer, Khujand Politechnic Institute of Tajik Technical University by academic M. Osimi (PITTU); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 226 Lenina st., Khujand, 735700, Tajikistan; applicant, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 142-149

Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.4.142-149

References
  1. IEA. World Energy Outlook 2004. International Energy Agency, Paris, IEA/OECD, 2004.
  2. Butti K., Perlin J. A Golden Thread: 2500 Years of Solar Architecture and Technology. London, 1980.
  3. United Nations on Climate Change. General Convention Kyoto, 1997.
  4. Gritsevich I. Protokol konferentsii po global'nomu klimatu v Kioto: novye pravila igry na sleduyushchee desyatiletie [Protocol of the Conference on Global Climate in Kyoto: New Game Rules for the Coming Decade]. Ekonomicheskaya effektivnost': Ezhekvartal'nyy byulleten' Tsentra po effektivnomu ispol'zovaniyu energii (TsENEF) [Economic Efficiency: Quarterly Bulletin of the Center on Eficcient Energy Use (TsENEF)]. Moscow, 1998, no. 18.
  5. Glikson A.L., Doroshenko A.V. Geliosistemy i teplovye nasosy v sistemakh avtonomnogo teplo- i kholodosnabzheniya [Heliosystems and Heat Pumps in the Systems of Autonomous Heat and Cooling Supply]. ABOK. 2004, no. 7, pp. 18—23.
  6. Tabunshchikov Yu.A., Akopov B.L. Energeticheskie vozmozhnosti naruzhnogo klimata [Energy Possibilities of Outside Climate]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 50—55.
  7. Butuzov V.A. Solnechnoe teplosnabzhenie: sostoyanie del i perspektivy razvitiya [Solar Heat Subbly: Situation and Development Prospects]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2000, no. 4, pp. 28—30.
  8. Dik Dolmans. Vozmozhnosti zatenyayushchikh geliosistem [Possibilities of Shading Heliosystems]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2010, no. 7, pp. 66—69.
  9. Popel' O.S. Effektivnost' primeneniya solnechnykh vodonagrevateley v klimaticheskikh usloviyakh sredney polosy Rossii [Efficiency of Solar Water Heaters Application in in Central Russia Climate Conditions]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Saving]. 2001, no.1, pp. 30—33.
  10. Integrirovannaya otsenka sostoyaniya okruzhayushchey sredy Respubliki Tadzhikistan. Programma OON po okruzhayushchey srede (UNEP) [Integrated Assessment of the Environment State in the Tajikistan Republic. United Nations Environmental Programme]. Komitet po okhrane okruzhayushchey sredy pri pravitel'stve Respubliki Tadzhikistan [Environmental Protection Committee under the Government of Tajikistan Republic]. Available at: http://hifzitabiat.tj/files/integrirovanaya_otsenka_sostoyaniya_os_rt_2005.pdf. Date of access: 14.01.2014.
  11. Kak nachat' ekonomit' 75 % zatrat na goryachee vodosnabzhenie i 40 % zatrat na otoplenie? [How to Start Saving 75 % of Expenses on Hot-water Supply and 40 % of Expenses on Heating?]. Sun-air-water.ru. Available at: http://www.sun-air-water.ru/geliosystems. Date of access: 14.01.2014.
  12. Tanaka S., Suda R. Zhilye doma s avtonomnym teplokhladosnabzheniem [Living Houses with Independent Heating and Cooling Supply]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989, 185 p.
  13. Sistema otopleniya za schet energii Solntsa uzhe segodnya! [Heating System by Means of Solar Energy Today!]. EngSystem Company. Available at: http://eng-system.com/id7533.htm. Date of access: 14.01.2014.
  14. Nigmatov I.I. Osobennosti arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo proektirovaniya zdaniy v usloviyakh Tsentral'noy Azii [Peculiarities of Architectural and Construction Design of Buildings in Central Asian Conditions]. Dushanbe,Tadzhik NIINTI Publ., 1993, 216 p.
  15. Energiya solntsa [Solar Energy]. Kompaniya Vozobnovlyaemaya energiya [Renewable Energy Company]. Available at: http://www.smarthome26.ru/sun-energy. Date of access: 14.01.14.

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Trenchless renovation of worn-out pipelines through their prior destruction and dragging new polymer pipes in place of the old

Vestnik MGSU 7/2014
  • Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Water Supply and Waste Water Treatment, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bogomolova Irina Olegovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Assistant, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Gureeva Irina Sergeevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) student, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-36-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 101-109

The authors present an analysis of effective methods of trenchless renovation of worn-out pipelines for water supply and wastewater disposal systems by means of prior destruction and dragging the new polymer pipes in the free space. The analysis of the devices for the destruction of the pipeline by trenchless methods, which include the pneumatic hammers, the wideners, petal cutters of various designs, is given. The article describes the conditions for application of different types of devices for destruction of pipelines, in particular, the range of destructible diameters and ROP. A fundamental condition for the effective work on the destruction of old pipes and dragging polymer and other pipes is the correct selection of conical reamers (their length and material, the angle of approach, the presence and number of cutting blades of a certain form, blades, etc.). Depending on the type of pipe (the strength of the wall) can be used to smooth the lead-in part of extenders or equipped with cutting lengthwise or roller blades. Tips-chopping knives, regardless of their design differences act like a can opener, slitting line into two or more parts and then pressing them into the surrounding soil and ensuring the free passage of the new extender conical pipes. The average speed of movement with destructive tip is about 80 m/h. A speed reduction is observed only when passing through the tip of the screw connections of the pipes. The work on restoration of old pipe sections shall be conducted in accordance with technological regulations, including preparations, which include inspection, skipping rope, winch procleaning, etc.), the main (construction) and final (dismantling) work that are associated with all stages of the process of the destructing the old and dragging a new pipeline. Particular attention is paid to foreign experience of trenchless renovation for steel pipes with couplings roller blades. The authors present the characteristics of renovation, approaches to the destruction of the old pipeline, in particular, the tests to assess the effectiveness of cutting pipe cutting devices. The technical process indicators are offered.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.101-109

References
  1. Khramenkov S.V. Strategiya modernizatsii vodoprovodnoy seti [Strategy of Modernization of Water Supply Networks]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2005, 398 p.
  2. Khramenkov S.V., Primin O.G., Otstavnov A.A. Ispol'zovanie polietilenovykh trub dlya sistem vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya [Use of Polyethylene Pipes for Water Supply and Sanitation]. Moscow, Sovremennaya poligrafiya Publ., 2010, 318 p.
  3. Rybakov A.P. Osnovy bestransheynykh tekhnologiy [Basics of Trenchless Technologies]. Moscow, PressByuro Publ., 2005, 304 p.
  4. Khramenkov S.V., Orlov V.A., Khar'kin V.A. Optimizatsiya vosstanovleniya vodootvodyashchikh setey [Optimization of Gravity Networks Restoration]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2002, 160 p.
  5. Kuliczkowski A., Kuliczkowska E., Zwierzchowska A. Technologie beswykopowe w inzeynierii srodowiska. Wydawnictwo Seidel-Przywecki Sp., 2010, 735 p.
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Principles of managing ecologically safe architectural reconstruction of the territories affected by waste disposal of different genesis

Vestnik MGSU 7/2014
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vorontsov Evgeniy Anatol'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Tupitsyna Ol'ga Vladimirovna - Samara State Technical University (SSTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Docent, Associate Professor, Department of Chemical Technologies and Industrial Ecology, Samara State Technical University (SSTU), 244 Molodogvardeiskay str., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sukhonosova Anna Nikolaevna - Samara State Technical University (SSTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Department of Chemical Technologies and Industrial Ecology, Samara State Technical University (SSTU), 244 Molodogvardeiskay str., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Savel'ev Aleksey Aleksandrovich - Samara State Technical University (SSTU) postgraduate student, Department of Chemical Technologies and Industrial Ecology, Samara State Technical University (SSTU), 244 Molodogvardeiskay str., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Grishin Boris Mikhaylovich - Penza State University of Architecture and Construction (PSUAC) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Water Supply, Water Disposal and Hydrotechnics, Penza State University of Architecture and Construction (PSUAC), 28 Germana Titova str., Penza, 440028, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chertes Konstantin L'vovich - Samara State Technical University (SSTU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Chemical Technologies and Industrial Ecology, Samara State Technical University (SSTU), 244 Molodogvardeiskay str., Samara, 443100, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 110-132

Russia as well as the majority of the countries of the world is a highly urbanized country (according to expert opinion 70 % of the country population are citizens). The situation is worsening by the fact that in Russia, as well as in the majority of European countries, USA and Canada, great territories not occupied with agriculture are almost fully littered with industrial and consumer waste - including from solid municipal waste to highly toxic and radioactive. Generally about 9 bln tones of waste are accumulated in Russia, which includes 1.5 bln tones of dangerous waste. Basing on the analysis of more than 100 waste disposal objects in Samara region the authors showed that within its boundaries 17 landfills are situated, which after deactivation are potentially suitable as donors of recultivation materials: secondary mineral soils and soil substitutes. Moreover the separate remediated territories of can serve as sets for constructing waste neutralization complexes. The ideas presented in this work were used for estimating the state and justifying the methods of landfill recultivation in Zhigulevsk (Samara region).

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.110-132

References
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  7. Telichenko V.I., Potapov A.D., Shcherbina E.V. Nadezhnoe i effektivnoe stroitel'stvo na tekhnogenno zagryaznennykh territoriyakh [Sustainable and Efficient Construction on Technogenic Polluted Territories]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 1997, no. 8, pp. 31—32.
  8. Shcherbina E.V. Ekologicheskaya bezopasnost' mest razmeshcheniya otkhodov s pozitsiy ustoychivosti geotekhnicheskikh sistem [Ecological Safety of Landfills in Terms of Stability of Geotechnical Systems]. Sovremennye metody proektirovaniya, tekhnicheskoy ekspluatatsii i rekonstruktsii zdaniy i sooruzheniy: sbornik trudov MGSU [Contemporary Methods of Design, Technical Operation and Reconstruction of Buildings and Structures: Collection of Works of MGSU]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2005, pp. 109—112.
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Use of the water supply system of special purpose in buildings

Vestnik MGSU 9/2014
  • Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Scienc- es, Associate Professor, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 76-81

A water supply system of a special purpose is a necessary element in hot and cold shops of the industrial enterprises, office buildings and the medical centers, and also other rooms. The water supply systems of a special purpose, which give subsalty, sparkling water and water sated with oxygen, allow people to prevent, for example, strong dehydration of an organism, which is possible at big losses of water, especially in case of the people working in hot shops. Various elements of special drinking water supply system are given in the article, their main functions are described. Different types of the water folding devices pumping water to consumers, one of which is drinking fountain, are considered. Possible systems of water filtration, which can be established for quality improvement, are transferred. Among them the great role is played by membrane technologies and the return osmosis, which is widely applied now. Today there is a possibility of construction, both the centralized water supply system of a special purpose, and local. Besides, the least is a more preferable option taking into account capital expenditure for construction and operation, and also it can lead to solid resource-saving as a result of the electric energy saving going for water heating in heaters. Automatic machines of drinking water for a local water supply system of a special purpose have indisputable advantages. They are capable to carry out several functions at the same time, and also to distribute water to consumers. It allows placing all the necessary equipment, which will be well in harmony with the environment in their small and compact case, and will fit into any difficult interior of the room. Also they are very easily connected to the systems of an internal water supply system by means of a propylene tube that allows to change their sposition in space and to transfer to any place of the room with fast installation of equipment. Also the ecological effect was proved upon transition from coolers on machine guns of drinking water that allowed refusing the order of plastic bottles, which after use start accumulating on dumps, polluting the environment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.9.76-81

References
  1. Orlov E.V. Sistema vnutrennego vodoprovoda. Novyy tip vodorazbornykh priborov v zdaniyakh. Avtomaty pit'evoy vody [System of an Internal Water Supply System. New Type of Water Folding Devices in Buildings. Drinking Water Machine]. Tekhnika i tekhnologii mira [Equipment and Technologies of the World]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 37—41.
  2. Jegatheesan V., Kim S.H., Joo C.K. Evaluating the Drinking Water Quality through an Efficient Chlorine Decay Model. Water Science and Technology. Water Supply. 2006, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 1—7. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/ws.2006.774.
  3. Isaev V.N., Chukhin V.A., Gerasimenko A.V. Resursosberezhenie v sisteme khozyaystvenno-pit'evogo vodoprovoda [Resource-saving in system of an economic and drinking water supply system]. Santekhnika [Bathroom Fitments]. 2011, no. 3, pp. 14—17.
  4. Orlov V.A. Puti obespecheniya sanitarnoy nadezhnosti vodoprovodnykh setey [Ways of Ensuring Sanitary Reliability of Water Supply Systems]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 181—187.
  5. Orlov E.V. Vodo- i resursosberezhenie. Zhilye zdaniya kottedzhnykh i dachnykh poselkov [Water- and Resource-saving. Residential Buildings in Cottage and Housing Estates]. Tekhnologii mira [Technologies of the World]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 35—41.
  6. Peter-Varbanets M., Zurbr?gg C., Swartz C., Pronk W. Decentralized Systems for Potable Water and the Potential of Membrane Technology. Water Research, 2009, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 245—265. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.10.030.
  7. Brodach M.M. Zelenoe vodosnabzhenie i vodootvedenie [Green water supply and water disposal]. Santekhnika [Bathroom Fitments]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 6—9.
  8. Polak J., Bartoszek M., Sulkowski W.W. Comparison of Humificftion Processes during Sewage Purification in Treatment Plant with Different Technological Processes. Water Research. Sep. 2009, vol. 43, no. 17, pp. 4167—4176.
  9. Isaev V.N., Presnov V.A. Problemy vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya sovremennoy maloetazhnoy zastroyki v Rossii i idei po uluchsheniyu situatsii v etoy sfere [Problems of Water Supply and Water Disposal of Modern Low Building in Russia and Ideas on Improvement of a Situation in this Sphere]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 2, pp. 154—161.
  10. Tchobanoglous G., Leverenz H.L., Nellor M.H., Crook J. Direct Potable Reuse: The Path Forward. WateReuse Research Foundation and Water Reuse California, Washington, DC, 2011, 114 p. Available at: http://www.deq.idaho.gov/media/829260-direct-potable-reuseconference-2012.pdf. Date of access: 25.07.2014.
  11. Pervov A.G., Andrianov A.P., Spitsov D.V. Vodo- i energosberezhenie v gorodskom khozyaystve. Primenenie sovremennykh membrannykh tekhnologiy [Water- and Energy Saving in Municipal Economy. Application of Modern Membrane Technologies]. Santekhnika [Bathroom Fitments]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 30—36.
  12. Takacs I., Vanrolleghem P.A., Wett B., Murthy S. Elemental Balance Based Methodology to Establish Reaction Stoichiometry in Environmental Modelling. Water Science & Technology. 2007, vol. 56, no. 9, pp. 37—41. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2007.606.
  13. Andrianov A.P. Doochistka moskovskoy vodoprovodnoy vody: primenenie membrannykh tekhnologiy [Tertiary Treatment of the Moscow Tap Water: Application of Membrane Technologies]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4, vol. 2, pp. 16—20.
  14. Brodach M.M. Ot vodosberezheniya k zdaniyu s nulevym vodopotrebleniem [From Water Savings to a Building with Zero Water Consumption]. Santekhnika [Bathroom Fitments]. 2010, no. 6, pp. 4—7.
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Prediction of stress-strain state of municipal solid waste with application of soft soil creep model

Vestnik MGSU 9/2014
  • Ofrikhter Vadim Grigor'evich - Perm National Research Polytechnical University (PNRPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Construction Operations and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnical University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol'skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; +7 (342) 219-83-74; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Ofrikhter Yan Vadimovich - Perm National Research Polytechnical University (PNRPU) student, Construction Department, Perm National Research Polytechnical University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol'skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; +7 (342) 219-83-74; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 82-92

The deformation of municipal solid waste is a complex process caused by the nature of MSW, the properties of which differ from the properties of common soils. The mass of municipal solid waste shows the mixed behaviour partially similar to granular soils, and partially - to cohesive. So, one of mechanical characteristics of MSW is the cohesion typical to cohesive soils, but at the same time the filtration coefficient of MSW has an order of 1 m/day that is characteristic for granular soils. It has been established that MSW massif can be simulated like the soil reinforced by randomly oriented fibers. Today a significant amount of the verified and well proved software products are available for numerical modelling of soils. The majority of them use finite element method (FEM). The soft soil creep model (SSC-model) seems to be the most suitable for modelling of municipal solid waste, as it allows estimating the development of settlements in time with separation of primary and secondary consolidation. Unlike the soft soil, one of the factors of secondary consolidation of MSW is biological degradation, the influence of which is possible to consider at the definition of the modified parameters essential for soft soil model. Application of soft soil creep model allows carrying out the calculation of stress-strain state of waste from the beginning of landfill filling up to any moment of time both during the period of operation and in postclosure period. The comparative calculation presented in the paper is executed in Plaxis software using the soft-soil creep model in contrast to the calculation using the composite model of MSW. All the characteristics for SSC-model were derived from the composite model. The comparative results demonstrate the advantage of SSC-model for prediction of the development of MSW stress-strain state. As far as after the completion of the biodegradation processes MSW behaviour is similar to cohesion-like soils, the demonstrated approach seems to be useful for the design of waste piles as the basement for different constructions considering it as one of remediation techniques for the territories occupied by the old waste.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.9.82-92

References
  1. Kockel R., Jessberger H.L. Stability Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Slopes. Proceedings of 11th European Conference for Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. Copenhagen, Denmark, Danish Geotechnical Society, 1995, vol. 2, pp. 73—78.
  2. Manassero M., Van Impe W.F, Bouazza A. Waste Disposal and Containment. Proceedings of 2nd International Congress on Environmental Geotechnics. Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, 1996, vol. 3, pp. 1425—1474.
  3. Sivakumar Babu G.L., Reddy K.R., Chouskey S.K., Kulkarni H.S. Prediction of Longterm Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Settlement Using Constitutive Model. Practice Periodical of Hazardous, Toxic and Radioactive Waste Management. New York, ASCE, 2010, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 139—150. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.1944-8376.0000024.
  4. Sivakumar Babu G.L., Reddy K.R., Chouskey S.K. Constitutive Model for Municipal Solid Waste Incorporating Mechanical Creep and Biodegradation-induced Compression. Waste Management. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2010, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 11—22. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2009.09.005.
  5. Sivakumar Babu G.L., Reddy K.R., Chouskey S.K. Parametric Study of MSW Landfill Settlement Model. Waste Management. Amsterdam, Elsevier, 2011, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 1222—1231. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.wasman.2011.01.007.
  6. Sivakumar Babu G.L. Evaluation of Municipal Solid Waste Characteristics of a Typical Landfill in Bangalore. Bangalore, India, India Institute of Science, 2012. Available at: http://cistup.iisc.ernet.in/presentations/Research%20project/CIST038.pdf/. Date of access: 02.04.2014.
  7. Brinkgreve R.B.J., Vermeer P. On the Use of Cam-Clay Models. Proceedings of the IV International Symposium on Numerical Models in Geomechanics. Rotterdam, Balkema, 1992, vol. 2, pp. 557—565.
  8. Burland J.B. The Yielding and Dilation of Clay. Geotechnique, London, Thomas Telford Limited, 1965, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 211—214.
  9. Burland J.B. Deformation of Soft Clay. PhD thes. Cambridge, UK, Cambridge University, 1967, 500 p.
  10. Brinkgreve R.B.J. Material Models. Plaxis 2D — Version 8. Rotterdam, A.A. Balkema, 2002, pp. 6-1—6-20.
  11. Brinkgreve R.B.J. Geomaterial Models and Numerical Analysis of Softening, Dissertation. Delft, Delft University of Technology, 1994. Available at: http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994PhDT........15B/. Date of access: 02.04.2014.
  12. Stolle D.F.E., Bonnier P.G., Vermeer P.A. A Soft Soil Model and Experiences with Two Integration Schemes. Numerical Models in Geomechanics. Leiden, Netherlands, CRC Press, 1997, pp. 123—128.
  13. Gibson R.E., Lo K.Y. A Theory of Soils Exhibiting Secondary Compression. Acta Polytechnica Scandinavica, Civil Engineering and Building Construction Series. Stockholm, Scandinavian Council for Applied Research, 1961, C 10, 196, pp. 225—239.
  14. Park H.I., Lee S.R. Long-term Settlement Behavior of Landfills with Refuse Decomposition. Journal of Solid Waste Technology and Management. Chester, USA, Widener University, 1997, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 159—165.
  15. Murthy V.N.S. Geotechnical Engineering: Principles and Practices of Soil Mechanics and Foundation Engineering. New York, Marcel Dekker, Inc., 2003, 1056 p.

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Chemical composition of fragmental products fractions of rock dumps and tailing dump as basis for potential geoecological danger estimation in the areas of mining enterprises

Vestnik MGSU 12/2014
  • Vdovina Ol’ga Konstantinovna - Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE) Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Head, Department of Ecological Expertise of Environmental Facilities and Construction Projects, Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE), 15 Veresaeva str., Moscow, 121357, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lavrusevich Andrey Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Melent’ev Geliy Borisovich - Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE) Candidate of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, chief research worker, Department of Ecological Expertise, Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE), 15 Veresaeva str., Moscow, 121357, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 167-79-31; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Evgrafova Irina Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Naumov Kirill Andreevich - Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE) engineering geologist, Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE), 15 Veresaeva str., Moscow, 121357, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • El’chin Danila Sergeevich - Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE) leading engineer, Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE), 15 Veresaeva str., Moscow, 121357, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Polyakova Kseniya Sergeevna - Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE) leading engineer, Institute of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Chrystal Chemistry of Rare Elements (IMIGRE), 15 Veresaeva str., Moscow, 121357, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shubina Elena Vasil’evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 152-161

Negative consequences of deposit development on the environment are well know. They manifest themselves most intensively in case of open-cut mining of ore minerals, which is related to the increase of rock dumps masses. The material of rock dumps and tailing dumps actively influence the state of the environment transforming the natural landscapes, first of all, as a reason of migration of waters changed as a result of their contact with mining waste. The authors give their estimation of the consequences of apatite-nephelinic ore crop in Khibini Ore District by the company “Apatit”, which includes the influence on the natural waters. The unique natural conditions of the area are the reason for high-level potential geoecological danger. The mobility of lots of toxic elements is raised because of ligand-ion OH in the waters of alkali rocks of Khibini soil.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.12.152-161

References
  1. Vdovina O.K., Naumov K.A., Stulova N.V. Geokhimicheskaya indikatsiya mineral'nykh klassov krupnosti granulometricheskogo analiza kak osnova analiza I otsenki podvizhnosti komponentov v podotval'nykh vodakh i sbrosakh gornorudnykh predpriyatiy [Geochemical Indication of Mineral Grain-Size Classes of the Grain Size Measurement as a Basis for Analysis and Components Mobility Estimation in Underspoil Waters and Mining Entersprises’ Waste]. Kompleksnoe osvoenie i pererabotka tekhnogennykh obrazovaniy s ispol'zovaniem innovatsionnykh tekhnologiy: Sbornik nauchykh statey regional’noy nauchno-praktickeskoy yubileynoy konferentsii 13—15 noyabrya 2013 g. [Complex Development and Processing of Man-made Mineral Formations Using Innovative Technologies : Collection of Scientific Papers of Regional Science and Practice Anniversary Conference, November 13—15, 2013]. Chelyabinsk, YuUrGU Publ., 2013, pp. 93—98. (In Russian)
  2. Ikorskiy S.V., Nivin V.A., Pripachkin V.A. Geokhimiya gazov endogennykh obrazovaniy [Geochemistry of Gases of Endogenous Masses]. Saint Petersburg, Nauka Publ., 1992, 179 p. (In Russian)
  3. Melent’ev G.B., Vdovina O.K., Malinina E.N., Karimova I.G., Popova A.N. Nauchno-metodicheskie aspekty ekologo-gidrokhimicheskogo izucheniya i otsenki vozdeystviya gornopromyshlennykh kompleksov na sredu obitaniya [Research and Methodology Aspects of Ecological Hydrochemical Investigation and Estimation of Mining Complex Infl uence on Living Environment]. Kompleksnoe osvoenie i pererabotka tekhnogennykh obrazovaniy s ispol'zovaniem innovatsionnykh tekhnologiy: Sbornik nauchykh statey regional’noy nauchno-praktickeskoy yubileynoy konferentsii 13—15 noyabrya 2013 g. [Complex Development and Processing of Man-made Mineral Formations Using Innovative Technologies : Collection of Scientific Papers of Regional Science and Practice Anniversary Conference, November 13—15, 2013]. Chelyabinsk, YuUrGU Publ., 2013, pp. 123—129. (In Russian)
  4. Ivanov V.V. Ekologicheskaya geokhimiya elementov : v 6 kn. Kn. 3. Redkie p-elementy [Ecological Geochemistry of Elements : in 6 Volumes. Vol. 3. Rare p-Elements]. E.K. Burenkov, editor. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1996, 352 p. (In Russian)
  5. Saet E.E., Yanin E.P., Smirnova R.S., Basharkevich I.L., Onishchenko T.L., Pavlova L.N., Trefi lova N.Ya., Achkasova A.I., Sarkisyan S.Sh. Geokhimiya okruzhayushchey sredy [Geochemistry of the Environment]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1990, 335 p. (In Russian)
  6. Vdovina O.K., Lavrusevich A.A., Vysokinskaya R.V., Evgrafova I.M., Polyakova K.S. Rol’ geokhimicheskogo fona pri otsenke investitsionnoy privlekatel’nosti rekreatsionnykh territoriy [Role of Geochemical Background at Evaluation of Investment Attractiveness of Recreational Territories]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 8, pp. 98—106. (In Russian)
  7. Vdovina O.K., Spiridonov I.G., Naumov K.A., Vysokinskaya R.V. Perspektivy vyyavleniya tekhnogennogo mestorozhdeniya zolota v Khibinskom rudnom rayone [Opportunities of Technogenic Deposits of Gold in Khibinski Ore District]. Resursovosproizvodyashchie, malootkhodnye i prirodookhrannye tekhnologii osvoeniya nedr: materialy XIII Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii (Moskva — Tbilisi 15—21 sentyabrya 2014 g.) [Resource-Reproducing, Low Waste and Environmental Technologies of Exploitation of Mineral Resources]. Moscow, 2014, p. 25. (In Russian)
  8. Kraynov S.R., Ryzhenko B.N., Shvets V.M. Geokhimiya podzemnykh vod. Teoreticheskie, prikladnye i ekologicheskie aspekty [Geochemistry of Underground Waters. Theoretical, Applied and Ecological Aspects]. 2nd Edition. Moscow, TsentrLitNefteGaz Publ., 2012, 672 p. (In Russian)
  9. Mazukhina S.I. Formirovanie poverkhnostnykh i podzemnykh vod Khibinskogo gornogo massiva [Formation of Surface and Underground Waters of Khibini Massif]. Apatity, KNTs RAN Publ., 2012, 174 p. (In Russian)
  10. Beckett P.J., Pappin-Willanen S., Courtin G.M. Techniques for Establishing Aquatic Vegetation in Perlimently Flooded Tailings — a Field Test. Proc. of the ISGE (GEOENV`97) Istanbul, Turkey, 1—5 sept 1997. Ed. I. Yilmazer, 1999, pp. 252—266.
  11. Ball J.W., Nordstrom D.K. User`s Manual for WATEQ4F, with Revised Thermodynamic Data Base and Test Cases for Calculating Speciation of Major, Trace and Redox Elements in Natural Waters. U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report. 1991, pp. 91—183.
  12. Bninfelt A.O. Separation of Rare-earth Elements from Apatite. Separ. Sci. 1973, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 623—625.
  13. Bortnikova S.B., Airijants A.A., Androsova A.A., Hozhina E.I., Faslullin S.M. Heavy Metals in the Aquatic Vegetation of Mining Regions. Proceedings of International Symposium on Geology and Environment (GEOENV’97), Istanbul, Turkey. 1997, pð. 355—363.
  14. Forstner U., Wittmann G. Metal Pollution in the Aquatic Environment. 2nd revised edition. New York, Springer—Verlag, 1981, 486 p.
  15. Moore J.W., Ramamoorthy S. Heavy Metals in Natural Waters: Applied Monitoring and Impact Assessment. 1983, Springer, 1 edition, 268 p.
  16. Popov V.G., Abdrakhmanov R.F., Tugushi I.N. Obmenno-adsorbtsionnye protsessy v podzemnoy gidrosfere [Exchange-Absorption Processes in Underground Hydrosphere]. Ufa, BNTsUrO RAN Publ., 1992, 156 p. (In Russian)
  17. Moiseenko T.I., Dauval'ter V.A., Rodyushkin I.V. Mekhanizmy krugovorota prirodnykh i antropogenno privnesennykh metallov v poverkhnostnykh vodakh Arkticheskogo basseyna [Circling Mechanism of Natural and Anthropogenically Introduced Metals in Surface Waters of Arctic Basin]. Vodnye resursy [Water Resources]. 1998, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 231—244. (In Russian)
  18. Morozov N.P. K geokhimii shchelochnykh elementov v rechnom stoke [To Geochemistry of Alkaline Elements in River Flow]. Geokhimiya [Geochemistry]. 1969, no. 6, pp. 729—737. (In Russian)
  19. Vladychenskiy A.S., Telesnina V.M. Osobennosti pochv lesnogo poyasa Khibin vo vzaimosvyazi s rastitel’nost’yu na primere okrestnostey oz. Malyy Vud”yavr [Soil Features in the Khibini Greenbelt in Relation with Vegetation on the Example of Small Vud”yavr Lake Area]. Vestnik MGU. Seriya: Pochvovedenie [The Moscow University Herald. Series: Soil Sciences]. 2005, no. 3, pp. 22—30. (In Russian)

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Study of the work of laboratory-scale oxidation ditch

Vestnik MGSU 12/2014
  • Gogina Elena Sergeevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Water Disposal and Aquatic Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Gul’shin Igor’ Alekseevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, scientific and educational center Water Supply and Water Disposal, postgraduate student, Department of Water Disposal and Aquatic Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 162-171

The social and economic development of the society to a greater or lesser degree touches upon ecological questions, which include water supply conservation. Waste water treatment plays a very important role. Over the recent years in developed countries the phenomenon of suburbanization has appeared. It means growth and development of the suburban area of the biggest cities. In relation with it, it seems perspective to investigate the technologies aimed at wastewater treatment coming from small settlements. The paper considers the prospects of the use of oxidation ditches as the main biological WWTP-structures for small towns in the Moscow region. In order to study the conditions to achieve high efficiency of nitrogen removal and to investigate the rule of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification removal (SND), the laboratory-scale oxidation ditch model was made in the Laboratory of Biological methods of Wastewater Treatment of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering. The experiment lasted for 6 months and showed good results, which can be used for further studies. The Michaelis - Menten formulas for enzyme kinetics of the studied biological system were obtained.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.12.162-171

References
  1. Li Lei, Jinren Ni. Three Dimensional Three-Phase Model for Simulation of Hydrodynamics, Oxygen Mass Transfer, Carbon Oxidation, Nitrification and Denitrification in an Oxidation Ditch. Water Research. 2014, no. 53, pp. 200—214. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2014.01.021.
  2. Gillot S., Heduit A. Effect of Air Flow Rate on Oxygen Transfer in an Oxidation Ditch Equipped with Fine Bubble Diffusers and Slow Speed Mixers. Water Research. 2000, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 1756—1762. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(99)00323-1.
  3. Insel G., Artan N., Orhon D. Effect of Aeration on Nutrient Removal Performance of Oxidation Ditch Systems. Environmental Engineering Science. 2005, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 802—815. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ees.2005.22.802.
  4. Lesage N., Sperandio M., Lafforgue C., Cockx A. Calibration and Application of a 1-D Model for Oxidation Ditches. Trans IChemE. 2003, vol. 81, part A, pp. 1259—1264. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1205/026387603770866470.
  5. Liu Y.L., Wei W.L., Lv B., Yang X.F. Research on Optimal Radius Ratio of Impellers in an Oxidation Ditch by Using Numerical Simulation. Desalination and Water Treatment. 2014, vol. 52, no. 13—15, pp. 2811—2816. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.883045.
  6. Mantziaras D., Katsiri A. Reaction Rate Constants and Mean Population Percentage for Nitrifi ers in an Alternating Oxidation Ditch System. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 2010, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 57—65. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00449-010-0446-2.
  7. Mantziaras D., Stamou A., Katsiri A. Effect of Operational Cycle Time Length on Nitro-Gen Removal in an Alternating Oxidation Ditch System. Bioprocess Biosyst. Eng. 2010, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 597—606.
  8. Ogilvie J.R., Phillips P. Modelling Process Variations in an Oxidation Ditch. Canadian Agricultural Engineering. 1972, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 59—62.
  9. Rittmann B.E., Langeland W.E. Simultaneous Denitrification with Nitrification in Single-Channel Oxidation Ditches. Water Pollution Control Federation. 1985, vol. 57, no. 4, pp. 300—308.
  10. Daijun Zhang, Lisha Guo, Danyu Xu, Yuan Chen. Simulation of Component Distributions in a Full-Scale Carrousel Oxidation Ditch: A Model Coupling Sludge-Wastewater Two-Phase Turbulent Hydrodynamics with Bioreaction Kinetics. Environmental Engineering Science. 2010, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 159—169. http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ees.2009.0154.
  11. Henze M., Harremoes P., Cour Jansen, J. la, Arvin, E. Wastewater Treatment. 3rd ed. 2002, X, 422 p.
  12. Yang M., Sun P., Wang R., Han J., Wang J., Song Y., Cai J., Tang X. Simulation and Optimization of Ammonia Removal at Low Temperature For a Double Channel Oxidation Ditch Based on Fully Coupled Activated Sludge Model (FCASM): A Full-Scale Study. Bioresource Technology. 2013, vol. 143, pp. 538—548. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.06.029.
  13. Peng Y., Hou H., Wang S., Cui Y., Zhiguo Y. Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in Pilot-Scale Anaerobic-Anoxic Oxidation Ditch System. Journal of Environmental Sciences. 2008, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 398—403.
  14. Shibin Xia, Junxin Liu. An Innovative Integrated Oxidation Ditch with Vertical Circle for Domestic Wastewater Treatment. Process Biochemistry. 2004, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 1111—1117. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(03)00216-4.
  15. Yanchen Liu, Hanchang Shi, Zhiqiang Wang, Long Fan, Huiming Shi. Approach to Enhancing Nitrogen Removal Performance With Fluctuation Of Infl uent In An Oxidation Ditch System. Chemical Engineering Journal. 2013, vol. 219, pp. 520—526. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.09.085.
  16. Schmid M., Thillb A., Purkholda U., Walchera M., Botterob J.Y., Ginestetc P., Nielsend P.H., Wuertze S., Wagnera M. Characterization of Activated Sludge Flocs By Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy And Image Analysis. Water Research. 2003, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 2043—2052. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00616-4.
  17. Liu B., Lin H., Yu G., Zhang S., Zhao C. Fate of Dissolved Organic Nitrogen During Biological Nutrient Removal Wastewater Treatment Processes. Journal of Environmental Biology. 2013, vol. 34, pp. 325—330.
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  19. Amand L., Carlsson B. Optimal Aeration Control in a Nitrifying Activated Sludge Process. Water Research. 2012, vol. 46, no. 7, pp. 2101—2110. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2012.01.023.
  20. Yakovlev S.V., Karyukhina T.A. Biokhimicheskie protsessy v ochistke stochnykh vod [Biochemical Processes in Wastewater Treatment]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1980, 200 p. (In Russian)

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Environmental assessment of a city on the model of energy-ecological efficiency

Vestnik MGSU 12/2014
  • Kuzovkina Tat’yana Vladimirovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Construction of the Objects of Thermal and Nuclear Power, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 781-80-07; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 172-181

This article gives an overview of the analytical methodology for assessing the environmental safety in construction, the existing government programs in energy saving, and the analysis of the actual state of the investigated problem, proposed a method of assessment of environmental safety efficiency criteria of a city. The analysis is based on the data on housing and communal services of the City of Moscow. As a result of the consideration of the government programs and methods of assessing the environmental security in construction the conclusion was made that none of the programs reviewed and non of the methods include consideration of the relationship between environmental parameters of environmental security and energy efficiency (indicators of them are considered separately from each other). In order to determine the actual state of environmental safety analytical review was performed of energy efficiency programs of the government in Moscow and the methods of assessing the environmental safety of a construction. After considering a methodology for assessing the environmental safety of a construction, the author proposes to use the model for determining the indicator of efficiency of the city to ensure the environmental safety of the processes of life-support of the city, which takes into account the dependence of the parameters of environmental safety and energy efficiency. The author describes the criteria for selecting thr data on energy and environmental efficiency of the city. The article shows the sequence to identify the criteria for determining the indicator of efficiency of the city. In the article the author presents the results of ecological assessment of Moscow on the energy-ecological efficiency model, using the model defined performance indicators of the city to ensure environmental safety processes of life support of the city. The model takes into account the dependence of environmental safety parameters, environmental and energy efficiency. The correlation analysis of the effectiveness of the city of Moscow, the graphs for the regression assessment models of the data are described. The coefficient of efficiency indicators correlation of city support and the coefficient of life safety in the city are calculated. Performance indicator for Moscow in 2009-2012 is defined, which reflects the dependence of the processes of life support and life sustenance of the city. The proposed approach to the assessment of environmental safety may be used in the development of governmental programs on energy saving, as well as in the preparation of regulatory documents.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.12.172-181

References
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  2. Negrebov A.I., Slesarev M.Yu., Telichenko V.I. Upravlenie proektami rekonstruktsii ob”ektov stroitel’stva po ekologicheskim trebovaniyam [Management of Reconstruction Projects of Construction Objects Accoeding to Ecological Requirements]. Mekhanizatsiya stroitel’stva [Mechanization of Construction]. 2002, no. 6, pp. 10—12. (In Russian)
  3. Energosberezhenie v gorode Moskve : Gosudarstvennaya programma goroda Moskvy na 2012—2016 gg. i na perspektivu do 2020 g. [Energy Saving in Moscow : State Program of Moscow City in 2012—2016 and Up to 2020]. Vestnik Mera i Pravitel’stva Moskvy [Proceedings of Moscow Major and Government]. 2011, no. 57, pp. 6—133. (In Russian)
  4. Prikaz Minenergo Rossii ot 30 iyunya 2014 g. ¹ 399 «Ob utverzhdenii metodiki rascheta znacheniy tselevykh pokazateley v oblasti energosberezheniya i povysheniya energeticheskoy effektivnosti, v tom chisle v sopostavimykh usloviyakh» [Order Russian ministry of Energy from 30.06.2014 no. 399 “Approving the Methods of Calculating the Targets Values in the Field of Energy Saving and Energy Efficiency, Including in Comparable Conditions]. LEKS-Konsalting. Available at: http://www.g-k-h.ru/upload/prikaz399.rtf. Date of access: 01.03.2013. (In Russian)
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  9. Foundations of the Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, Environmental Rating System, A Tool for Market Transformation. U.S. Green Building Council. 2006, August. Available at: http://www.usgbc.org/Docs/Archive/General/Docs2039.pdf/. Date of access: 01.03.2013.
  10. Kukadia V., Upton S., Hall D. Control of Dust from Construction and Demolition Activities. RE Press, 2003. Available at: http://products.ihs.com/cis/Doc.aspx?AuthCode=&DocNum=262929. Date of access: 01.03.2013.
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  12. Guidelines on Energy Efficiency of Lift & Escalator Installations. EMSD, 2007. Available at: http://www.emsd.gov.hk/emsd/e_download/pee/Guidelines_on_Energy_Efficiency_of_LiftnEsc_Installations_2007.pdf. Date of access: 01.03.2013.
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  14. Zaytseva T.V. Ekologicheskaya bezopasnost’ ob”ektov zhilishchno-kommunal’nogo khozyaystva. Uchet vliyaniya meropriyatiy po energosberezheniyu i energoeffektivnosti [Environmental Safety of the Objects of Housing and Communal Services. Accounting for the Effects of Energy Saving and Energy Efficiency Measures]. Stroitel’stvo — formirovanie sredy zhiznedeyatel’nosti : sbornik dokladov XVI Mezhdunarodnoy mezhvuzovskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii studentov, magistrantov, aspirantov i molodykh uchenykh (24—26 aprelya 2013 g., Moskva). Minobrnauki RF, MGSU [Construction — Forming Living Environment: Book of Reports Of The Sixteenth International Interuniversity Scientific And Practical Conference Of Students, Master And Postgraduate Students And Young Scientists (April, 24—26, 2013)]. Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, MGSU]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2013, no. 3 (6), pp. 596—601. (In Russian)
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  17. Doklad rukovoditelya Departamenta prirodopol’zovaniya i okhrany okruzhayushchey sredy Moskvy A.O. Kul’bachevskogo na Kollegii Departamenta, posvyashchennoy itogam raboty v 2012 godu i planam na 2013 god [Report of the Head of the Department of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Protection of Moscow A.O. Kul’bachevskiy on the Department Board Dedicated to the Results of the Work in 2012 and Plans for 2013]. Available at: http://www.dpioos.ru/eco/ru/report_result/o_8635. Date of access: 01.03.2013. (In Russian)
  18. Doklad o sostoyanii okruzhayushchey sredy v gorode Moskve v 2011 godu [Report on the State of the Environment in the City of Moscow in 2011]. Available at: http://www.dpioos.ru/eco/ru/report_result/o_3992. Date of access: 01.11.2012. (In Russian)
  19. Doklad rukovoditelya Departamenta prirodopol’zovaniya i okhrany okruzhayushchey sredy goroda Moskvy A.O. Kul’bachevskogo «Ob osnovnykh napravleniyakh, rezul’tatakh deyatel’nosti Departamenta prirodopol’zovaniya i okhrany okruzhayushchey sredy goroda Moskvy v 2011 godu i zadachakh na 2012 god» [Report of the Head of the Department of Natural Resources Management and Environmental Protection of Moscow A.O. Kul’bachevskiy “On the Main Directions, Results of the work of the Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Protection of the City of Moscow in 2011 and tasks for 2013”]. Available at: http://www.dpioos.ru/eco/ru/report_result/o_4156. Date of access: 01.11.2012. (In Russian)
  20. Gosudarstvennaya programma goroda Moskvy «Energosberezhenie v gorode Moskve» na 2011, 2012—2016 gg.» [The State Program of Moscow “Energy Efficiency in Moscow in 2011, 2012—2016”]. Available at: http://dgkh.mos.ru/the-state-program/realizationof-the-state-programs/moscow-state-program-energosberezhanie-in-the-city-of-moscow-onthe-2011-2012-2016.php?. Date of access: 01.03.2013. (In Russian)
  21. Gosudarstvennaya programma Rossiyskoy Federatsii «Energoeffektivnost’ i razvitie energetiki» [The State Program of the Russian Federation “Energy Efficiency and Energy Development”]. Vestnik Mera i Pravitel’stva Moskvy [Proceedings of Moscow Major and Government]. 2014, no. 23, 160 p. (In Russian)

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Operations improvement of the recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills

Vestnik MGSU 12/2014
  • Shcherbakov Vladimir Ivanovich - Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VGASU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Hydraulics, Water Supply and Water Disposal, Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (VGASU), 84 20-letiya Oktyabrya str., Voronezh, 394006, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Polivanova Tat’yana Vladimirovna - Southwest State University (SWSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Acting Head, Department of Water Supply and Water Conservation, Southwest State University (SWSU), 94 50 let Oktyabrya str., Kursk, 305040, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Buromskiy Vladimir Vasil’evich - AOOT Ryl’sksakhar Candidate of Technical Sciences, Head, AOOT Ryl’sksakhar, pos. im. Kuybysheva, Yapoven’, 307330, Kurskaya oblast’, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 182-192

Water management in sugar factories doesn’t have analogues in its complexity among food industry enterprises. Water intensity of sugar production is very high. Circulation water, condensed water, pulp press water and others are used in technological processes. Water plays the main role in physical, chemical, thermotechnical processes of beet processing and sugar production. As a consequence of accession of Russia to the WTO the technical requirements for production processes are changing. The enforcements of ecological services to balance scheme of water consumption and water disposal increased. The reduction of fresh water expenditure is one of the main tasks in economy of sugar industry. The substantial role in fresh water expenditure is played by efficiency of cooling and aeration processes of conditionally clean waters of the 1st category. The article contains an observation of the technologies of the available solutions and recommendations for improving and upgrading the existing recycling water-cooling systems of sugar mills. The authors present the block diagram of the water sector of a sugar mill and a method of calculating the optimal constructive and technological parameters of cooling devices. Water cooling towers enhanced design and upgrades are offered.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.12.182-192

References
  1. Sorokin A.I. Oborotnoe vodosnabzhenie sakharnykh zavodov: prilozhenie k zhurnalu «Sakharnaya svekla: proizvodstvo i pererabotka».[Water Recycling of Sugar Mills : Supplement to the Journal “Sugar Beet: Production and Processing]. Moscow, Agropromizdat Publ., 1989, 176 p. (In Russian)
  2. Spichak V.V., Bazlov V.N., Anan’eva P.A., Polivanova T.V. Vodnoe khozyaystvo sakharnykh zavodov [Water Management of Sugar Factories]. Kursk, GNU RNIISP Rossel’khozakademii Publ., 2005, 167 p. (In Russian)
  3. Spichak V.V., Puzanova L.N., Ryzhkova E.P. Aktual’nye voprosy ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti sakharnogo proizvodstva [Current Questions of Ecological Safety of Sugar Production]. Sakhar [Sugar]. 2007, no. 1, pp. 47—50. (In Russian)
  4. Bugaenko I.F. Analiz proizvodstvennykh i stochnykh vod sakharnogo proizvodstva [Industrial and Waste Water Analysis in Sugar Production]. Moscow, Teler Publ., 2000, 63 p. (In Russian)
  5. Polivanova T.V. Povyshenie nadezhnosti raboty sistem vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya sakharnykh zavodov [Improving the Reliability of Water Supply and Sanitation of Sugar Mills]. Kursk, YuZGU Publ., 2012, 144 p.
  6. Zartsyna S.S., Kharitonova L.A., Kalinkina S.P. Sovershenstvovanie tekhnologii ochistki stochnykh vod pishchevykh predpriyatiy [Improving the Technology of Wastewater Treatment of Food Industry Enterprises]. Voda i ekologiya [Water and Ecology]. 2007, no. 3, pp. 48—52. (In Russian)
  7. Ovchinnikov A.A. i dr. Organizatsiya zamknutogo oborotnogo potrebleniya pri pererabotke sakharnoy svekly [Organization of Closed Recycle Consumption in the Process of Sugar Beet Processing]. Khranenie i pererabotka sel’khozsyr’ya [Storage and Processing of Agri Supplies]. 2005, no. 9, pp. 47—49. (In Russian)
  8. Zueva S.B., Zartsyna S.S., Shcherbakov V.I. Ekozashchitnye tekhnologii sistem vodootvedeniya predpriyatiy pishchevoy promyshlennosti [Environmentally Safe Technologies of Sewerage Systems in the Food Industry]. Saint Petersburg, Prospekt nauki Publ., 2012, 328 p. (In Russian)
  9. Shcherbakov V.I., Drozdov E.V., Pomogaeva V.V. Teoreticheskoe opredelenie ezhektiruyushchey sposobnosti struynykh aeratorov pri istechenii zhidkosti iz kol’tsevogo nasadka [Theoretical Determination of the Ejecting Ability of Jet Aerators at Fluid Discharge from the Annular Nozzle]. Vestnik Voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. [Proceedings of the Voronezh State Technical University]. 2007, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 186—188. (In Russian)
  10. Bikchentaev R.M., Tsyrkin L.I., Bikchentaev R.M., Suponitskiy E.S. Patent 2178134 RU, MPK F28F25/08, F28Ñ1/00. Vodoulovitel' gradirni. ¹ 2001110438/06 ; zayavl. 19.04.2001 ; opubl. 10.01.2002. Byul. ¹ 14. [Russian Patent 2178134, MPK F28F25/08, F28Ñ1/00. Cooling Tower Water Catcher. No. 2001110438/06 ; appl. 19.04.2001 ; publ. 10.01.2002. Bull. no. 14.]. (In Russian)
  11. Chaplygin A.V. Kobelev N.S., Morozov V.A. Patent 2156422 RU, MPK F28C1/00, F28F25/00. Ventilyatornaya gradirnya. ¹ 99103941/06 ; zayavl. 23.02.1999 ; opubl. 20.09.2000. Byul. ¹ 9 [Russian Patent 2156422, MPK F28C1/00, F28F25/00. Mechanical Cooling Tower. No. 99103941/06 ; appl. 23.02.1999 ; publ. 20.09.2000. Bull. ¹ 9.]. Byulleten' izobreteniy [Bulletin of Inventions]. Patent holder: Southwest State University. 1997. (In Russian)

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optimization for trenchless reconstruction of pipelines

Vestnik MGSU 1/2015
  • Zhmakov Gennadiy Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Water Disposal and Water Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Aleksandr Anatol’evich - Siberian Federal University (SibFU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Siberian Federal University (SibFU), 79 Svobodny pr., Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 63-73

Today the technologies of trenchless reconstruction of pipelines are becoming
more and more widely used in Russia and abroad. One of the most perspective is methods is shock-free destruction of the old pipeline being replaced with the help of hydraulic installations with working mechanism representing a cutting unit with knife disks and a conic expander. A construction of a working mechanism, which allows making trenchless reconstruction of pipelines of different diameters, is optimized and patented and its developmental prototype is manufactured. The dependence of pipeline cutting force from knifes obtusion of the working mechanisms. The cutting force of old steel pipelines with obtuse knife increases proportional to the value of its obtusion. Two stands for endurance tests of the knifes in laboratory environment are offered and patented.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.1.63-73

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Protective coating as a factor to ensure the strength and hydraulic performance of recoverable pipelines

Vestnik MGSU 1/2015
  • Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Water Supply and Waste Water Treatment, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zotkin Sergey Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Informatics and Applied Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khrenov Konstantin Evgen’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-36-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Dezhina Irina Sergeevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Master student, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-36-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bogomolova Irina Olegovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Assistant, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 74-82

The authors present an analysis of various types of internal protective pipeline coatings to ensure the strength and hydraulic characteristics of a remodeled pipeline and related coating methods for effective trenchless renovation of engineering systems, water supply systems and sanitation. As protective coating the authors considered a round profile tube of a smaller diameter than of the old pipe, close to the old pipe, sprayed lining on the basis of inorganic and inorganic materials. The article analyzes the methods of trenchless renovation for applying protective coatings: routing in the old pipeline of new pipes made of polymeric materials or polymeric sleeves, centrifugal spraying on the inner surface of pipelines’ inorganic and organic protective coatings. Special attention was paid to bag technology, providing the required strength properties at specific values of the modulus of elasticity and a number of external factors such as the depth of the existing pipe, the existence and magnitude of the horizon groundwater over it. Also attention is paid to the application technology of tape coatings ribbed profile on the inner surface of pipelines. This technology has a unique feature, which is the ability of recoverable pipeline functioning during its renovation by winding an endless belt and the formation of a new pipe. The tape coating winding is carried out by different types of spiral winding machines. The thickness of the protective coating layer forming the tube remains minimal. Inorganic cement-sand and organic coatings were considered as alternative options for repair of pipelines, which allow to localize the defects in the form of a fistula, minor cracks and other damages. However it is noted that a cement-sandy covering is inferior to organic, because it does not provide the strength characteristics of the pipeline system. The main advantage of the organic coating is mudding fistula of a large diameter, making a high wear-resisting pipe, ensuring a smooth surface. Then the protective coating almost merges with the old pipeline. The conclusion is made on the necessity of taking account of the potential for energy saving in case of various protective coatings and implemented trenchless technologies application.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.1.74-82

References
  1. Alekseev M.I., Ermolin Yu.A. Ispol’zovanie otsenki nadezhnosti stareyushchikh kanalizatsionnykh setey pri ikh rekonstruktsii [Use of Reliability Estimation of on Aging Sewer Networks During Their Reconstruction]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Technique]. 2004, no. 6, pp. 21—23. (In Russian)
  2. Dobromyslov A.Ya. Problema dolgovechnosti i nadezhnosti truboprovodnykh sistem [The Problem of Durability and Reliability of Pipeline Systems]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2003, no. 5, pp. 2—4. (In Russian)
  3. Orlov V.A. Laboratornyy praktikum po rekonstruktsii i vosstanovleniyu inzhenernykh setey [Laboratory Workshop on Reconstruction and Rehabilitation of Engineering Networks]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 120 p. (In Russian)
  4. Otstavnov A.A. Sovremennye materialy i tekhnologii dlya realizatsii zadach reformy ZhKKh [Modern Materials and Technologies to Achieve the Objectives of the Housing Reform]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2004, no. 4, pp. 2—4. (In Russian)
  5. Khramenkov S.V., Primin O.G., Orlov V.A., Otstavnov A.A. Reglament ispol’zovaniya polietilenovykh trub dlya rekonstruktsii setey vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya [Regulations on the Use of Polyethylene Pipes for Reconstruction of Water Supply and Sanitation Systems]. Moscow, Miklosh Publ., 2007, 129 p. (In Russian)
  6. Khantaev I.S., Orlov E.V. Truby dlya realizatsii bestransheynykh tekhnologiy protyagivaniya i prodavlivaniya [Pipes for Trenchless Technologies of Pulling and Driving]. Zarubezhnyy i otechestvennyy opyt v stroitel’stve [Foreign and Native Experience in Construction]. 2007, no. 2, pp. 75—86. (In Russian)
  7. Otstavnov A.A., Orlov E.V., Khantaev I.S. Pervoocherednost’ vosstanovleniya truboprovodov vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya [Priority of Recovering Water Supply and Sanitation Pipelines]. Stroitel’nyy inzhiniring [Construction Engineering]. 2007, no. 10, pp. 44—49. (In Russian)
  8. Zwierzchowska A. Technologie bezwykopowej budowy sieci gazowych, wodociagowych i kanalizacyjnych. Politechnika swietokrzyska. 2006, 180 p.
  9. Frassinelli A., Furlani B. Trenchless Pipeline Removal (TPR). NO-DIG 2013. Sydney, Australia, 1—4 September 2013. Available at: http://toc.proceedings.com/22211webtoc.pdf. Date of access: 19.11.2013.
  10. Rameil M. Handbook Of Pipe Bursting Practice. Vulkan Verlag, 2007, 351 p.
  11. Brahler C. City of Helena. California Rutherford 12-inch Diameter Water Pipeline Rehabilitation. NO-DIG 2013. Sydney, Australia, 1—4 September 2013. Available at: http://toc.proceedings.com/22211webtoc.pdf. Date of access: 19.11.2013.
  12. Khar’kin V.A. K voprosu vybora trub iz polietilenov razlichnykh klassov dlya bestransheynoy zameny vetkhikh napornykh i samotechnykh truboprovodov [To the Question of Choosing Pipes Made of PE of Different Classes for Trenchless Replacement of the Old Pressure and Gravity Pipelines]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2003, no. 5, pp. 34—38. (In Russian)
  13. Orlov V.A., Shlychkov D.I., Koblova E.V. Sravnenie metodov bestransheynoy renovatsii truboprovodnykh sistem v sfere energosberezheniya [Comparing the Methods of Trenchless Renovation of Pipeline Systems in the Field of Energy Saving]. Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii pamyati akademika RAN S.V. Yakovleva [Materials of the International Science and Practice Conference Dedicated to the Member of RAS S.V. Yakovlev]. Moscow, MGAKKhiS Publ., 2011, pp. 256—263. (In Russian)
  14. Zwierzchowska A. Optymalizacja doboru metod bezwykopowej budowy. Politechnika swietokrzyska. 2003, 160 p.
  15. Otstavnov A.A., Khantaev I.S., Orlov E.V. K vyboru trub dlya bestransheynogo ustroystva truboprovodov vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya [Selection of Pipes for Trenchless Arrangement of Water Supply and Sanitation Pipelines]. Plasticheskie massy [Journal of Plastic Masses]. 2007, pp. 40—43. (In Russian)
  16. Khar’kin V.A. Sistematizatsiya i analiz patologiy vodootvodyashchikh setey, podlezhashchikh vosstanovleniyu [Systematization and Analysis of the Pathologies of Drainage Networks to be Restored]. ROBT [Russian Society on Implementation of Trenchless Technologies]. 2001, no. 2, pp. 13—25. (In Russian)
  17. Kuliczkowski A., Kuliczkowska E., Zwierzchowska A. Technologie beswykopowe w inzeynierii srodowiska. Wydawnictwo Seidel-Przywecki Sp. 2010, 735 p.
  18. Ishmuratov R.R., Stepanov V.D., Orlov V.A. Opyt primeneniya bestransheynoy spiral’no-navivochnoy tekhnologii vosstanovleniya truboprovodov na ob”ektakh Moskvy [Experience of the Use of Trenchless Spiral-Winding Technology of Piping Recovery on the Objects of Moscow]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Technique]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 27—32. (In Russian)
  19. Khar’kin V.A. Gidravlicheskie osobennosti kanalizatsionnykh setey s uchastkami iz polimernykh trub, ulozhennykh bestransheyno vzamen vetkhikh truboprovodov iz traditsionnykh trub [Hydraulic Characteristics of Sewer Networks with Areas of Plastic Pipes Laid Trenchless Instead of the Old Pipelines of Traditional Pipes]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2003, no. 4, pp. 30—35. (In Russian)
  20. Orlov V.A., Zotkin S.P., Khar’kin V.A. Vybor optimal’nogo metoda bestransheynogo vosstanovleniya beznapornykh truboprovodov [Choosing the Optimal Method of Trenchless Reconstruction of Gravity Pipeline]. ROBT [Russian Society on Implementation of Trenchless Technologies]. 2001, no. 4, pp. 30—34. (In Russian)
  21. Orlov E.V., Salomeev V.P., Kruglova I.S. Otsenka ostatochnogo resursa napornykh stal’nykh truboprovodov sistem vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya [Residual Life Assessment of Pressure Steel Pipelines for Water Supply and Sanitation Systems]. Problemy razvitiya transportnykh i inzhenernykh kommunikatsiy [Issues of the Development of Transport and Engineering Services]. 2005. no. 3—4, pp. 25—31. (In Russian)
  22. Orlov V.A., Averkeev I.A. Analiz avtomatizirovannykh programm rascheta vodoprovodnykh setey v tselyakh gidravlicheskogo modelirovaniya pri renovatsii truboprovodov [Analysis of CAD Software Designated for Analysis of Water Supply Systems for the Purpose of Hydraulic Modeling Designated for Renovation of Pipelines]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 237—243. (In Russian)
  23. Averkeev I.A., Orlov E.V. Proverennaya nadezhnost’: Issledovanie prochnostnykh vozmozhnostey zashchitnogo pokrytiya vodoprovodnykh trub v period ikh renovatsii [Proved Reliability: Investigation of Strength Characteristics of Protective Coating of Pipelines during their Renovation]. Voda Magazine [Water Magazine]. 2013, no. 5 (69), pp. 46—47. (In Russian)
  24. Nazdrachev I.Yu., Orlov E.V. Tekhniko-ekonomicheskoe sravnenie variantov proektirovaniya remonta truboprovodov sistem vodosnabzheniya [Technical and Economic Comparison of Repair Design Options of Water Piping Systems]. Problemy razvitiya transportnykh i inzhenernykh kommunikatsiy [Issues of the Development of Transport and Engineering Services]. 2007, no. 3—4, pp. 28—39. (In Russian)
  25. Otstavnov A.A., Ustyugov V.A., Dmitriev A.N. K voprosu minimizatsii zatrat na ustroystvo i ekspluatatsiyu podzemnykh vodoprovodov [On Minimization of the Cost of Installation and Operation of Underground Water Pipes]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2006, no. 9, pp. 38—43. (In Russian)

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Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

Vestnik MGSU 1/2015
  • Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Scienc- es, Associate Professor, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 83-89

In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi, which allows receiving good relaxation after a difficult day. Also one more direction will be the organization in occupations of an aquacycling, so-called water trainings in a special bathtub by means of exercise machines for strengthening of health of the population.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.1.83-89

References
  1. Naumov A.L., Brodach M.M. Resursosberezhenie v sistemakh vodosnabzheniya i vodootvedeniya [Resource-Saving in Water Supply and Water Disposal Systems]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 14—19. (In Russian)
  2. Svintsov A.P., Gusakov S.V., Rybakov Yu.P. Ekspluatatsionnaya nadezhnost’ sanitarno-tekhnicheskoy armatury [Operational Reliability of Sanitary Fittings]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2010, no. 6, pp. 48—53. (In Russian)
  3. Alekseev V.S. Izmeneniya i dopolneniya v Vodnyy kodeks Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Changes and Additions in the Water Code of the Russian Federation]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Equipment]. 2013, no 12, pp. 5—10. (In Russian)
  4. Brodach M.M. Voda — istochnik zhizni i dvizhushchaya sila dlya ustoychivogo razvitiya [Water — a Source of Life and a Driving Force for Sustainable Development]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2009, no. 5, pp. 6—9. (In Russian)
  5. Wang H., Hu C., Hu X., Yang M., Qu J. Effects of Disinfectant and Biofilm on the Corrosion of Cast Iron Pipes in a Reclaimed Water Distribution System. Water Research. 2012, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1070—1078. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2011.12.001.
  6. Orlov E.V. Sistema vnutrennego vodoprovoda. Novyy tip vodorazbornykh priborov v zdaniyakh. Avtomaty pit’evoy vody [Systems of an Internal Water Supply System. New Type of Water Folding Devices in Buildings. Machine Guns of Drinking Water]. Tekhnika i tekhnologii mira [Equipment and Technologies of the World]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 37—41. (In Russian)
  7. Orlov V.A. Puti obespecheniya sanitarnoy nadezhnosti vodoprovodnykh setey [Ways of Ensuring Sanitary Reliability of Water Supply Systems]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 181—187. (In Russian)
  8. Varbanets M.P., Zurbrügg C., Swartz C., Pronk W. Decentralized Systems for Potable Water and the Potential of Membrane Technology. Water Research, 2009, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 245—265. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.10.030.
  9. Alekseev V.S. Sovremennoe sostoyanie normativnoy bazy v oblasti vodosnabzheniya [Current State of Regulatory Base in the Field of Water Supply]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Equipment]. 2014, no. 3, pp. 4—14. (In Russian)
  10. Lehtola M.J., Nissinen T.K., Miettinen I.T., Martikainen P.J., Vartiainen T. Removal of Soft Deposits from the Distribution System Improves the Drinking Water Quality. Water Research. 2004, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 601—610. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2003.10.054.
  11. Brodach M.M. Zelenoe vodosnabzhenie i vodootvedenie [Green Water Supply and Water Disposal]. Santekhnika [Sanitary Engineering]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 6—9. (In Russian)
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Solution of the problem of pipes freezing with account for external heat exchange

Vestnik MGSU 1/2015
  • Samarin Oleg Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Department of the Heating and Ventilation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federa- tion; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 90-96

The author considered the problem statement on the pipes freezing in emergency regimes of building engineering systems and external pipe nets using liquid water as working fluid under boundary conditions of the 3rd type. This problem is a high-priority task now because of actualization of building standards in Russian Federation and because of the increasing requirements to safety and security of heat supply. That’s why it is very important to find a simple but accurate enough dependence for the freezing time in pipe nets. The system of differential and algebraic equations of external heat exchange and internal heat transfer with account for heat ingress from hydraulic friction at water flow and Stephan’s condition on the freezing front is presented. The analytical solution of the given system is obtained as a quadrature for the dependence of the current coordinate of the freezing front. The results of numerical calculation of the corresponding integral are shown and their comparison with the former author’s researches concerning the solution of the considered problem at the boundary conditions of the 1st type is conducted. It is shown that the account of intensity of external heat exchange causes retarding of freezing because of adding thermal resistance on the external surface of the pipe. The former author’s conclusion on the existence of the ultimate water velocity, when freezing doesn’t take place, is verified. The area of use of the presented dependence is found. The obtained model contains is easy to use in engineering practice, especially during preliminary calculations. The presentation is illustrated with numerical and graphical examples.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2015.1.90-96

References
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