Home Vestnik MGSU Library Vestnik MGSU 2012/4

Vestnik MGSU 2012/4

DOI : 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4

Articles count - 40

Pages - 251

MANEGE OF ENGINEER BETANCOURT

  • Egorova Ol'ga Vladimirovna - Bauman Moscow State Technical University (MSTU) , Bauman Moscow State Technical University (MSTU), 5, 2nd Baumanskaya St., Moscow, 105005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Timofeev Gennadiy Alekseevich - Bauman Moscow State Technical University (MSTU) 8 (499) 263-61-97, Bauman Moscow State Technical University (MSTU), 5, 2nd Baumanskaya St., Moscow, 105005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 6 - 16

This article covers the history of Moscow Manege, a masterpiece of engineering science and architecture. It was designated for the accommodation of the military parade in commemoration of the 5th anniversary of the great victory over Napoleon. It was solemnly opened for visitors in 1817 to become a majestic monument commemorating Russia's triumph in the Patriotic war of 1812.
Agustin de Betancourt, an ingenious Spanish engineer, was the designer of Manege. Having completed his excellent education in Madrid, Paris, and London by the end of 1790, he became one of the most well-known engineers not only in Spain, but also in Europe. In 1808, the engineer moved to Russia following a personal invitation extended by Emperor Alexander I.
Betancourt proposed an exclusively original design of Manege overlapping. It was made of wooden trussed rafters. The arena had no internal column; therefore, rafters that were 44.86 meters long, were spanned all over the space. Back then, this engineering structure was unique. Now we know that foreign engineers made special visits to Moscow to study Betancourt's wooden roof.
The Manege was also remarkable from the architectural point of view: a high rustic socle emphasized the massiveness of the building; a vigorous rhythm of columns, enchasing the walls to assure special solemnity; skillfully interspersed ornaments representing military stories were to identify the purpose of the premises.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.6-16

References
  1. Egorova O.V. Moskovskiy Manezh. Proshloe i nastoyashchee [Moscow Manege. Past and Present]. Мoscow, Avanglion Publ., 2006.
  2. Russian State Archives of Military History, File 35, Inventory 4, Unit 108. About the construction of the roofed riding-school in Moscow, 1817—1818.
  3. Betancourt A. Description de la Salle d’exercice de Moscou. St. Peterburg, 1819.
  4. Cioranesco Alejandro. Agustin de Betancourt. Su obra tecnica y cientifica: La Laguna de Tenerife, Instituto de Estadios Canasrios, Spain, 1965.
  5. Moskovskie Vedomosti [Moscow Bulletin] Newspaper, no. 101, November 19, 1817.
  6. Pozharskaya S.P., editor. Rossiya i Ispaniya [Russia and Spain], vol. 2, Moscow, 1997.
  7. Bogolyubov A.N., Pavlov V.E., Filatov N.F. Avgustin Betankur (1758—1824). Uchenyy, inzhener, arkhitektor, gradostroitel' [Agustin de Betancourt (1758—1824). Scientist, Engineer, Architect, Townplanner]. Nizhni Novgorod, 2002.
  8. Svin'in P. Zavody, byvshie I.R. Batasheva, a nyne prinadlezhashchie general-leytenantu D.D. Shepelevu i ego detyam [I.R. Batashev’s Factories That Now Belong to Lieutenant-General D.D. Shepelev and his children]. St. Petersburg, 1826.
  9. Russian State Archives of Military History, File 489, Inventory 1, Unit 7062. Track record of Majorgeneral A. Betancourt.

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INFLUENCE PRODUCED BY THE URBAN INFRASTRUCTURE DEVELOPMENT ON THE LIVING ENVIRONMENT

  • Giyasov Botir Iminzhonovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, chair, Department of Architectural and Construction Design, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 287-49-14; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 17 - 21

The article drives attention to factors of influence produced on the living environment and the humans. The factors in question originate from development of the urban infrastructure. Analysis of actions aimed at improving the ecological conditions of urban environments is provided in the article.
The living environment represents a complex facility in the course of its continuous development. It has a natural and anthropogenic origin. Its origin makes it possible for researchers to ifn links between the physical urban space and its social and hygienic properties. Therefore, it is necessary to consider the living environment not as a densely build structural constituent of a city, but as the environment designated for living that is shaped up by a variety of factors.
The comprehensive impact produced by the environment on humans makes it necessary to develop new methodologies that will assure the complex hygienic assessment of the environment. The assessment will make it possible to research the link between the quality of the environment and the level of health of the population and to identify the number and the sequence of actions aimed at optimizing the environment and the mode of life of inhabitants of present-day megalopolises. The methodology of the per-property assessment of the quality of the urban environment, namely, the microclimate, the lighting, the air quality, must be complemented by its comprehensive assessment.
Local social links must be developed alongside with the urban infrastructure. However, replanning of well-established residential areas, that demonstrate well-established social links and territoriality, reveals strong stressors. Therefore, the recommendation is to retain the areas of psychological invariance in the older sections of big cities to retain well-established and easy-to-recognize planning solutions and social links.
An inhabitant of a big city is subjected both to the impact of anthropogenic factors that are the outcome of the urbanization, and to the impact of psychological factors. Intensive development of megalopolises and growth of cities contribute to formation of anthropogenic factors and produce a negative impact on the ecosystem of the environment. Therefore, the residential housing must be considered as a complex environment that set up special claims. Contemporary housing must be designed with account for the urban environment, including its polluted air, water and soil, limited and transformed city-to-nature links. Development of transportation networks and urban noises require particular attention.
There is an urgent need to improve the architectural and planning patterns of urban territories that need hygienic regulations applicable both to residential and industrial areas, highways, parks, office buildings, leisure and community service buildings, schools, hospitals, convalescence houses, kindergartens, etc.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.17-21

References
  1. Giyasov A. Rol' mnogoetazhnoy zastroyki v regulirovanii teplovogo rezhima gorodov s zharkoshtilevym profilem klimata (na primere g. Dushanbe) [Role of Multi-storied Buildings in Regulation of the Heat Mode of Cities in the Hot-Doldrum Climate (exemplified by the town of Dushanbe). Moscow, 1983.
  2. Gubernskiy Yu.D., Litskevich V.K. Zhilische dlya cheloveka [Dwelling for the Man]. Мoscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1991.
  3. Goromosov M.S. Mikroklimat zhilisch i ego gigienicheskoe normirovanie [Microclimate of Dwellings and Its Hygienic Regulation]. Moscow, Medgiz Publ., 1963.

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INTERACTION BETWEEN LONG PILES AND THE SOIL BODY EXPOSED TO NON-LINEAR DEFORMATIONS

  • Telichenko Valeriy Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Rector, +7 (495) 651-81-85, ext. 2482, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) +7 (499) 261-59-88, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Soil Mechanics, Beddings and Foundations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 22 - 27

Theoretical and numeral solutions to the problem of interaction between a long pile and the heterogeneous soil body are considered in the article. It has been discovered that the distribution of stresses between bottom and side sections of a pile depends on elastic and plastic properties of soils and the pile length-to-diameter ratio. Optimal geometric parameters of a pile can be derived by means of the optimal stress distribution between side and bottom sections of a pile.

The problem of interaction between a long pile and the soil body (the half-space) may be reduced to the problem of interaction between the soil body and the cylinder that has limited dimensions, namely, the diameter of and the height of where is the length of a pile. Solution to the problem in question (section 3) was also obtained through the employment of the method of finite elements (FEM) implemented in the Plaxis-2D software in the elastic and plastic environment. The graphic representation of the solution is provided in Figure 3. As expected, the results generated by analytical and numerical methods are similar both in terms of pile settlement, and in terms of stresses below the bottom end of a pile.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.22-27

References
  1. Timoshenko S.P., Gud'er Dzh. Teoriya uprugosti [Theory of Elasticity]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1975, 575 p.
  2. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Nguen Zang Nam. Vzaimodeystvie svay bol'shoy dliny s neodnorodnym massivom gruntov [Interaction between Long Piles and Heterogeneous Soil Body]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 3—14.
  3. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 550 p.

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INTERACTION OF A LONG SINGLE PILE THAT HAS A DOUBLE-LAYER BASE WITH ACCOUNT FOR COMPRESSIBILITY OF THE PILE SHAFT

  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Trinh Tuan Viet - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Mechanics of Soils, Ground Foundation and Foundation Mechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26, Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 28 - 34

WITH ACCOUNT FOR COMPRESSIBILITY OF THE PILE SHAFT
The authors provide their solution to the problem of interaction of a long compressible pile that has a double-layer linear deformable base. The paper demonstrates that taking account of compressible properties of the pile material leads to qualitatively new distribution of shearing stresses over the surface of a cylindrical pile. It is noteworthy that increase of the pile length and stiffness of the upper section of the base raise the share of the load perceived by the surface of the pile. Besides, in particular conditions of the soil environment, the load perceived by the lower section of the base may reach approximately 20-30 % of the total load.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.28-34

References
  1. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 550 p.
  2. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G, Nguyen Giang Nam. Vzaimodeystvie svay bol'shoy dliny s neodnorodnym massivom s uchetom nelineynykh i reologicheskikh svoystv gruntov [Interaction between Long Piles and Heterogeneous Soil Body with the Account for Nonlinear and Rheological Properties of Soils]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 3—14.
  3. Ukhov S.B., Semenov V.V., Znamenskiy V.V., Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Chernyshev S.N. Mekhanika gruntov, osnovaniya i fundamenty [Soil Mechanics, Bases and Foundations]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 566 p.
  4. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Trinh Tuan Viet. Vzaimodeystvie odinochnoy dlinoy svai s osnovaniem s uchetom szhimaemosti stvola svai [Interaction between a Single Long Pile and the Bedding with Account for Compressibility of the Pile Shaft]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 8, pp. 104—111.
  5. Nguyen Giang Nam. Identification of the Settlement of the Round Die with Allowance of Its Embedding. Collected papers of the 4th International Scientific Conference of Young Scientists, Postgraduates, and Doctoral Students. Construction as Formation of the Living Environment. Moscow, MSUCE, 2006.

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INTERACTION OF ANTI-SLIDE PILES WITH THE SLIDING SLOPE BELOW THE RETAINING WALL

  • Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich - Gersevanov Research Institute of Bases and Underground Structures (NIIOSP) Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Advisor Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, chief research worker, Gersevanov Research Institute of Bases and Underground Structures (NIIOSP), 59 Ryazanskiy pr-t, Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lomakin Sergey Aleksandrovich - Strabag Closed Joint Stock Company civil engineer, construction manager, Strabag Closed Joint Stock Company, 27 Petrovka St., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 35 - 43

Pile retaining walls are widely used in the practice of anti-landslide construction. Underground sections of piles tend to bend under the pressure. Besides the landslide pressure, the pile is rebuffed by the soil below the retaining wall. When a slope section begins creeping due to the influence of gravitational forces and the pressure of bending piles, soil resistance alongside the pile length changes over the time. This phenomenon also contributes to bending.
The question of how the bearing capacity of an anti-landslide pile changes under the influence of a steady viscous flow of the slope has not undergone any comprehensive research.
In this study, the authors offer a number of analytical expressions that define the interaction between the piles with the sliding slope. Authors examine how piles work to stabilize the viscous soil environment over the time.
The basis of the rheological calculation of the landslide mass is the integral correlation, which in particular cases leads to well-known solutions concerning the characteristics of the deformation and speed of the viscous flow in terms of the pressure-driven gravitational movement.
When problems of interaction of flexible piles with the creeping slope are solved, approximation of the linear or non-linear theory of elasticity for the quasi-instantaneous state is regularly used. In this case, the time factor is identified by multiplying the degree of deformation by the time function ().
In the event of a steady viscous flow moving away from the wall, the authors analyze resistance to bending over the time with the help of a triangular outline diagram (, 0).
The authors welcome any corrections of their analytical solutions for cases of visco-plastic flows as well as the projected resistance caused by the extrusion of the landslide mass through spaces in-between piles.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.35-43

References
  1. Budin A.Ya. Tonkie podpornye stenki dlya usloviy Severa [Thin Retaining Walls for the Conditions of the North]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1982, 288 p.
  2. Maslov N.N. Mehanika gruntov v praktike stroitel'stva (opolzni i bor'ba s nimi) [Soil Mechanics in the Construction Practice (Landslides and Their Control). Stroyizdat Publ., Moscow, 1977, 320 p.
  3. Buslov A.S. Rabota svay na gorizontal'nuyu nagruzku za predelami uprugosti v svyaznykh gruntakh [Nonlinear Behavior of Laterally Loaded Piles in Cohesive Soils]. Tashkent, FAN Publ., 1979, 102 p.
  4. Buslov A.S. Inzhenernyy metod rascheta svay, vzaimodeystvuyushchikh s opolznevym otkosom v stadii ustanovivsheysya polzuchesti [Engineering Method of Analysis of Piles Interacting with the Steadily Creeping Slope]. Proceedings of Moscow State Open University, Moscow, 2009, pp. 18—23.

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STATIONARY VIBRATIONS OF A SYSTEM WITH AN IMPACT ABSORBER SUBJECTED TO PERIODIC IMPULSES OF FINITE DURATION

  • Dukart Adam Vilebal'dovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Department of Structural Mechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Thanh Binh Pham - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) graduate student, Department of Structural Mechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 44 - 50

Impulsive loadings, or repetitive brief impacts, produced by machines and mechanisms of the shock action, are widely spread in the engineering practice. In many cases, trustworthy results of their dynamic analyses can be obtained by taking account of the shape and duration of their impulses.
In the paper, the periodic mode of the system motion and the parameters of the impact absorber applicable to one-sided periodic impulses of rectangular form are examined. The structure to be protected and the absorber are simulated as a system of a single collision of masses. The impacts are accepted to be instantaneous and taken into account by means of the coefficient of restitution. The damping properties of the protected structure and the absorber are considered on the basis of the viscid friction hypothesis; therefore, the damping properties of the whole system are disproportionate.
The relations identified in the course of the research are used to find the impulse frequency characteristics (IFC) of the protected structure to identify the absorber parameters. The affect of duration of external impulses produced onto the IFC, characterized by the drastic increase in the amplitudes as compared to that in the case of a single impulse of the same magnitude, is the subject of research. It is proven that the maximal ordinates of IFC decrease slightly against the increase in the duration of external impulses; therefore, the efficiency of the impact absorber changes insignificantly, and it is equivalent to that of a dynamic absorber. It is noteworthy that if the duration of external impulses is under 10 % of the duration of the period, they may be replaced by instantaneous impulses.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.44-50

References
  1. Dukart A.V. Zadachi teorii udarnykh gasiteley kolebaniy [Objectives of the Theory of the Impact Vibration Damper]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2006.
  2. Korenev B.G., Rabinovich I.M., editors. Dinamicheskiy raschet zdaniy i sooruzheniy: spravochnik proektirovshchika [Dynamic Analysis of Buildings and Structures: Designer’s Reference Book]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1981.
  3. Sorokin E.S. Osnovnye predposylki rascheta sooruzheniy na impul'sivnye nagruzki [Main Preconditions for Calculation of Structures Exposed to Impulsive Loads]. Voprosy prikladnoy mekhaniki [Problems of Applied Mechanics]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1968, no. 260, pp. 5—37.
  4. Goldsmith V. Udar. Teoriya i fizicheskie svoystva soudaryaemykh tel [Impact. Theory and Physical Properties of Colliding Bodies]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1965.
  5. Dukart A.V. K opredeleniyu ustanovivshikhsya kolebaniy sistemy s dvumya stepenyami svobody pri deystvii periodicheskikh impul'sov konechnoy prodolzhitel'nosti [About the Identification of Stationary Vibrations of a System That Has Two Levels of Freedom Exposed to Periodic Impulses of Finite Duration]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo. [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 3—13.

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SNOW ON TRANSLUCENT ROOFS OF HEATED BUILDINGS

  • Konstantinov Aleksandr Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Plotnikov Aleksandr Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, senior research worker, Professor, Department of Civil and Industrial Buildings Architecture, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Boriskina Irina Vasil'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Department of Testing of Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 51 - 55

The article covers the influence of the snow cover on the behaviour of translucent roofs acting as envelope structures. The authors note that the influence of the snow cover accumulated on the surfaces of translucent roofs is the least favourable influence produced on these structures, as any cover deprives translucent structures of their principal function; that is, admitting the sunlight and providing the natural illumination of the under-roof space. One of the actions aimed at prevention of the snow accumulation on the surfaces of translucent roofs represents the right choice of glazing, mode of heating and the roofing inclination angle, so that the snow could melt away within hours after a snowfall. However, this method requires a thorough research of the snow melting process typical for translucent roofs.
The authors provide the field data and describe the experiments involving the accumulation and melting of the snow on the surface of the roof glazing, given different angles of inclination. On the basis of the above, the authors propose a snow melting model that is based on the dynamic behaviour of the snow cover in the course of melting. This model may be used to resolve a wide range of problems that consist in the identification of the time period while the snow cover may rest on translucent roofs of different inclination angles, as well as the identification of the maximal amount of snow accumulated on translucent roofs without melting.
Numerical methods were applied to identify the time periods in the course of which the snow cover retained on the glass roofs that had different inclination angles. The snow melting model developed by the authors was used for the above purpose.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.51-55

References
  1. Konstantinov A.P., Plotnikov A.A., Boriskina I.V. Snezhnyy pokrov na steklyannykh kupol'nykh pokrytiyakh otaplivaemykh zdaniy (na primere g. Moskva) [Snow Cover Accumulated on Glass Domeshaped Roofings of Heated Buildings (as Exemplified by Moscow)]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1, vol. 1, pp. 120—126.

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RESEARCH OF SWELLING OF SUZAKH CLAYS

  • Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich - Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction (NII Mosstroi) , Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction (NII Mosstroi), 8 Vinnitskaya St., Moscow, 119192, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 56 - 62

In the course of construction of Sangtudinsky hydropower plant-1 on the River Vakhsh, it was deemed necessary to identify clay swelling properties in the event of alterations of the humidity mode of fructured half-rock soils, or the Suzakh clay, that accommodated tunnel-shaped water outlets within a section that was 75 meters long. The depth of tunnels was about 100 m. Any interaction with swelling soils could lead to destruction of the tunnel lining. Suzakh clays demonstrated the following physical and mechanical properties: density of particles of soil ρ= 2,69 g/cm; soil density ρ = 2.40-2.47 g/cm; porosity of 8.2-10.8 %; ultimate resistance to uniaxial compression = 13.1-31.0 MPa. Water saturated clay samples disintegrated into cloddy fragments; the rate of a longitudinal ultrasonic wave in the area of unaltered soils was equal to = 2500 m/c; repulse coefficient k was equal to 15 MPa/m; solidity coefficient (according to Protodyakonov) was equal to 1,5; modulus of deformation in the massif was equal to 0.23 х10 MPa. The author proposed a methodology and designed a pilot set of equipment units designated for the identification of the swelling properties of fractured half-rock soils. Results of the pilot unit operation are presented in the article. Swelling properties are based on the monolith testing results. The programme contemplated a set of experiments held in various limit states on the surface of monoliths. Dependence between the swelling pressure and the swelling deformation in the course of water saturation was identified. The experiment demonstrates that alterations of the humidity mode of free surface Suzakh clays cause the relative deformation of swelling up to 1.1 %, and if the lining is rigid, the swelling pressure can exceed 4 MPa.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.56-62

References
  1. Sonin S.D., Sheykhet M.N., Chernyak I.L., Lukichev V.S. Bor'ba s pucheniem porod v gornykh vyrabotkakh [Control of Soil Heaving in Mine Openings]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1966.
  2. Sorochan E.A. Stroitel'stvo sooruzheniy na nabukhayushchikh gruntakh [Building of Structures on Swelling Soils]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989.
  3. Kubetskiy V.L., Sapegin D.D., Krivonogova N.F. Rekomendatsii po opredeleniyu kharakteristik reologicheskikh svoystv skal'nykh i poluskal'nykh gruntov metodom kol'tsevogo nagruzheniya [Recommendations Regarding Identification of Characteristics of Rheological Properties of Rocks and Half-rocks by Means of Circular Loading]. VNIIG Publ., 1990.
  4. Kubetskiy V.L. Rezul'taty issledovaniya reologicheskikh svoystv suzakskikh glin [Results of Research of Rheological Properties of Suzakh Clays]. Dushanbe, Tadjikistan, 2005.
  5. GOST 24143—80. Grunty. Metody laboratornogo opredeleniya kharakteristik nabukhaniya i usadki [State Standard 24143—80. Soils. Methods of Laboratory-based Identification of Characteristics of Swelling and Shrinkage Properties]. Moscow, 1987.

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INFLUENCE OF A ROUND CAP ON THE BEARING CAPACITY OF A LATERALLY LOADED PILE

  • Buslov Anatoliy Semenovich - Gersevanov Research Institute of Bases and Underground Structures (NIIOSP) Doctor of Technical Science, Professor, Advisor Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, chief research worker, Gersevanov Research Institute of Bases and Underground Structures (NIIOSP), 59 Ryazanskiy pr-t, Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bakulina Aleksandra Aleksandrovna - Ryazan' Branch, Moscow State Open University named after V.S. Chernomyrdin , Ryazan' Branch, Moscow State Open University named after V.S. Chernomyrdin, 26/53 Pravo-Lybedskaya St., 390000, Ryazan', Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 63 - 68

Foundations of laterally loaded single piles are widely used as part of power transmission lines, wind power stations, highway structures, etc. Ongoing pressure applied to a laterally loaded pile, particularly at the ground level, causes the soil deformation characterized by the bulging of the soil surface.
In the majority of cases, the deformation strength of a pile depends on the front-face soil resistance, Horizontal beams, ground caps or rigid plates are used to increase the pile resistance. An effective method of pressure reduction contemplates the use of a rigid round cap at the front-face or upper level of the soil.
In this paper, the authors analyse the data to examine how a round cap installed at the ground level impacts the bearing capacity of a single pile.
This research based on the methodology developed by the authors demonstrates that a laterally loaded pile, supported by a rigid cap at the ground level, is exposed to increased resistance due to the following factors, including the passive pressure along the cap side that creates an unloading effect for a horizontally-loaded pile. The cap acts as a vertical soil rebuff creating an additional resistance moment; the horizontal shear of the cap causes supplementary lateral resistance of a pile.
The following initial geometric and elastic material properties of the single pile are applied: total length = 5.0 meters (3.0 m above and 2.0 m below the ground surface); pile diameter = 40 centimeters; circle plates of various diameters = 60; 70; 80 and 100 cm and their thickness = 20 cm. A lateral load is applied at various heights, , of 0.2; 1.0; 2.0 and 3.0 meters above the ground level.
Elastic properties of the soil are assumed to be constant at each point below the surface of the ground, they are listed below: bulk modulus of soil E=20 MPa; Poisson's ratio μ=0,37; unit Weight γ=18,5 kN/m; cohesion =0,05 MPa; angle of internal friction φ=20°.
The data has proven that cap-covered piles are substantially more economical (over 40 %) in terms of materials consumption rate if compared to constant cross-section piles (cap-free or broadening piles), all other factors being equal.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.63-68

References
  1. Normy proektirovaniya kontaktnoy seti [Overhead Contact System Design Standards]. 141-99. MPS RF. Moscow, 2001.
  2. Matus N.Yu. K raschetu gorizontal'no nagruzhennoy svai-kolonny s nizkim rostverkomogolovkom [About the Design of a Laterally Loaded Pile-Column with Deep Grid Pile Foundation]. OOO HT Project — Ukraina, Odessa, 8 p.
  3. Buslov A.S., Tulakov E.S. Raschet gorizontal'no nagruzhennykh odnostoechnykh opor po ustoychivosti [Stability Design of Laterally Loaded Single Footings]. Osnovaniya, fundamenty i mekhanika gruntov [Beddings, Foundations, and Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, 2004, no. 3, pp. 6—9.

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СOMPUTATIONAL MODEL OF PILE FOUNDATIONS WITH ACCOUNTFOR THE EFFECT OF THEIR INTERACTION WITH THE SOIL MEDIA

  • Sargsyan Akop Egishovich - Design and Development Institute, Joint Stock Company (JSC AEP) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of Department of Dynamics and Earthquake Resistance, Atomenergoproekt Research, Design and Development Institute, Joint Stock Company (JSC AEP), 7 Bakuninskaya st., Moscow, 105005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Gerashchenko Vitaliy Sergeevich - Joint Stock Company (JSC AEP) engineer, Atomenergoproekt Research, Design and Development Institute, Joint Stock Company (JSC AEP), 7 Bakuninskaya st., Moscow, 105005, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shaposhnikov Nikolay Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Roads (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Member of the Russian Academy of Architectural and Civil Engineering Sciences, Professor, Department of Systems of Computer-Aided Design of Transportation Structures and Constructions 8 (903) 786-53-64, Moscow State University of Roads (MSUCE), Office 7720, 2 Minaevskiy pereulok, Moscow, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 69 - 72

The authors of the paper present computational models of pile foundations with account for the effect of their interaction with the soil media, as well as the design parameters of integral stiffness of the soil environment contacting the pile sole surface that has round or rectangular caps.
The authors' assumptions that serve as the basis for the identification of the integrated response of the soil media to the contact surface of the pile are as follows:
there is no full soil-to-pile contact whenever tensile stresses are formed on the walls of the side surface of a pile, as the soil does not work in tension;
in the course of the vertical travel of piles along their longitudinal axis over the perimeter of their side surface, soils are subjected to simple shear, whereas the pile sole is subjected to compression;
in the course of the travel of piles having rectangular cross sections in the horizontal direction in the soil media, soil shear is formed in the two opposite side surfaces. The front wall of the side surface is subjected to compression in the direction of the pile travel, while soil is separated from the opposite side surface of the pile shaft;
the pile travel in the horizontal direction causes simple shear of the pile sole.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.69-72

References
  1. Sargsyan A.E., Gerashchenko V.S. Razrabotka staticheskoy i dinamicheskoy raschetnoy modeli svaynykh fundamentov s uchetom effekta ikh vzaimodeystviya s gruntovoy sredoy [Development of Static and Dynamic Computational Model of Pile Foundations with Account for the Effect of Their Interaction with the Soil Environment]. Vestnik CNIISK V.A. Kucherenko [Journal of Central Scientific Research Institute for Building Structures named after V.A. Koucherenko], Moscow, 2010.
  2. SP 50-102—2003. Proektirovanie i ustrojstvo svajnyh fundamentov [Construction Rules 50-102-2003. Design and Construction of Pile Foundations]. Moscow, Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Center for Design Products in the Construction Industry”, 2004, 83 р.

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GOALS AND OBJECTIVES OF GAS DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS OPTIMIZATION

  • Tabunschikov Yuriy Andreevich - Moscow Architectural Institute (MARKHI) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Engineering Systems of Buildings, Moscow Architectural Institute (MARKHI), 11 Rozhdestvenka St., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Prokhorov Vitaly Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) +7 (499) 183-26-92, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Bryukhanov Oleg Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) : 8 (499) 183-26-92, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Zhila Victor Andreevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Heating Facilities and Heat/Gas Supply, +7 (499) 183-26-92, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Klochko Alexey Konstantinovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) assistant lecturer, Department of Heating Facilities and Heat/Gas Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 73 - 77

Presently, no uniform methodology of identification of optimal costs of construction of gas distribution networks is available. The amount of work, and, hence, its cost, are identified empirically; therefore, they are insufficiently substantiated by feasibility studies. At best, the problem of optimization is reduced to simple examination of various options.
The problem to be resolved by the method of search optimization may be stated in the following manner:
Two consumers are to obtain access to the gas supply. Their positions in the arbitrary coordinate system are available (; ). The high pressure gas distribution line of a gas distribution network is located at some distance from the aforementioned consumers. It can be represented as follows: = +. Gas control unit installation is required to assure gas pressure reduction.
Goal 1: positioning of a gas control unit to assure the lowest possible cost of the gas distribution network construction.
Goal 2: solution to the above problem turns more complicated, if the line of the gas distribution network required to connect the designed gas pipeline extension is long. In this case, besides the identification of the optimal coordinates of a gas control unit, it is also necessary to find the point of connection to the gas control unit, for the cost of the gas distribution network to be as low as possible.
Goal 3: some sections of gas distribution networks pass through or over natural or artificial barriers. In the event of such restrictions, the search for the optimal point of connection to the gas control unit turns more labor-intensive and challenging.
To sum up the above statements, the authors demonstrate that rational design of gas distribution networks brings essential economic benefits.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.73-77

References
  1. SNiP 42-01—2002. Gazoraspredelitel'nye sistemy. [Construction Rules and Regulations 42-01—2002. Gas Distribution Networks]. St. Petersburg, 2004, 80 p.

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GENERATION OF IRREGULAR HEXAGONAL MESHES

  • Vlasov Aleksandr Nikolaevich - Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEG RAS), Institute of Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAM RAS) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Principal Researcher, +7 (495) 523-81-92, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IEG RAS), Institute of Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAM RAS), 32а Leninskiy prospekt, Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation Building 2, 13 Ulanskiy pereulok, 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Volkov-Bogorodskiy Dmitriy Borisovich - Institute of Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAM RAS) Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, Senior Researcher, +7 (499) 160-42-82, Institute of Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IAM RAS), 32а Leninskiy prospekt, Moscow, 119334, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Znamenskiy Vladimir Valerianovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Professor, Department of Soil Mechanics, Beddings and Foundations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Mnushkin Mikhail Grigor'evich - Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience Russian Academy of Sciences (IEG RAS) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Principal Researcher, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience Russian Academy of Sciences (IEG RAS), Building 2, 13 Ulanskiy pereulok, 101000, Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 78 - 87

In the paper, the authors propose original mesh generation solutions based on the finite element method applicable within the computational domain. The mesh generation procedure contemplates homeomorphic mapping of the initial domain onto the canonical domain. The authors consider mappings generated through the application of differential operators, including the Laplace operator (harmonic mappings) or the Lamé operator. In the latter case, additional control parameter ν is required The following domains are regarded as canonical: a parametric cube (or a square), a cylindrical layer, and a spherical layer. They represent simply connected or biconnected domains.
The above mappings are based on the parametric mesh generated alongside the domain boundary or boundaries dividing heterogeneous elements (inclusions). Therefore, generation of the above mappings is reduced to the resolution of the boundary problems by means of the Laplace or Lamé differential operators. Basically, the proposed approach represents the problem of the theory of elasticity with regard to the prescribed displacement. This problem may have two solutions. The first one is the analytical (meshless) least square solution, and the second one represents consequent mesh refining on the basis of the finite-element discretization of elasticity equations. The least square method assumes decomposition of the initial domain into the system of simply connected sub-domains. In every sub-domain, or a block, numerical/analytical approximation of homeomorphic mapping of the initial domain onto the canonical domain is performed with the help of local representations generated by means of systems of special functions.
Decomposition is performed in a constructive way and, as option, it involves meshless representation. Further, this mapping method is used to generate the calculation mesh. In this paper, the authors analyze different cases of mapping onto simply connected and bi-connected canonical domains. They represent forward and backward mapping techniques. Their potential application for generation of nonuniform meshes within the framework of the asymptotic homogenization theory is also performed to assess and project effective characteristics of heterogeneous materials (composites).

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.78-87

References
  1. Haber R., Abel J.F. Numer. Meth. Eng., 1982, vol. 18, pp. 41—46.
  2. Volkov-Bogorodskiy D.B. Razrabotka blochnogo analitiko-chislennogo metoda resheniya zadach mekhaniki i akustiki [Development of the Block-based Analytical and Numerical Method of Resolution of Problems of Mechanics and Acoustics]. Collected papers, Composite Materials Workshop. Moscow, IPRIM RAN [Institute of Applied Mechanics of the Russian Academy of Sciences], 2000, pp. 44—56.
  3. Eells J., Sampson J. Harmonic Mappings of Riemannian Manifolds. Amer. J. Math., 1964, vol. 86, pp. 109—160.
  4. Thompson J.F., Soni B.K., Weatherill N.P., Harmonic Mappings. Handbook of Grid Generation. CRC Press, 1998.
  5. Godunov S.K., Prokopov G.P. Ob ispol'zovanii podvizhnykh setok v gazodinamicheskikh raschetakh [On the Use of Flexible Grids in Gas-Dynamic Calculations]. Vychislitel’naya matematika i matematicheskaya fizika [Computational Maths and Mathematical Physics]. 1972, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 429—440.
  6. Spekreijse S.P. Elliptic Grid Generation Based on Laplace Equations and Algebraic Transformations. J. Comput. Phys., 1995, vol. 118, pp. 28—61.
  7. Novatskiy V. Teoriya uprugosti [Theory of Elasticity]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1975, 872 p.
  8. Volkov-Bogorodsky D.B. On Construction of Harmonic Maps of Spatial Domains by the Block Analytical-Numerical Method. Proceedings of the minisymposium “Grid Generation: New Trends and Applications in Real-World Simulations”, International Conference “Optimization of Finite-Element Approximations, Splines and Wavelets”, St.Petersburg, 25—29 June 2001. Moscow, Computing Centre RAS, 2001, pp. 129—143.
  9. UWay Software. Certificate of State Registration of Software Programme no. 2011611833, issued on 28 February 2011. Compliance Certificate ROSS RU.SP15.N00438, issued on 27 October 2011.
  10. Kompozitsionnye materialy [Composite Materials]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1990, 511 p.
  11. Novikov V.U. Polimernye materialy dlya stroitel'stva [Polymeric Materials for Construction Purposes]. Moscow, Vysshaya Shkola Publ., 1995, 448 p.
  12. Obraztsov I.F., Yanovskiy Yu.G., Vlasov A.N., Zgaevskiy V.E. Koeffitsienty Puassona mezhfaznykh sloev polimernykh kompozitov [Poisson Ratios for Interphase Layers of Polymeric Composites]. Academy of Science Reports, 2001, vol. 378, no. 3, pp. 336—338.
  13. Bakhvalov N.S., Panasenko G.P. Osrednenie protsessov v periodicheskikh sredakh [Averaging of Processes in Periodic Media]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1984, 352 p.
  14. Vlasov A.N. Usrednenie mekhanicheskikh svoystv strukturno neodnorodnykh sred. [Averaging of Mechanical Properties of Structurally Heterogeneous Media]. Mekhanika kompozitsionnykh materialov i konstruktsiy [Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures]. 2004, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 424—441.

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BEARING CAPACITY AND SETTLEMENT OF BORED CAST-IN-SITU PILES FOR HIGH-RISE CONSTRUCTION IN CLAYEY SOILS WITH ACCOUNT FOR THE NEW REASONS OF THE FAILURE OF THEIR BEDDINGS

  • Grigoryan Anaida Aleksandrovna - Scientific and Research Institute of Beddings and Subterranean Structures named after M.N. Gersevanov Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Department of Structural Mechanics, Scientific and Research Institute of Beddings and Subterranean Structures named after M.N. Gersevanov, 6 2nd Institutskaya St., Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation.

Pages 88 - 97

The author of the article considers it necessary to perform a bearing capacity analysis to ensure the safety of high-rise structures in the medium of loose clayey soils. The author proposes a new mechanism of the soil failure prevention that illustrates the nature of the bearing capacity. The soil medium is considered to be discrete rather than solid. The distribution of stresses in the core sections and in the base of long vertically loaded bored cast-in-situ piles is identified on the basis of field tests. Effectiveness of several actions aimed at the increase of the point resistance of piles is the subject of the research.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.88-97

References
  1. Grigoryan A.A. O bezopasnosti stroitel'stva na glinistykh gruntakh po 1-mu predel'nomu sostoyaniyu [About the Safety of Construction Works in Clayey Soils based on the First Limit State]. OFMG Publ., 2006, no. 5, pp. 24—29.
  2. Tertsagi K. Teoriya mekhaniki gruntov [Theory of Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1961, 506 p.
  3. Meyerhof G.G. The Ultimate Bearing Capacity of Foundations. Geotechnique, vol. 2, 1951, no. 4. pp. 301—332.
  4. Grigoryan A.A. Svaynye fundamenty zdaniy i sooruzheniy na prosadochnykh gruntakh [Pile Foundations of Buildings and Structures in Collapsing Soils]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1984, 162 p.
  5. Grigorian A.A. Pile Foundations for Buildings and Structures in Collapsible Soils. Oxford IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., 1997, 153 p.
  6. Grigoryan A.A. O novom mekhanizme razrusheniya osnovaniya na glinistykh gruntakh pod fundamentami sooruzheniy [About the New Mechanism of Destruction of Beddings in Clay Soils Underneath Foundations of Structures]. OFMG Publ., 2009, no. 3, pp. 10—14.
  7. Grigoryan A.A., Khabibullin I.I. Eksperimental'noe issledovanie raspredeleniya napryazheniy v buronabivnykh svayakh znachitel'nykh razmerov [Experimental Research of Distribution of Stresses Inside Big Bored Cast-in-Situ Piles]. OFMG Pibl., 1980, no. 3, pp. 11—13.
  8. Grigoryan A.A., Chinenkov Yu.A. Iz opyta stroitel'stva na svayakh bol'shoy dliny s ushirennymi pyatami v prosadochnykh gruntakh [The Experience of Construction Based on Long Piles That Have Extended Feed Pads in Collapsing Soils]. OFMG Publ., 1990, no. 4, pp. 2—5.
  9. Dzagov A.M., Sidorchuk V.F. O napryazhennom sostoyanii osnovaniya pri ustroystve i nagruzhenii buronabivnoy svai v glinistykh gruntakh [About the Stress State of the Bedding in the Course of Construction and Loading of a Bored Cast-in-Situ Pile in Clayey Soils]. OFMG Publ., 2002, no. 3, pp. 10—15.
  10. Rekomendatsii po proektirovaniyu i ustroystvu buronabivnykh svay s uplotneniem grunta v zaboe skvazhin [Recommendations for Design and Construction of Bored Cast-in-Situ Piles and Soil Compaction in the Area of Pile Toes]. Moscow, All-Union Scientific and Research Institute of the State Committee in charge of Construction of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, 1982, 24 p.
  11. Brandle N. An Innovative Method of Minimizing Pile Settlements. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Deep Foundation Practice. Singapore, 1999, 12 p.
  12. Grigorian A.A., Ivanov E.S. Bearing Capacity and Method of Penetration of Piles in Loose Soils. Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Soil Mechanics and Foundation. Moscow, 1973, vol. 3, pp. 125—130.
  13. Gotman A.L. Svaynye fundamenty. Obzorno-analiticheskaya lektsiya [Pile Foundations. An Analytical Review Lecture]. Proceedings of the Jubilee Conference Commemorating the 50th Anniversary of the Russian Society in charge of Soil Mechanics, Geotechnics and Foundations “Russian Geotechnics: a Step into the 21st Century”. 2007, vol. 1, pp. 37—52.

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IDENTIFICATION OF EQUIVALENT STATIC FORCES AS PART OF ANALYSIS OF SYSTEMS THAT HAVE DISRUPTABLE CONSTRAINS

  • Chernov Yuriy Tikhonovich - Central Scientific Research Institute for Building Structures named after V.A. Kucherenko (V.A. Kucherenko CSRIBS) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Central Scientific Research Institute for Building Structures named after V.A. Kucherenko (V.A. Kucherenko CSRIBS), 6 2nd Institutskaya St., Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation.
  • Petrov Ivan Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Structural Mechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 98 - 101

The algorithm of analysis of systems that have disruptable constrains is described in the article. The algorithm is based on the joint solving of two linear systems. The first linear system is the one that describes the processes before constraints get disrupted; the second linear system represents the system describing the processes in the aftermath of disruption of constrains with account for the influence of free vibrations. Free vibrations are caused by disrupted constraints. The proposed approach is more effective, if applicable to the systems that have their constraints disrupted only once. Also, the method describing disrupted constraints is considered as a special case of physical nonlinearity. Physical non-linearity adds some fictitious load to regular loads.
Formulas of equivalent static loads, with the help of which the systems are analyzed when constraints are disrupted, are generated. No inertial force is to be derived to obtain equivalent static loads. This is important in view of their application in dynamic analyses .
Analysis of the static system in the event of disrupted constraints is based on the equations derived by the authors. The result of the analysis represents an inverse linear relation of static loading and relative stiffness of the system with disrupted constraints. This means that the lower the stiffness of the system, the higher the static loading.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.98-101

References
  1. Chernov Yu.T. Vibratsii stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [Vibrations of Engineering Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2011, 382 p.
  2. Timoshenko S.P., Yang D.Kh., Univer U. Kolebaniya v inzhenernom dele [Vibrations in Engineering]. Мoscow, Mashinostroenie [Machine Building],1985, 472 p.
  3. Chernov Yu.T. K raschetu sistem s vyklyuchayushchimisya svyazyami [About the Analysis of Systems That Have Disruptable Constraints]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Analysis of Structures]. 2010, no. 4, pp. 53—57.

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APPLICATION OF GENERALIZED EQUATIONS OF THE FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD AS PART OF THE ANALYSIS OF SLABS RESTING ON ELASTIC FOUNDATIONS

  • Gabbasov Radek Fatykhovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Construction and Theoretical Mechanics Departmenе, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), .
  • Uvarova Nataliya Borisovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Structural Mechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 102 - 107

Generalized equations of the finite difference method are used to analyze bended slabs resting on elastic foundations. The algorithm makes it possible to take account of the finite discontinuity of the function, its first derivative and the right part of the differential equation without getting any points outside of the contour or a fine grid involved in the analysis. The examples have proven the high accuracy of the proposed analysis that employs a coarse grid and a simple algorithm.
It is noteworthy that the algorithm of the analysis is developed with a view to the employment of computer-aided methods and with due account for a substantial number of subsettings. The examples provided in the article are solely designated to illustrate the operation of the proposed algorithm. They demonstrate that even if the number of subsettings is minimal, generalized equations of the method of finite differences are capable of generating the results that make it possible to assess the stress-strained state of a slab.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.102-107

References
  1. Gabbasov R.F., Mussa Sali. Obobshchennye uravneniya metoda konechnykh raznostey i ikh primenenie k raschetu izgibaemykh plastin peremennoy zhestkosti [Generalized Equations of the Method of Finite Differences and Their Application to Analysis of Bent Slabs of Variable Rigidity]. Izvestiya VUZov, Stroitel'stvo [News of Higher Education Institutions. Construction]. 2004, no. 5, pp. 17—22.
  2. Timoshenko S.P., Voynovskiy-Kriger S. Plastinki i obolochki [Plates and Envelopes]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1966
  3. Gabbasov R.F., Gabbasov A.R., Filatov V.V. Chislennoe postroenie razryvnykh resheniy zadach stroitel'noy mekhaniki [Numerical Structure of Discontinuous Solutions of Problems of Structural Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2008, 277 p.

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SIMULATION OF THE stress-strain state of excavation BOUNDARIES in fractured massifs

  • Nizomov Dzhahongir Nizomovich - Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan Institute of Geology, Antiseismic Construction and Seismology, 8 (992) 919-35-57-34, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, ushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Hodzhiboev Abduaziz Abdusattorovich - Tajik Technical University named after academic M.S. Osimi 8 (992) 918-89-35-14, Tajik Technical University named after academic M.S. Osimi, 10 Akademikov Radzhabovyh St., 734042, Dushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Hodzhiboev Orifdzhon Abduazizovich - Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan Institute of Geology, Antiseismic Construction and Seismology 8 (992) 918-72-08-44, Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tajikistan, Dushanbe, Republic of Tajikistan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 108 - 115

The authors have applied the method of boundary equations to resolve the problem of numerical calculation of the stress-strain state of arbitrary boundaries of excavation works in fractures massifs, if subjected to various impacts.
Benchmarking of the results have proven that the proposed model based on the method of boundary integral equations may be used to identify the concentrated stresses that the loose excavation boundaries in fractured massifs are exposed to.
The authors have developed an algorithm and a calculation pattern through the application of the method of boundary integral equations to calculate the values of stresses concentrated around arbitrary shape openings under impacts of various origins.
Any limiting process, namely, if or and any results are in line with the isotropic medium.
The proposed algorithm and calculation pattern may be used to research the concentrated stresses alongside the boundaries of hydrotechnical engineering facilities.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.108-115

References
  1. Lehnickiy S.G. Anizotropnye plastinki [Anisotropic Plates]. Moscow – Leningrad, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo tekhniko-teoreticheskoy literatury [State Publishing House of Theoretical Technical Literature]. 1947, 355 p.
  2. Lehnickiy S.G. Teoriya uprugosti anizotropnogo tela [Theory of Elasticity of Anisotropic Bodies]. Moscow – Leningrad, Gosudarstvennoe izdatel'stvo tekhniko-teoreticheskoy literatury [State Publishing House of Theoretical Technical Literature]. 1950, 299 p.
  3. Ruppeneyt K.V. Deformiruemost' massivov treschinovatykh gornykh porod [Deformability of Fractured Rock Massifs]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1975, 223 p.
  4. Roza S.A., Zelenskiy B.D. Issledovanie mehanicheskikh svoystv skal'nykh osnovaniy gidrotehnicheskikh sooruzheniy [Research of Mechanical Properties of Bedrock Foundations of Hydrotechnical Engineering Facilities]. Moscow, Jenergiya Publ., 1967. 392 p.
  5. Baklashov I.V. Deformirovanie i razrushenie porodnykh massivov [Deformation and Collapse of Rock Masses]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1988, 271 p.
  6. Baklashov I.V., Kartoziya B.A. Mehanicheskie processy v porodnykh massivakh [Mechanical Processes in Rock Masses]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1986, 272 p.
  7. Baklashov I.V., Kartoziya B.A. Mekhanika gornykh porod [Rock Mechanics]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1975, 271 p.
  8. Zelenskiy B.D. O metode ucheta vliyaniya treschinovatosti na deformacionnye svoystva skal'nykh massivov [About the Method of Analysis of the Impact of Fractures onto Deformation Properties of the Rock Massif]. Works of Leningrad Institute of Engineering and Economics. 1967, Issue No. 68, pp. 62—70.
  9. Zelenskiy B.D. Osnovnye napravleniya issledovaniy informaciy skal'nykh porod kak osnovaniy betonnykh plotin [Principal Lines of Information Research of Rock Massifs as Bedrocks of Concrete Dams]. Problemy inzhenernoy geologii v stroitel'stve [Problems of Engineering Geology in Construction]. Moscow, Gostrojizdat Publ., 1961, pp. 143—156.
  10. Krauch S., Starfild A. Metody granichnykh elementov v mekhanike tverdogo tela [Method of Finite Elements in Mechanics of Rigid Body]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1987, 328 p.
  11. Kuznecov Ju.I., Pozinenko B.V., Pylaeva T.A. Ob anizotropii uprugikh svoystv treschinovatykh gornykh porod [About the Anisotropy of Elastic Properties of Fractured Rocks]. Academic Papers of Leningrad State University, Series of Physical and Geological Sciences. 1966, Issue no. 16, № 329, pp. 94—106.
  12. Pancini M. Result of the First Series of Tests Performed on a Model Reproducing the Actual Structure of the Abutment Rock of the Vaiont Dam. Geologie und Bauwesen Publ., H. 3, 4, 1962, pp. 105—119.
  13. Tokano M. Rupture Studies on Arch Dam Foundation by Means of Models. Geologie und Bauwesen Publ., H. 3, 4, 1961, pp. 99—121.
  14. Walsh J.B. The Effect of Cracks on the Uniaxial Elastic Compression of Rocks. Journal of Geophysical Research. Issue no. 70, №. 2, 1965, pp. 399—411.
  15. Nizomov Dzh.N. Metod granichnykh uravneniy v reshenii staticheskikh i dinamicheskikh zadach stroitel'noy mekhaniki [Method of Boundary Equations Used to Solve Static and Dynamic Problems of Structural Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2000, 283 p.
  16. Myuller L. Inzhenernaya geologiya. Mekhanika skal'nykh massivov [Engineering Geology. Mechanics of Rock Massifs]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1971, 255 p.

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VIBRATIONS OF A DEEP HEAVY FOUNDATION RESTING ON WEIGHTY MULTILAYER SOILS

  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Jaro Mokhammed Nazeem - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Soil Mechanics, Beddings and Foundations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 116 - 120

The authors present analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of vibrations of deep foundations caused by dynamic loads, if the foundations rest on multilayer soils. It is proven that the friction force that influences the foundation, the weighty nature of the bedding, and the visco-elastic properties of soils affect the amplitude and the frequency of vibrations.
The authors present an approach to the calculation of vibrations of deep foundations resting on multilayer soils. The proposed approach takes account of the side surface friction of the foundation and the soil and elastic and viscous properties of soils. The soil is presented as a multilayer substance, and all of its layers are connected to one another by elastic-viscous elements. In this case, each layer of soil vibrates independently and provides multiple degrees of freedom to the system.
A mathematical description of vibrations requires the identification of the coefficient of stiffness for each layer of soil, as well as the weight, the average per-layer stress and the angle of distributed static stress.
The results have proven that the weight of the bedding, the friction of a deep foundation, and elastic and viscous properties of soil affect the behavior of the amplitude and the frequency of foundation vibrations and the accumulation of residual settlements.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.116-120

References
  1. Voznesenskiy E.A. Dinamicheskaya neustoychivost' gruntov [Dynamic Instability of Soils]. Moscow, Editorial Publ., 1999, 264 p.
  2. Krasnikov N.D. Dinamicheskie svoystva gruntov i metody ikh opredeleniya [Dynamic Properties of Soils and Methods of Their Identification]. Leningrad, Stroyizdat Publ., 1970, 239 p.
  3. Savinov O.A. Sovremennye konstrukyii fundamentov pod mashiny i ikh raschet [Modern Structures of Foundations to Accommodate Machinery and Analysis of Structures]. Leningrad – Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1974, 279 p.
  4. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 552 p.
  5. Ukhov S.B., Semenov V.V, Znamenskiy V.V., Ter-Martirosyan Z.G., Chernyshev S.H. Mekhanika gruntov. Osnovaniya i fundamenty [Soil Mechanics. Beddings and Foundations], 2007, 561 p.
  6. Braja M. DA. Fundamentals of Soil Dynamics, ed. ELSEVIER, New York, Amsterdam, Oxford, 1983, p. 399.

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INTERACTION BETWEEN FINITE STIFNESS STRUCTURES WITH THE DOUBLE-LAYERED SOIL BEDDING IN THE COURSE OF SEISMIC LOADS

  • Ter-Martirosyan Zaven Grigor'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Jaro Mokhammed Nazeem - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) postgraduate student, Department of Soil Mechanics, Beddings and Foundations, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 121 - 125

In the paper, the authors present their research of the stress-strain behavior of the doublelayered soil bedding interacting with structures in the course of seismic excitation by taking account of elastic and plastic properties of the soil. Seismic excitation of soil causes irreversible residual stresses and settlements, local failure zones, cracks in the soil surface and structures that interact with it. The analysis of residual stresses and settlements caused by the seismic excitation is one of relevant problems of soil dynamics.
The factors that boost stresses and settlements in the course of seismic excitation include the intensity of the earthquake, the amplitude and frequency of vibrations of structures. In some cases, seismic excitation leads to resonance that may cause failure of the structure. The use of the elastic and plastic model makes it possible to identify the local zone of structural failure and residual deformations. The important factor of projecting the stress-strain state of soil during seismic excitation is the boundary condition of the model used for the analysis purposes. It is clear that the model used for seismic analysis purposes must be bigger than the one used for static analysis purposes. The results have proven that heterogeneous stresses and deformations originate in the soil bedding, and the heavier the structure, the longer the period of decay of vibrations.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.121-125

References
  1. Ishikhara K. Povedenie gruntov pri zemletryaseniyakh [Soil Behaviour in the course of Earthquakes]. St.Petersburg, NPO «Georekonstruktsiya-Fundament-Proekt» [Research and Production Association “Geological Structures — Foundations - Designs]. 2006, 384 p.
  2. SNiP II-7—81* Stroitel'stvo v seysmichnykh rayonakh. Normy proektirovaniya [Construction Norms and Rules II-7—81*. Construction in Seismic Areas. Norms of Design]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1982.
  3. Stavnitser L.R. Seysmostoykost' osnovaniy i fundamentov [Seismic Resistance of Beddings and Foundations]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 446 p.
  4. Ter-Martirosyan Z. G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2009, 552 p.
  5. Chopra A.K. and Gutierrez J.A. Earthquake Response Analysis of Multistory Buildings including Foundation Interaction. Journal of Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics, 1974, vol. 3, pp. 65-77.
  6. Lysmer J., Kuhlmeyer R.L. Finite Dynamic Model for Infinite Media. ASCE. J. of the Eng. Mech. Div., 1969, pp. 859-877.
  7. Naylor D.J. and Pande G.N. Finite Elements in Geomechanics. Pineridge Press Limited, 1981.

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ASSESSMENT OF RELIABILITY OF OVERLAPPINGS IN THE COURSE OF THE WAREHOUSE RECONSTRUCTION

  • Dolganov Andrey Ivanovich - Zhilekspertiza Limited Liability Company lead engineer, Zhilekspertiza Limited Liability Company, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kaleev Denis Ivanovich - Zhilekspertiza Limited Liability Company lead engineer, Zhilekspertiza Limited Liability Company, Building 2, 21 Yablochkova St., Moscow, 127322, Russian Federation.

Pages 126 - 130

In the article, the authors perform the assessment of the reliability of overlappings of a warehouse building owned by Vysokovol'tnyy Kabel' Open Joint Stock Company. The assessment is performed in 25-38/А-D axes on the basis of the bearing capacity criterion. The authors have assessed the compliance of the condition of the restructured building with the regulatory requirements issued by the Federal Service in charge of Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision, Federal Law № 116-FZ On Industrial Safety of Hazardous Industrial Facilities, issued on July 21, 1997, and Federal Law № 384-FZ Technical Regulations of Safety of Buildings and Structures, issued on December 30, 2009, in terms of the assurance of safe maintenance of the above industrial building.
The warehouse building is located within the area occupied by the Moscow cable factory. It occupies a two-aisle section of a single-storied industrial building in 25-38/А-D axes. The climatic area represents Area II, the subsection of the climatic zone is 2B. The warehouse has a metal frame; it is made of I-shaped steel columns and beams that have reinforced concrete floor slabs resting on them. The foundations are made of reinforced concrete posts resting on the concrete foundation mat.
As a result of a specialized analysis, the authors have identified that the probability of compliance of the steel beams with the requirements of the first group of limit states, with account for the identified damages, is equal to 5σ. The analysis of the structure of the overlapping and the columns demonstrates that their bearing capacity and rigidity are sufficient to resist the principal combinations of load, including the loads that come from the two allied loaded loaders of Doosan series (48B AC) that represent a short term load.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.126-130

References
  1. Augusti G., Baratta A., Kashiati F. Veroyatnostnye metody v stroitel'nom proektirovanii [Probability Methods in Structural Design]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1988, 584 p.
  2. Dolganov A.I. Nadezhnost' sterzhnevykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Framing Structures]. Magadan, OAO "MAOBTI", 2007, 209 p.
  3. Dolganov A.I. Otsenka nadezhnosti monolitnykh mnogoetazhnykh zdaniy [Assessment of Reliability of Monolithic Multi-storied Buildings]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 8, pp. 50—51.

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Geoecological conditions of THE territory OF Tomsk and their influence on URBAN CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT

  • Ol'khovatenko Valentin Egorovich - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB) Professor, Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Chair, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB), 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lazarev Vladimir Mikhaylovich - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, Chair, Department of Geodesy, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB), 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Filimonova Irina Sergeevna - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB) Senior Lecturer, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB), 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 131 - 139

Geoecological conditions, natural and anthropogenic factors that boost hazardous processes in the territory of Tomsk are considered in the paper. The algorithm of research of geoecological conditions of urban territories is proposed by the authors. The authors have also identified the reasons of hazardous processes and development patterns typical for them; the authors also break the territory into zones on the basis of the level of hazards and risks that the urban development is exposed to. The authors provide their recommendations in respect of the engineering protection of urban lands on the basis of the zoning of the territory of Tomsk.
Comprehensive geoecological research was performed in furtherance of the algorithm proposed by the authors. The research undertaking made it possible to identify the patterns of hazardous processes, to assess the state and sustainability of natural and technological systems in the zones of geoecological risks, to compile a map of urban zones based on the intensity of geoecological risks that challenged the urban development, and to develop a set of actions to assure the engineering protection of the territory, its buildings and structures.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.131-139

References
  1. Ol'khovatenko V.E., Rutman M.G., Lazarev V.I. Opasnye prirodnye i tekhnoprirodnye protsessy na territorii goroda Tomska i ikh vliyanie na ustoychivost' prirodno-tekhnicheskikh sistem [Hazardous Natural and Technological-Natural Processes in the Territory of Tomsk and Their Influence on the Sustainability of Natural and Technological Systems]. Tomsk, Pechatnaya Manufaktura Publ., 2005, 152 p.

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IMPACT OF VARIOUS ADDITIVES ONTO MORPHOLOGY OF GYPSUM CRYSTALS

  • Ustinova Yuliya Valer'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) +7 (499) 183-32-92, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sivkov Sergey Pavlovich - D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (MUCTR) 8 (495) 496-92-38, D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (MUCTR), 20 Geroev Panfilovtsev str., Moscow, 125047, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Barinova Ol'ga Pavlovna - D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (MUCTR) +7 (495) 496-93-40, D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (MUCTR), 20 Geroev Panfilovtsev str., Moscow, 125047, Russian Federation; opbar@rambler.ru; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sanzharovskiy Aleksandr Yur'evich - D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (MUCTR) +7 (495) 496-93-40, D. Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (MUCTR), 20 Geroev Panfilovtsev str., Moscow, 125047, Russian Federation.

Pages 140 - 144

Nowadays, functional additives represented by multiple classes of substances and compounds, including polymers of different origin, are available for introduction into dry mixtures based on gypsum binders. However, their impact onto the growth and formation of calcium sulfate dihydrate (CaSO∙2HO) crystals generated in the course of hardening of gypsum binders is not quite clear. Therefore, the objective of the research was to analyze the processes of growth and formation of calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals caused by functional additives based on polymers of different origin. The analysis was composed of three stages.
At the first stage, both pure and modified calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals were synthesized. Super plasticizers based on sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resin, methylcellulose (MC) and redispersible polymer powder based on copolymer of vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride (VAEVC) were applied as additives. At the second stage, the objective was to identify the influence of polymer additives on the shape and size of calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals; therefore, an X-ray analysis of synthesized crystals was performed. Following the X-ray analysis data and with the help of a special software programme, possible combinations of simple forms of CaSO∙2HO were simulated, and the habitus of generated crystals was also studied. At the third stage, the objective was to validate the models of calcium sulfate dihydrate crystals by means of an electron-microscopic analysis.
The following conclusions were made upon completion of the research:
A. It has been identified that additives based on polymers of different origin affect the processes of crystallization, the size and shape of gypsum crystals. The presence of the super plasticizer based on sulfonated melamine-formaldehyde resin, methylcellulose and redispersible polymer powder based on a copolymer of vinyl acetate, ethylene and vinyl chloride, causes reduction of the size of crystals, while the crystals turn elongated. The crystal-to-crystal contact area increases; therefore, it is likely that the strength of the hardening agent goes up.
B. It has been demonstrated that the X-ray analysis can be applied to simulate the shape and habitus of crystals.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.140-144

References
  1. Korneev V.I., Zozulya P.V., Medvedeva I.N., Bogoyavlenskaya G.A., Nuzhdina N.I. Retsepturnyy spravochnik po sukhim stroitel'nym smesyam [Book of References and Recipes of Dry Building Mixtures]. St. Petersburg, Kvintet Publ., 2010, 308 p.
  2. Izotov V.S. Khimicheskie dobavki dlya modifikatsii betona [Chemical Additives to Modify the Concrete]. Moscow, Paleotip Publ., 2006, 244 p.
  3. Mishra R.K., Flatt R.J., Heinz H. Molecular Understanding of Directional Surface and Interface Tensions of Gypsum and Calcium Sulfate Hemihydrate. Proceedings of the XIII ICCC International Congress on the Chemistry of Cement, Madrid, Spain, 3-8 July, 2011.
  4. Kristallograficheskaya i kristallokhimicheskaya baza dannykh dlya mineralov i ikh struk-turnykh analogov [Crystallographic and crystal-chemical database of minerals and their structural counterparts]. Available at: http://database.iem.ac.ru/mincryst/rus. Date of access: 04.02.2012.

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COMPUTER-AIDED FLOW METER APPLICABLE TO LOOSE MATERIALS IN THE COURSE OF PNEUMATIC TRANSPORTATION

  • Gulyaev Valeriy Genrihovich - Nizhniy Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNSUAC) , Nizhniy Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNSUAC), 65 Ilyinskaya Str., Nizhniy Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 145 - 148

The article covers the issues of development and the results of the pilot testing of the contact-free meter of the two-phase flow of loose construction materials in the course of their pneumatic transportation. The flow meter designed by the author is based on the method of registration of polarization currents caused by the motion of the dielectric material within the electric field of a measurement unit integrated into the pneumatic transportation line. The registration unit is the implementation of the original technology. Its functional concept is based on the Pockels transverse effect inside the lithium niobate crystal. This electro-optical effect is characterized by minimal persistence, as the phase of the optical wave varies within the time period of 10 second, and this effect makes it possible to improve the accuracy of measurements. The flow rates is identified on the basis of one variable integral parameter, the intensity of an optical wave passing through the Pockels cell simulated by the currents of polarization of the material. The paper contains the structural pattern of the computer-aided meter of loose dielectric materials in the course of their pneumatic transportation, the system of visualization of the mass flow, and the results of the pilot testing of the proposed meter. The proposed system may represent an unbiased system of management of construction materials, consumption procedures, and warehouse processing of materials.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.145-148

References
  1. Plotnikov N.M., Gulyaev V.G., Kirgizov A.M. Razrabotka izmeritelya rashoda dvuhfaznogo potoka sypuchikh stroitel'nykh materialov pri pnevmotransportirovanii [Development of the Two-Phase Flow Meter of Loose Building Materials in the Course of Pneumatic Transportation]. Nizhniy Novgorod University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNUACE), Privolzhskiy nauchnyy zhurnal [Privolzhsky Scientific Journal], no. 3, Nizhniy Novgorod, 2010, pp. 105—111.
  2. Plotnikov N.M., Gulyaev V.G. Izmeritel' rashoda sypuchikh dielektricheskikh materialov, transportiruemykh vozduhom v zakrytykh truboprovodakh [Meter of the Flow of Loose Dielectric Materials Transported by the Compressed Air in Closed Pipelines]. Pribory [Devices], no. 1 (127), Moscow, 2011, pp. 35—39.

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COMPOSITE POLYMERICADDITIVESDESIGNATED FORCONCRETEMIXES BASED ONPOLYACRYLATES, PRODUCTS OF THERMAL DECOMPOSITION OF POLYAMIDE-6 AND LOW-MOLECULAR POLYETHYLENE

  • Polyakov Vyacheslav Sergeevich - Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology (ISUCT) Director, "Polymer" Research and Production Laboratory, Ivanovo State University of Chemistry and Technology (ISUCT), 7 Prospekt Engelsa, Ivanovo, 153000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Padokhin Valeriy Alekseevich - Institute of Machine Science named after A.A. Blagonravov of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMASH RAN) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Principal Researcher, Institute of Machine Science named after A.A. Blagonravov of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IMASH RAN), 4 Malyy Khariton'evskiy per., Moscow, 101990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Akulova Marina Vladimirovna - - Ivanovo State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (ISUACE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Construction Materials, Ivanovo State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (ISUACE), 20 8th March St., Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 149 - 154

The goal of the present research is to develop polymeric additives based on aqueous dispersions of (meth)acrylic polymers, including polymethacrylates, polyacrylates, products of thermal decomposition of polyamide-6 in the vegetable oil media, and low-molecular polyethylene. Decomposition of polyamide-6 took 8…10 hours at the temperature of 245…275 °С. The mixture of low-molecular polyamides, the average molecular weight of which reached 3400…8600, was used both independently and as a constituent of a composite additive designated for Concrete Mix В 22,5 (М300). The choice of polymers is based on their availability, as they are produced by local manufacturers of chemicals. For example, low-molecular polyethylene is the by-product of high-capacity synthesis of high-pressure polyethylene. Besides low-molecular polyamides, additives may represent concentrated oligomers of ε-caprolactam generated in the course of synthesis of polyamide-6. Therefore, the problem of disposal of by-products generated by major producers of chemicals is resolved to some extent, while the cost of the feed stock required for the manufacturing of effective additives designated for concretes goes down. The above substances are non-toxic, they do not emit any hazardous fumes in the course of the concrete mixture preparation, further evaporation and dehydration of molded concrete and reinforced concrete products.
Therefore, the following conclusions can be made on the basis of the research of the influence of polymeric additives onto the properties of Concrete В 22,5:
1) polymeric additives 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 represent plasticizing additives that decelerate the hardening of concrete mixtures and reduce the water-cement ratio by 6.5 % (Additive 1) - 19.4 % (Additive 5);
2) Additives 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 added into the mixture in the amount of 0.5…0.7 % (weight share) improve the strength of Concrete В 22,5 samples, if tested on the 28 day of hardening (see Table 1) in the dry-hardening mode, if compared to the benchmark sample, by 0.6% (Additive 1),by 9.1% (Additive 2), by 22.4% (Additive 3), by 24.8% (Additive 4), and by28.2% (Additive 5);
3) polymeric additives improve the water resistance of Concrete В 22,5 by 2.56 times (Additive 1), by 7.5 times (Additive 2),by 26,2 times (Additive 4), by 191…195 times (Additive 5), if compared to the benchmark sample;
4) the optimal composite additive that increases the time period of stiffening of the cement grout , improves the water resistance and the compressive strength of concrete, represents the composition of polyacrylates and polymethacrylates, products of thermal decomposition of polyamide-6 and low-molecular polyethylene in the weight ratio of 1:1:0.5.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.149-154

References
  1. Rebinder P.A. Selected works. Poverkhnostnye yavleniya v dispersnykh sistemakh. Kolloidnaya khimiya [Surface Effects in Disperse Systems. Colloid Chemistry]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1978, 368 p.
  2. Bazhenov Yu.M. Tekhnologiya betona [Technology of Concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1987, 415 p.
  3. Ramachandran V., Feldman R., Boduen G. Nauka o betone. Fiziko-khimicheskoe betonovedenie [Science of Concrete. Physical and Chemical Studies of Concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 278 p.
  4. Ratinov V.B., Ivanov F.M. Khimiya v stroitel'stve [Chemistry in Construction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1977, 380 p.

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MODELING AND OPTIMIZATION OF THE AEROCONCRETE TECHNOLOGY

  • Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) C andidate o f Technical S ciences, A ssociated P rofessor, D epartment of Technology of Finishing and Insulating Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoeshosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chugunkov Aleksandr Viktorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Director, Department of Examination of Buildings, postgraduate student, Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Gudkov Pavel Kirillovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Engineer, Web-editor, Editorial and Publishing Centre, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 155 - 159

Heat-insulating cellular concrete manufactured in the variotropic pressure environment, may be used both for making single-piece products, and for monolithic construction purposes. Optimization of technology-related parameters prevents excessive consumption of principal components, while output products maintain pre-set characteristics. Both the product and the technology are based on the provisions of the general methodology of development of highly porous materials.
The technology is based on the principle of adjustable formation of the state of stress in the variotropic pressure environment. The state of stress maintained in the course of blowout contributes to formation of optimized cellular structure (in accordance with the criteria that include the shape, dimensions of pores, and characteristics of interpore partitions).
The process of manufacturing of the heat-insulating cellular concrete breaks down into the following stages: preparation of raw materials, preparation of the cellular concrete mixture, casting of products, thermal processing or ageing in the natural environment. Products are placed under heating domes, equipped with electric heaters, and exposed to heat treatment for six hours. Before the heat treatment, products are kept in their moulds for four hours. In the absence of heat treatment, products are kept on their pallets for 14 days.
Selection of the appropriate composition and optimal technological parameters is performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 software programme developed at MSUCE. The software is based on the methodology that is based on complete factorial experiments, experiments based on fractional replicates and testing of all essential statistical hypotheses. Linear, incomplete quadratic and quadratic equations generated as a result of experiments make it possible to design a model that represents natural processes in the adequate manner. The model is analytically optimized and interpreted thereafter.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.155-159

References
  1. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Lokal'naya analiticheskaya optimizatsiya tehnologicheskikh protsessov [Local Analytical Optimization of Technology-related Processes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1, vol. 2, pp. 273—278.
  2. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Rudnitskaya V.A. Reshenie tehnologicheskikh zadach metodami matematicheskogo modelirovaniya [Resolution of Technology-related Problems by Methods of Mathematical Modeling]. Moscow, MSUCE, 2011, 176 p.

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REINFORCING FIBRES AS PART OF TECHNOLOGY OF CONCRETES

  • Zhukov Aleksey Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) C andidate o f Technical S ciences, A ssociated P rofessor, D epartment of Technology of Finishing and Insulating Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoeshosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Rudnitskaya Viktoriya Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) master student, Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Smirnova Tat'yana Viktorovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) ROCKWOOL postgraduate student Leading Specialist, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) ROCKWOOL, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 160 - 164

Methods of modification of the foamed fibre concrete technology and optimization of its parameters within the framework of methodologies of new construction materials developed by the specialists of Department of Technology of Finishing and Insulation Materials of MSUCE is considered in the paper. The methodology of highly porous materials is based on the research and modeling of their structure, and optimization of the process of their manufacturing. The core constituent of the proposed methodology is the identification of the markets for the designed products, as well as the pre-setting of their properties and assurance of their stability over the time.
The foamed fibre concrete technology represents modified procedures of preparation of the foam, the mineral component, and the basalt fiber, the blending of the components, their casting and heat treatment. The process-related parameters were subjected to double-staged analysis: Stage 1 represented an experiment encompassing the whole process. As a result of the experiment, factors of major impact (or control parameters) were identified. At Stage 2, factorial experiment was conducted to identify second-order mathematical dependencies. The results were subjected to analytical optimization, and graphical representation of dependencies was performed. Selection of the composition and optimal process parameters was performed with the help of G-BAT-2011 software programme developed at MSUCE.
It was identified that the basalt fibre consumption rate influences both the strength and the density of products made of cellular concrete. The length of the basalt fibre impacts the strength of products. A nomogram was developed to identify the consumption rate of the basalt fibre driven by the strength of products and the Portland cement consumption rate. The authors also studied the influence of the consumption rate of Portland cement and basalt fibre onto the structural quality ratio of the foamed fibre concrete.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.160-164

References
  1. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Rudnitskaya V.A. Reshenie tehnologicheskikh zadach metodami matematicheskogo modelirovaniya [Resolution of Technology-related Problems by Methods of Mathematical Modeling]. Moscow, MSUCE, 2011, 176 p.
  2. Zhukov A.D., Chugunkov A.V. Lokal'naya analiticheskaya optimizatsiya tehnologicheskikh protsessov [Local Analytical Optimization of Technology-related Processes]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1, vol. 2, pp. 273—278.

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PRACTICAL APPLICATION OF NEW TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COURSE OF CONSTRUCTION OF MODERN BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES (AS EXPEMPLIFIED BY MOSCOW-CITY INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS CENTRE)

  • Sinenko Sergey Anatol'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Department of Computer-Aided Design in Civil Engineering, +7 (495) 287-49-14, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Emin Èriširgil - Summa A.S architect, project manager, Summa A.S, .
  • Grabovyy Petr Grigor'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Economics, Department of Construction Processes and Real Estate Management, +7 (495) 967-43-50, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vil'man Yuriy Avgustovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Department of Construction Technology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Grabovyy Kirill Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Economics, Department of Construction Processes and Real Estate Management, +7 (495) 210-89-34, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 165 - 169

Technological peculiarities of high-rise buildings and structures are considered on the basis of the multifunctional 70-storeyed building («Moscow City»).
The application of advanced design techniques has proven their efficiency. Advanced methodology of design has reduced the time and cost of design due to repetitive use of the information accumulated in the course of design development, timely information support throughout the whole project development period, and the quality and timeliness of decision-making in terms of technology-related issues. The new design methodology was, to some extent, implemented by means of assurance of the standard functionality of construction-related systems and organizational actions, and through the customization of the system to assure the implementation of both the new functions and the methodology-related solutions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.165-169

References
  1. Afanas'ev A.A., Korol' E.A., Kagan P.B., Komissarov S.V., Zueva A.V. Tekhnologicheskie osobennosti vozvedeniya vysotnykh zdaniy [Technology-related Peculiarities of High-Rise Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 369—373.
  2. Sinenko S.A., Lebedeva I.M. Problemy realisticheskoy vizualizatsii organizatsionnotekhnologicheskikh resheniy v srede AutoCAD [Problems of Realistic Visualization of Organizational and Technology-related Solutions in the AutoCAD Medium]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 8.

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PECULIARITIES OF TECHNOLOGY AND MECHANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION OF MULTI-STORIED BUILDINGS

  • Vil'man Yuriy Avgustovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Department of Construction Technology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Sinenko Sergey Anatol'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Department of Computer-Aided Design in Civil Engineering, +7 (495) 287-49-14, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Grabovyy Petr Grigor'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Economics, Department of Construction Processes and Real Estate Management, +7 (495) 967-43-50, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Grabovyy Kirill Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Economics, Department of Construction Processes and Real Estate Management, +7 (495) 210-89-34, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korol' Elena Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Production Management and Renovation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kagan Pavel Borisovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, Department of Information Systems, Technologies and Automation in Construction, + 7 (495) 741-63-68, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 170 - 174

Peculiarities of operating processes and mechanization of construction of modern multi-storied buildings and structures are considered by the authors. Principles of the robotized construction technology with the due account for multi-storied buildings are proposed in the article.
Advanced machinery and tooling employed in hi-rise construction operations (including cranes, building structures, installation and mounting devices) fail to be mutually adjustable. Therefore, cranes are capable of performing only one of 16 - 20 operations; the remaining operations are performed manually by the workers. The labour expenditures of workers exceed the time period of cranes in operation 4- to 5-fold.
The position of a building structure inside the building is based on the Cartesian coordinate system; any installation device must have a locating tool equipped capable of moving structural units alongside , and axes and of rotating them about the above axes. Thus, the machinery must be able to move building structures pursuant to six motion patterns.
High positioning accuracy requires a double-staged installation procedure. At Stage 1, a structural unit is relocated by crane mechanisms from the hard grip zone at maximal speed to assure maximal accuracy. At Stage 2, the new locating tool must move the structural unit at the minimal speed to accommodate it into its design position.
Erection performance rate may be improved by reducing the time period when the crane is in operation both in the automated and manual modes by converting the cyclical construction process into a continuous conveyor-type process (the crane construction is to be modified), and by introducing new joints into building structures to assure the self-locking and hard grip with a view to efficient manipulations and high-accuracy positioning.
Besides, an important constituent of the problem of improvement of the erection process represents the factors that may boost the labour productivity. These factors include the accounting of the machine time and the manual working time, as well as the time period of the whole erection process.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.170-174

References
  1. Vil'man Yu.A. Tekhnologiya stroitel'nykh protsessov i vozvedeniya zdaniy. Sovremennye progressivnye metody [Technology of Building Processes and Erection of Buildings. Advanced Methods]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2008, 336 p.
  2. Telichenko V.I., Korol' E.A., Kagan P.B., Komissarov S.V., Arutyunov S.G., Afanas'ev A.A. Upravlenie programmami i proektami vozvedeniya vysotnykh ob"ektov [Management of Programmes and Projects of Erection of High-rise Buildings] Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 144 p.
  3. Afanas'ev A.A., Korol' E.A., Kagan P.B., Komissarov S.V., Zueva A.V. Tekhnologicheskie osobennosti vozvedeniya vysotnykh zdaniy [Technological Peculiarities of Construction of High-rise Buildings]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 369—373.

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TECHNOLOGY OF ERECTION OF PRECAST FRAME BUILDINGS AT NEGATIVE TEMPERATURES

  • Afanas'ev Aleksandr Alekseevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, +7 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 31-25, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 175 - 180

In the article, the author describes the technological peculiarities of erection of frame buildings at negative temperatures. The author also demonstrates structural and technological peculiarities of prefabricated frame elements. The author also speaks about the technology of prefabricated production of stacked columns, pre-stressed girders, beams and hollow core slabs.
It is proven that the frame system is applicable for the construction of industrial, residential and office buildings that may have different numbers of storeys and that are flexible in terms of design concepts. Besides, the author describes the technological peculiarities of the assembly of structural elements, their temporary and permanent fixing.
The author also provides basic requirements applicable to the technology of grouting of column-to-girder joints and hollow slabs designated for a cased frame. The article also contains an analytical solution of the heat conductivity equation that describes the period of heating of connected elements. The solution makes it possible to use numerical methods to identify the depth of heating of girders and columns, depending on the ambient temperature and the duration of exposure to the heat.
The author has also analyzed the technology of grouting of precast structure joints at negative temperatures in the event of pre-heating of structural elements to be connected and the heating of the concrete mix with heating wires. The author has identified the range of rational heating modes for structural joints on the basis of the parameters of negative temperatures.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.175-180

References
  1. Schembakov V.G. Sborno-monolitnoe karkasnoe stroitel'stvo [Precast Monolithic Frame Construction]. Cheboksary, 2004. 96 p.
  2. Afanas'ev A.A., Minakov Yu.A. Otsenka teplovykh poley pri uskorennykh metodakh tverdeniya betona v monolitnom domostroenii [Assessment of Thermal Fields as part of Methods of Accelerated Hardening of Concrete in Monolithic House Building]. Sbornik “Teoreticheskie osnovy stroitel'stva” [Collected Works. Theoretical Foundations of Construction]. Moscow, 1999, pp. 16—22.
  3. Tikhonov A.N., Samarskiy A.A. Uravneniya matematicheskoy fiziki [Equations of Mathematical Physics]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1966, 724 p.
  4. Mironov S.A. Teoriya i metody zimnego betonirovaniya [Theory and Methods of Winter-time Concreting]. Moscow, S.K. Publ., 1975, 700 p.
  5. Afanas'ev A.A., Selischev K.S. Tekhnologii omonolichivaniya stykov pri vozvedenii karkasnykh zdaniy [Technology of Grouting of Joints in Construction of Frame Buildings]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4, pp. 34—38.
  6. Gmyrya A.I., Korobkov S.V. Tekhnologiya betonnykh rabot v zimnikh usloviyakh [Technology of Concrete Works in Winter Conditions]. Tomsk, TGASU [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering], 2011, 411 p.

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE ALGORITHM AND THE COMPUTER-AIDED PROGRAMME FOR OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF SELECTION OF THE TRENCHLESS METHOD OF RENOVATION OF PRESSURE AND PRESSURE-FREE PIPELINES

  • Orlov Vladimir Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Water Supply and Waste Water Treatment, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zotkin Sergey Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Informatics and Applied Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Scienc- es, Associate Professor, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Maleeva Anna Vladimirovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) master student, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 181 - 186

The factors of impact onto the process of selection of the optimal method of renovation of pressure and pressure-free pipes are considered in the article. The programme algorithm, input and output user information, the sequence of actions within the framework of the user-to-software interaction are presented, and the optimal renovation method is provided. The software programme is designated for researchers, designers and specialists of construction companies and design firms.
The output data are arranged as a bar chart that covers the cost of work, the timing of work, as well as the time, technology and hydraulics-related factors that impact the choice of a trenchless renovation method characterized by the smallest average-weighted indicator.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.181-186

References
  1. Khramenkov S.V., Orlov V.A., Khar'kin V.A. Optimizatsiya vosstanovleniya vodootvodyashchikh setey [Optimization of Repair of Water Disposal Networks]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2002, 159 p.
  2. Orlov V.A. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstruktsiya inzhenernyh setey i sooruzheniy [Construction and Restructuring of Engineering Networks and Structures]. Akademiya Publ., 2010, 301 p.

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REMOTE MEASUREMENT OF RADIOACTIVE CONTAMINATION OF TERRITORIES BY THE UNMANNED DOSIMETRIC SYSTEM

  • Kaliberda Inna Vasil'evna - NTC Energobezopasnost" [Scientific and Technical Centre for Power Safety] Doctor of Technical Sciences, Deputy Director, +7(495) 787-42-20, NTC Energobezopasnost" [Scientific and Technical Centre for Power Safety], Building 1, 2 Krasnobogatyrskaya Str., Moscow, 107564, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bryukhan' Fedor Fedorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, +7 (495) 922-83-19, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 186 - 194

Radiation emissions within territories that accommodate nuclear power facilities are monitored by stationary gamma radiation measuring systems. Any facilities that may contemplate the hazard of radioactive emissions must meet the safety requirements both in terms of normal conditions of their operation and in case of accidents. Thus, radioactive materials now in use must comply with strict rules.
The account for and control of radioactive materials, their proper application, compliance with the rules and security measures minimize their impact on the environment. However, the loss of professional control over the above materials (various emergencies, losses in the course of transportation, plunders) may involve serious consequences.
One of the most effective ways of reconnaissance of territories exposed to radioactive contamination to assure the search for the sources of radionuclides represents remote measurement of surface gamma radiation performed by radiation meters installed on unmanned airborne vehicles (UMAV). The main advantage of UMAV is that it may be used as the carrier of radiation meters. In addition to the gamma radiation meter, the system can take a video of different sources of hazards.
The article demonstrates the results of tests of the unmanned radiation meter designated for remote sensing of the surface gamma radiation. The option of assessment of the intensity of the radiation and the concentrations of radionuclide fields is considered. It is noteworthy that the technology of remote scanning of the area can also be used for environmental surveying, technical inspection of structures and buildings, fire detection, photography of high-voltage lines and other facilities located in remote areas.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.186-194

References
  1. Kettunen M., Nikinen M. Gammajet Fixed-Wind Gamma Survey for the Detection of Radioactive Materials: Finnish Support to IAEA. STUK-YTO-TR 185, Helsinki, 2002, 38 p.
  2. Vasilin N.Ya. Bespilotnye letatel'nye apparaty [Unmanned Airborne Vehicles]. Minsk, Popurri Publ., 2003, 269 p.
  3. Elokhin A.P., Safonenko V.A., Pchelintsev A.V. and others. Metod distantsionnogo opredeleniya kontsentratsii radionuklidov v vozdushnom vybrose radiatsionno opasnykh predpriyatiy [Method of Remote Identification of Radionuclide Concentrations in Air Emissions of Enterprises That Are Hazardous for Radiation Emissions]. Ekologicheskie sistemy i pribory [Ecological Systems and Devices]. 2007, no. 5, pp. 9—15.
  4. Elokhin A.P., Safonenko V.A., Ulin S.E. and others. Primenenie bespilotnogo dozimetricheskogo kompleksa dlya opredeleniya kontsentratsii radionuklidov v atmosfere v usloviyakh radiatsionnykh avariy [Use of Unmanned Radiation Meters to Identify the Concentration of Radionuclides in the Atmosphere in the Event of Radiation Accidents]. Yadernye izmeritel'no-informatsionnye tekhnologii [Nuclear Measurement and Information Technologies]. 2007, No. 3 (23), pp. 28—34.
  5. Report of the scientific research project implemented under State Contract no. 41-GK/2007 of 14.09.2007. Register No 0120.0800604. Development of the model of an unmanned radiation meter for comprehensive monitoring of nuclear facilities and the neighbouring territories, as well as the identification of concentrations of radioactive gas-aerosol admixtures, emitted into the atmosphere in the aftermath of a radiation accident at radiation intensive facilities. Moscow, FGU «NTC Energobezopasnost», 2007.
  6. Certificate of approval of measuring instruments. Moscow, the RF Committee for Standardization, 2003.
  7. Beschastnov S.P., Naydenov A.V. Diffuzionnye modeli strui gazoaerozol'noy primesi dlya lokal'nykh sistem radiatsionnogo monitoringa [Diffusion Models of a Gas-aerosol Admixture Stream for Local Radiation Monitoring Systems]. Atomnaya energiya [Atomic Energy]. 2000, vol. 88, no. 6, pp. 464—470.

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APPLICATION OF THE INSTANT HOT WATER DISPENSER INTEGRATED INTO THE INTERNAL WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGSAS AMETHOD OF SAVING POWER AND OTHER RESOURCES

  • Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Scienc- es, Associate Professor, Department of Water Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 195 - 199

The author compares the instant water boiling technology and the use of electric teapots in the article. Strengths and weaknesses of the instant water boiling technology and its integration into the internal water supply system are also demonstrated.
Aqua Hot 98 instant hot water dispenser is capable of heating up to 60 cups in an hour, while consuming 20 % of the electric power needed to boil the water on a stove or in an electric tea pot. Besides, the water is ready for consumption at any moment of time.
The amount of water heated by the instant hot water dispenser is the one that is needed at a particular moment of time; electric power and water consumption rates are efficient enough to guarantee substantial reduction of utility payments.
Given the fact that Aqua Hot 98 instant hot water dispenser is also capable of supplying cold filtered water, the proposed technology is more economical and ecological that bottled water supply, as plastic bottles accumulated at junkyards damage the environment.
The weakness of the proposed technology is its cost, as it is far more expensive than an electric kettle.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.195-199

References
  1. Nanasova S.M., Mihajlin V.M. Monolitnye zhilye zdanija [Monolithic Residential Buildings]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010.
  2. Kedrov V.S., Lovcov E.N. Sanitarno-tehnicheskoe oborudovanie zdaniy [Sanitary and Engineering Equipment of Buildings]. Мoscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989.
  3. Official web-site of InsinkErator, available at: http://www.insinkerator.ru/. Date of access: 20.02.2011.

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NATURE OF WAVE PROCESSES AND THEIR INTERACTION WITH Tidal power PLANTS

  • Alekseeva Ol'ga Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 200 - 203

The author examines the nature of wave processes and their impact on the operation of tidal power plants. The article also has an overview of both operating and prospective tidal power plants in Russia and worldwide. Patterns of tidal fluctuations and the intensity of their driving forces are also considered in the article. The author discloses the origin of tides in terms of elementary physics and hydraulics. The author covers various aspects of formation of different types of inequality of tides caused by alterations in the mutual positions of the Sun and the Moon in relation to the Earth, variable declination of tide-generating luminaries (the Sun and the Moon) in relation to the plane of the Earth equator, and variable distance between the luminaries and the Earth. The author analyzes wave-related phenomena, including refraction, diffraction and interference, their origin and influence onto the properties of waves. The author also covers the origin of advancing and standing waves, or waves of mixed origin, and the impact of the wind onto the characteristics of wave fluctuations. The author provides suggestions regarding potential methods of their control that can affect the essential concept of construction of tidal power plants.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.200-203

References
  1. Bernshteyn L.B. Prilivnye elektrostantsii [Tidal Power Plants]. Moscow, 1987. 296 p.
  2. Bezrukov Yu.F. Okeanologiya. Dinamicheskie yavleniya i protsessy v okeane [Oceanology. Dynamic Phenomena and Processes in the Ocean]. Part 2. Taurida National V.I. Vernadsky University, 2006.
  3. Pilyaev S.I., Gubina N.A. Volnovye raschety pri proektirovanii portov [Wave Calculations as Part of Design of Ports]. Moscow, MSUCE, 2010, 96 p.

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NORMATIVE REGULATION OF APARTMENT BUILDING MANAGEMENT

  • Demin Aleksandr Vasil'evich - Moscow State Academy of Municipal Engineering and Construction (MSAMEC) City Center for Residential Housing Subsidies Associated Professor, Candidate of Technical Sciences, Department of Municipal Services, Director, State Authority of the City of Moscow, +7 (495) 737-41-02, Moscow State Academy of Municipal Engineering and Construction (MSAMEC) City Center for Residential Housing Subsidies, Building 2, 2 Malaya Sukharevskaya Square, Moscow, 127794, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 204 - 2013

The article covers essential legal and structural transformations designated to boost the development of the system of management of housing resources of the Russian Federation. The housing sector has not taken advantage of the competitive environment to foster the housing management and maintenance systems, as no rigorous contractual relations may be established absent of regular and sufficient funding. The equity ownership to the common property of an apartment house gave rise to new legal relations and to the alteration of the function of the real estate management. According to the legislation of the Russian Federation, no owner of any item of residential or nonresidential property can independently manage the common property in a residential housing building, as it is inseparable from other premises of apartment buildings; therefore, it cannot be the subject of an independent agreement.
The article also covers the method of apartment building management, or the choice of a new system of legal relations. Unfortunately, the legislator does not provide any legal properties of the management agreement; therefore, it shall be considered as a mixed agreement. Consummation of any legal act may involve three options of its implementation. The law may introduce new relations, whereby any prior relations are cancelled, the law may require any prior relations to be transformed to comply with the law, or the law may introduce a transitory period. Transformation of existing legal relations aimed at the assurance of their compliance with the new law means introduction of changes and amendments into existing contractual relations. For example, particular contractual relations are to be documented in writing, other terms of agreements are to be altered, new dates or liabilities may be introduced, contractual payment procedures may be changed, etc. This approach assures a smooth, gradual and leap-free reform to prevent the mistakes the consequences of which will affect the population.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.204-2013

References
  1. Resolution of the Government of Moscow of September 19, 2006, no. 710-RR ‟About the Provision of Subsidies to Cover Residential Housing Charges and Utility Payments in the City of Moscow”.
  2. Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of December 14, 2005, no. 761 ‟About the Provision of Subsidies to Cover Residential Housing Charges and Utility Payments”.
  3. Federal Law of December 30, 2004, no. 210-FZ ‟About the Fundamentals of Tariff Charges Due and Payable to Municipal Enterprises”.
  4. Resolution of the Government of Moscow of January 11, 1994 ‟About the Transition to the New System of Payment of Residential Housing Charges and Utility Payments, and the Procedure of Provision to Citizens of Subsidies to Cover Residential Housing Charges”.
  5. The Housing Code of the Russian Federation.
  6. Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of July 1, 2002, no. 490 ‟On the Experiment for the Application of the Economic Reform Model in the Sector of Residential Housing and Utilities”.
  7. Federal Law of July 21, 2007, no. 185-FZ ‟About the Fund Facilitating the Reform of Residential Housing and Utility Sectors”.

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principles of formation OF THE mechanism UNDERLYING THE SYSTEM OF management OF THE MARKET OF affordable housing

  • Rozova Svetlana Viktorovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Tver State Technical University (TvGTU) senior lecturer, Department of Economics and Production Management postgraduate student, Department of Economics and Management in the Construction Industry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Tver State Technical University (TvGTU), 12 Koneva St., Tver, 170023, Russian Federation 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 214 - 219

The author analyzes the principles of management, including coherency, integration, scientific nature, democratic centralism, and others, that are also applicable to the system of management of the market of affordable housing. New principles, first disclosed in this paper, include the principles of integration, social partnership, subsidiarity, essential diversity of housing, and preemptive management. The list of specific principles includes, namely, the principle of essential diversity of housing, whereby the types of housing needs are based on the lifestyle of various social groups; therefore, the management system is to be based on diversified housing needs and methods of their satisfaction.
The principle of preemptive management means pre-scheduled preparation of the management system to the next cycle of management challenges, against the background of a consistent and purposeful network of elements of the management system. The principle of pre-emption should be based on prediction of behavior-related patterns based on the information about the current and the past market conditions that allow the management system to respond not only to a fait accompli, but also to anything to be implemented in the future. The principle of environmental security means the operation of the market in accordance with to the present-day environmental standards.
The principle of transparency and democratic control is to ensure the transparency and openness of management procedures, public involvement in the monitoring of results of the operation of all control elements of the market, consideration of interests and attitudes of the population in development and implementation of various projects, given the high social importance of this sector of economy.
The principle of aesthetic and economic compliance means that any new housing under construction must comply with the architectural concept and strategic goals of the urban environment, although it must take account of the financial capacity of the population and the city budget. Compliance with this principle requires the audit of housing projects aimed at development of a comfortable and safe housing environment to be organically incorporated into the natural environment, to be environmentally friendly though economical in terms of its operation. The key principle of effective management should be based on projections. This principle may only be implemented if the following conditions are met: simplicity and clarity of purposes, assessability of results, achievability of goals, availability of interconnections between the system elements and their integration, involvement of workers into the management process through their direct involvement in the achievement of goals.
The target audience of the article represents any readers interested in the problem of combined forms and methods of management of the market of affordable housing, students and lecturers.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.214-219

References
  1. Mil'ner B.Z. Teoriya organizatsiy [Theory of Organizations]. Moscow, Infra-M Publ., 1999.
  2. Knorring V.I. Iskusstvo upravleniya [Art of Management]. Moscow, Bek Publ., 1997.
  3. Fayol' A. Obshchee i promyshlennoe upravlenie [General and Industrial Management]. Moscow, 1992.
  4. Bondarenko N.I. Dolgosrochnyy prognoz i upravlenie mnogourovnevymi sotsial'noekonomicheskimi sistemami [Long-term Projections and Management of Multi-level Social and Economic Systems]. Novgorod, NGU [Novgorod State University], 2000.
  5. Chernyak Yu.I. Sistemnyy analiz v upravlenii ekonomikoy [Systemic Analysis in Economic Management]. Мoscow, Ekonomika Publ., 1975.
  6. Shchedrovitskiy G.P. Printsipy i obshchaya skhema metodologicheskoy organizatsii sistemnostrukturnykh issledovaniy i razrabotok [Principles and General Outline of Methodological Organization of Systemic and Structural Research and Development]. Sistemnye issledovaniya. Metodologicheskie problemy. Ezhegodnik. [System Studies. Methodological Problems. Yearbook]. Moscow, 1981.
  7. Bir S. Kibernetika i upravlenie proizvodstvom [Cybernetics and Production Management]. Moscow, Fizmatgiz Publ., 1963.
  8. Meskon M.H., Albert M., Hedouri F. Osnovy menedzhmenta [Basics of Management]. Moscow, Delo Publ., 1992.
  9. Valdaytsev S.V. Otsenka biznesa i innovatsiy [Assessment of Business and Innovations]. St. Petersburg, Filin Publ., 1997.

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DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRUCTURAL MATRIX APPROACH IN ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSTICS

  • Mishlanova Marina Yur'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, Department of Economics and Management in the Construction Industry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 220 - 225

The article covers the newly developed methodology of organizational diagnostics, namely, formation of a spatial system of organizational layers based on functional features, problems to solve, types and purposes of job assignments. The author has developed an adjustable methodology that contemplates a flexible vocabulary and basic notions of the classical theory of graphs. In the proposed model, organizational layers are considered as multi-focused graphs. Each organizational layer can be identified by two matrixes; therefore, the spatial system of layers is consolidated into a matrix network. Research of relations and communications of formal elements is a combination of the matrix approach employed both in horizontal and vertical planes.
The organizational structure is based on the classification of elements by their functional features, problems to solve, types and purposes of job assignments. Further differentiation reveals the organization of the work process to estimate its dynamic nature, official and real time at work, clearness of distribution of functional duties, material support of activities and the working condition of employees. The personnel layer has its functional and structural features that make it possible to analyze the results of the work of the personnel, the office discipline, professional development, and the system of incentives. The social stratum can be considered as intercrossing sets of elements considered above with strong internal communication links.
The subsystem of the management reveals the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of the management team, management vectors, methods of performance of management functions and other factors. This approach makes it possible to develop a single system of management applicable to versatile organizational structures, including those that demonstrate various reasons that underlie mutual relations. The search for specific administrative levers is methodologically related to the understanding of the essence of the spatial system.
The proposed approach discloses private constituents of elements, communications, organizational layers, generalized characteristics of layers, and partial effects. This approach may be used to simulate a system of forces, items of pressure, and organizational problems. The most advanced state of stability and sustainable development is now provided with the structure within which the elements remain in certain natural interdependence (symmetry, or balance). Formation of this model is based on thorough diagnostics of an organization through the employment of the structural matrix approach and the audit of the following characteristics: labour efficiency, reliability and flexibility of communications, uniformity of distribution of communications and their coordination, connectivity of elements and layers with account for their impact, degree of freedom of elements, layers and the system as a whole, reliability, rigidity, adaptability, stability of the organizational structure.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.220-225

References
  1. Asaul A.N., Asaul N.A., Simonov A.V. Formirovanie i otsenka effektivnosti organizatsionnoy struktury upravleniya v kompaniyakh investitsionno-stroitel'noy sfery [Formation and Assessment of Efficiency of the Management Structure of Companies of Investment and Construction Industry]. St. Petersburg, SPBGASU [St.Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering], 2009, 258 p.
  2. Kulikov V.G. Teoriya i praktika razvitiya upravlyaemosti organizatsiy [Theory and Practice of Development of Manageability of Organizations]. Penza, PGUAS [Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering], 2010, 240 p.
  3. Mil'ner B.Z. Teoriya organizatsii [Theory of Organization]. Мoscow, Infra-M Publ., 1998, 336 p.
  4. Motovilin O.G., Motovilina I.A. Otsenka personala v sovremennykh organizatsiyakh. Assesmenttekhnologii. Professiografiya. Organizatsionnaya diagnostika [Assessment of Personnel in Modern Organizations. Assessment Technologies. Job Specification. Organizational Diagnostics]. Мoscow, Vysshaya shkola psikhologii [Higher School of Psychology Publ.], 2009, 388 p.
  5. Togunov I.A. Novoe v teorii organizatsii: fraktal'no-fasetochnye metody [Novelties in Theory of Organizations: Fractal-Facet Methods]. Vladimir, Sobor Publ., 2009, 136 p.

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DATA STRUCTURE MODELING: ATTRIBUTES OF INFORMATION OBJECTS IN CONSTRUCTION MODELING

  • Malyha Galina Gennad'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Sinenko Sergey Anatol'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Vaynshteyn Mihail Semenovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Kulikova Ekaterina Nikolaevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) , Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 226 - 230

The paper considers the method of data structure modeling. A lot of attention is driven to attributes
to be implemented in information objects. The structure is to be formed in the following way: semantic
attributes, commercial attributes, executive attributes, organizational attributes, service attributes.
Characteristics of each type of attributes are described in details.
For example, the name of the document, its content, the list of enclosures, the language of the
document represent semantic attributes.
Commercial attributes are the attributes that cannot be defined as semantic ones. For instance,
the account number, its date, sum, currency, indices reflect the degree of complexity, the
current scope of work performed, etc.
Executive attributes represent the process of the document execution, or its coordination between
the parties involved in the construction process.
Organizational attributes may indicate the registration date, the document version, privileges
of users, etc.
Service attributes are used to keep, to copy and to archive documents. For instance, file
name, file format, place of storage, etc.
The proposed data structure can be implemented in the development of integrated information
systems.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.226-230

References
  1. Malykha G.G. Nauchno-metodologicheskie osnovy avtomatizatsii proektirovaniya v mezhdunarodnykh stroitel'nykh proektakh [Scientific and Methodological Principles of Computer-aided Design of International Construction Projects]. Moscow, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 1999, 299 p.
  2. Pavlov A.S. Nauchnye osnovy peredachi informatsii i raspoznavaniya ob’ektov v sistemakh stroitel'nogo proektirovaniya [Scientific Principles of Information Transmission and Object Recognition in Construction-related Computer-aided Design Systems]. Moscow, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 2003, 357 p.
  3. Vaynshteyn M.S. Metodologiya mnogofunktsional'noy avtomatizatsii poelementno-invariantnogo proektirovaniya zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Methodology of Multifunctional Automation of Per-element and Invariant Design of Structures and Buildings]. Moscow, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 2005, 377 p.

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ESTIMATION OF SPORTS-TECHNICAL READINESS OF STUDENTS OF METHODICAL BRANCH «FOOTBALL» MSUCE

  • Shamonin Andrey Valentinovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) candidate of pedagogical sciences, associate professor, associate professor of chair of physical training and sports, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26, Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 231 - 234

Increase of sports-technical skill in sports occurs on the basis of last achievements of the theory and physical training and sports practice. Development of football isn't possible without search and introduction in training process of optimum pedagogical models of perfection of physical and technical readiness of football players. Such pedagogical models should be applied, as in groups of initial preparation, so at the subsequent grade levels, including in student's football. Modern training process (pedagogical model), should be under construction on objective indicators of physical, technical and special readiness (so-called feedback). However, the estimation of sports-technical readiness at sports schools on football is reduced only to testing of speed, jumps, juggling, dribbling and a shoot for goal. The same criteria are applied and in student's football. Unfortunately, the given control exercises not in a condition to the full to reflect level of physical and technical readiness of the football player. For more objective estimation of special readiness it is necessary to use the test tasks revealing a level of development of coordination abilities of game structure game and competitive activity (game in football). It will allow trainers to have fuller picture of readiness of the football player, in respect of its professional (football) skills. As a result coach have possibility to trace level of a condition of the various parties of sports readiness (physical, technical and coordination) student's youth engaged in football at each stage of long-term preparation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.231-234

References
  1. Matveev L.P. Teoriya i metodika fizicheskoy kultury [Theory and a physical training technique]. Moscow; Physical culture and sports, 1991. 543 p.
  2. Averyanov I.V. Metodika sovershenstvovaniya kinesteticheskikh koordinatsionnykh sposobnostey futbolistov 10-11 let [Technique of perfection coordination abilities of football players of 10-11 years]. Tyumen, 2008. 26 p.
  3. Godik M.A. Fizicheskaya podgotovka futbolistov [Physical preparation of football player]. Moscow: Terra-sports, Olympia The Press, 2006. 272 p.
  4. Golomazov S.V. Футбол. Futbol [Football]. Moscow: ТВТ The Battalion, 2006. 80 p.
  5. Portnov JU.M Sportivnye igry. [Sports games]. Moscow: Academy Publis., 2004. 400 p.
  6. Vitkovski Z. Koordinatsionye sposobnosti futbolistov: diagostika, struktura,ontogenez [Coordination abilities of young football players: diagnostics, structure, ontogenesis]. Moscow, 2003. 232 p.
  7. Friha Mohammed Habib Razvitie koordinatsii dvizheniy i prostranstvennoy oreirntatsii futbolistov 11-13 let [Development of coordination of movements and spatial orientation of young football players of 11-13 years]. St.-Petersburg, 1998. 21 p.

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LINGUISTIC TRAINING OF A BACHELOR

  • Shvetsova Ol'ga Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Professor, Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Department of Foreign Languages, + 7 (499) 183-26-47, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 235 - 239

The article is a brief generalization of methodical research in the field of higher education and the presentation in this aspect of special components of foreign language teaching in non-linguistic training of a civil engineer. It also considers communicative skills which bachelors should possess at the present stage of contemporary education. Among them are: analyzing synthesizing, argumentation, speculation and some other which can be useful in professional communication in foreign language .Some helpful advice is offered on how to develop professional communicative competence.
Currently, higher professional education is in the course of transition to the new federal state standards of education. According to the new standards, foreign language proficiency is identified as one of basic cultural competences of a graduate of higher education institutions, irrespective of his or her speciality or specialization. A foreign language course is retained among other obligatory basic courses in arts, social sciences, and economics. Moreover, the strategic concept of European cooperation in education through 2020 identifies the objectives of foreign language proficiency with regard to the need to strengthen and to develop the systemic interrelation between education and innovative research.
The term "competence building approach" is used in the Russian system of education. This term is widely used in official documents.
The competence building approach means transition from the assessment of knowledge as the dominant practice to the assessment of competences, or the capability to process the ever-growing amount of information (in the event of a foreign language course, the information is processed in a foreign language).
Currently, general and professional competencies are being identified.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.235-239

References
  1. Development of New Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Professional Education. Two-level Education at a Modern University. Proceedings of the Bologna process. Research Centre for Quality Training of Specialists. Moscow, 2003.
  2. Baydenko V.I. Osnovnye tendentsii razvitiya vysshego obrazovaniya: global'nye i Bolonskie izmereniya [Basic Trends of Higher Education Development: Global and Bologna Assessments]. Moscow, 2006.
  3. Baydenko V.I. Vyyavlenie sostava kompetentsiy vypusknikov VUZov kak neobkhodimyy etap proektirovaniya GOS VPO novogo pokoleniya [Identification of the Structure of Competences of Graduates of Higher Education Institutions as the Indispensable Stage of Development of the New Generation of State Standards of Higher Professional Education]. Moscow, 2006.
  4. Zimnyaya I.A. Klyuchevye kompetentnosti kak rezul'tativno-tselevaya osnova kompetentnostnogo podkhoda v obrazovanii [Key Competences as the Effective and Goal-Oriented Basis of the Competence-based Approach in Education]. Methodology Seminar “Russia in the Bologna Process. Problems, Tasks, Prospects”. Proceedings. Moscow, 2004.
  5. Tatur Yu.G. Kompetentnostnyy podkhod v opisanii rezul'tatov i proektirovanii standartov vysshego professional'nogo obrazovaniya [Competence-based Approach to Description of Results in Development of Higher Professional Education Standards]. Methodology Seminar “Russia in the Bologna Process. Problems, Tasks, Prospects”. Proceedings. Moscow, 2004.
  6. Shvetsova O.A., Ershova T.A. Programma podgotovki bakalavrov po spetsial'nosti «Prakticheskoe yazykoznanie» [Practical Linguistics Training Course Programme for Bachelor Students]. Moscow, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 2010.
  7. Shvetsova O.A. Programma podgotovki magistrov po spetsial'nosti «Prakticheskoe yazykoznanie» [Practical Linguistics Training Course Programme for Master Students]. Moscow, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering, 2010.
  8. Fallows S., Steveen C. Integrating Key Skills in Higher Education. London, 2000.

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APPLICATION OF RIT PILES IN FOUNDATIONS OF HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

  • Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich - Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction (NII Mosstroi) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, +7 (499) 739-30-43, Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction (NII Mosstroi), 8 Vinnitskaya St., Moscow, 119192, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Eremin Valeriy Ivanovich - PSP RITA Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director of Technology, PSP RITA, Building 1, 8 Vereyskaya St., Moscow, 121357, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 240 - 245

The authors provide an overview of multiple cases of application of piles, made through the use of electric discharges, as the foundations of high-rise buildings. The values of the bearing capacity of RIT piles identified on the basis of static field tests of specific construction facilities are provided. Nine RIT pile buildings, the height of which varied from 90 to 140 meters, were built before 2012.
The total number of high-rise buildings that rest on RIT piles is equal to nine. They are made of fine concrete prepared according to State Standard 26633-91*, B30 class of compression strength, and W10 grade of water permeability. The reinforcement of RIT piles was performed through the application of the reinforcing cage composed of two sections. A500C steel was used for longitudinal (bearing) rods, the design compressive strength was equal to 435 MPa; dimensions of the bearing steel were based on the principle of perception of the whole design load. The concrete transmitted the load into the soil and protected the steel from corrosion.
On the basis of the analysis of the monitoring results, the technology and tests of PIT piles, a conclusion can be made that PIT piles, that have a diameter of 320 mm, assure the pre-set reliability of high-rise buildings in complex engineering and geological environments.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.240-245

References
  1. Yassievich G.N. Issledovanie sposoba izgotovleniya buronabivnykh svay s pomoshch'yu elektrogidravlicheskogo effekta i ikh raboty pod vertikal'noy nagruzkoy [Research of the Method of Manufacturing of Bored Piles through the Employment of the Electrohydraulic Effect and Their Behavior under Vertical Loads]. Leningrad, LISI [Leningrad Institute of Civil Engineering], 1977, 223 p.
  2. Gavrilov G.N., Egorov A.L., Korovin S.K. Elektrogidroimpul'snaya tekhnologiya v gornom dele I stroitel'stve [Technology of Electric Hydraulic Impulses in Mining and Civil Engineering]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1991, 128 p.
  3. TR 50-180—06. Tekhnicheskie rekomendatsii po proektirovaniyu i ustroystvu svaynykh fundamentov, vypolnyaemykh s ispol'zovaniem razryadno-impul'snoy tekhnologii dlya zdaniy povyshennoy etazhnosti (svai-RIT) [TR 50-18-06. Technical Recommendations Regarding Design Development and Construction of Pile Foundations Made through the Application of the Electric Discharge Technology to High-Rise Buildings (RIT Piles)]. Moscow, VEK Publ., 2006, 68 p.
  4. Kattsenbakh R., Shmit A., Ramm Kh. Rekonstruktsiya gorodov i geotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Urban Restructuring and Geotechnical Construction]. 2005, no. 9, pp. 80—99.

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INFLUENCE OF PIT WALL ANCHORAGE ONTO ADDITIONAL DEFORMATIONS OF EXISTING BUILDINGS

  • Kubetskiy Valeriy Leonidovich - Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction (NII Mosstroi) Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, +7 (499) 739-30-43, Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction (NII Mosstroi), 8 Vinnitskaya St., Moscow, 119192, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kaleev Denis Ivanovich - Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction (NII Mosstroi) engineer, Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction (NII Mosstroi), 8 Vinnitskaya St., Moscow, 119192, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 246 - 251

Anchored pit walls contribute to substantial improvement of the technological effectiveness of subterranean sections of buildings and to considerable reduction of their cost.
The issue of influence of anchorages onto supplementary deformations of adjacent buildings is to be resolved in the course of designing of deep anchored pits. In some cases, anchors can be installed immediately underneath the existing buildings.
Assessment of additional projected deformations of buildings located in close proximity to pits is exemplified by the specific structure of the pit support system that has active PIT [1] anchors. The authors also consider the influence produced by the structure of anchors onto the two buildings located within the area of influence of the excavation works and protected by the anchors installed underneath the foundations of the two adjacent buildings.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.4.246-251

References
  1. TR 50-180—06. Tekhnicheskie rekomendatsii po proektirovaniyu i ustroystvu svaynykh fundamentov, vypolnyaemykh s ispol'zovaniem razryadno-impul'snoy tekhnologii dlya zdaniy povyshennoy etazhnosti (svai-RIT) [TR 50-18-06. Technical Recommendations Regarding Design Development and Construction of Pile Foundations Made through the Application of the Electric Discharge Technology to High-Rise Buildings (RIT Piles)]. Moscow, VEK Publ., 2006, 68 p.
  2. Plaxis Software Version 8. Spravochnoe rukovodstvo [Reference Manual]. Moscow, 2006.
  3. GUP «NIIMosstroy». Zaklyuchenie po rezul'tatam geotekhnicheskoy ekspertizy proektnykh resheniy po ustroystvu ograzhdeniya kotlovana stroyashchegosya zhilogo doma s podzemnoy avtostoyankoy po adresu: g. Moskva, VAO, Izmaylovo, kvartal 26, 10-ya Parkovaya ul., vl. 20. [State Unitary Enterprise Scientific Research Institute of Moscow Construction “Opinion Based on Geotechnical Examination of Design Solutions for the Shoring of the Pit of the Future Residential House and the Subterranean Parking Lot at: Block 26, Izmaylovo, 20 10th Parkovaya St., Moscow, Eastern Administrative District”. Moscow, 2006.
  4. NIIOSP im. N.M. Gersevanova. Filial FGUP NITs «Stroitel'stvo». Nauchno-tekhnicheskiy otchet. Dopolnitel'noe obsledovanie tekhnicheskogo sostoyaniya zhilogo doma № 44 po ul. Verkhnyaya Pervomayskaya v g. Moskve, popadayushchego v zonu vliyaniya stroitel'stva zhilogo doma s podzemnoy avtostoyankoy po adresu: 10-ya Parkovaya ul., vl. 20 [Scientific and Research Institute of Beddings and Subterranean Structures named after N.M. Gersevanov. Branch of Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Construction Research Center”. Technological Research Report. Supplementary examination of the technical condition of Residential House № 4, Verkhnyaya Pervomayskaya st., Moscow, located within the area of influence of a new construction site of a residential house and a subterranean parking lot]. Moscow, 2007.

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