Home Vestnik MGSU Library Vestnik MGSU 2016/8

Vestnik MGSU 2016/8

DOI : 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8

Articles count - 13

Pages - 151

INFORMATION ENVIRONMENT FOR RUSSIAN SCIENTISTS

  • Doroshenko Anna Valer'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Head, Department of Planning the Scientific Activity Development, Scientific Policy Administration of MGSU, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 5-6

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.5-6

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ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

THE COMPLEX OF ASSUMPTION CATHEDRAL OF THE ASTRAKHAN KREMLIN

  • Savenkova Aleksandra Igorevna - “Central Research and Design Institute of the Ministry of Construction and Housing Utilities of the Russian Federation” Research Institute of the Theory and History of Architecture and Town planning posrgraduate student, Branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution, “Central Research and Design Institute of the Ministry of Construction and Housing Utilities of the Russian Federation” Research Institute of the Theory and History of Architecture and Town planning, 21a 7 Parkovaya str., Moscow, 105264, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-24

This article is devoted to an architectural and historical analysis of the constructions forming a complex of Assumption Cathedral of the Astrakhan Kremlin, which earlier hasn’t been considered as a subject of special research. Basing on the archival sources, photographic materials, publications and on-site investigations of monuments, the creation history of the complete architectural complex sustained in one style of the Muscovite baroque, unique in its composite construction, is considered. Its interpretation in the all-Russian architectural context is offered. Typological features of single constructions come to light. The typology of the Prechistinsky bell tower has an untypical architectural solution - “hexagonal structure on octagonal and quadrangular structures”. The way of connecting the building of the Cathedral and the chambers by the passage was characteristic of monastic constructions and was exclusively seldom in kremlins, farmsteads and ensembles of city cathedrals. The composite scheme of the Assumption Cathedral includes the Lobnoye Mesto (“the Place of Execution”) located on an axis from the West, it is connected with the main building by a quarter-turn with landing. The only prototype of the structure is a Lobnoye Mesto on the Red Square in Moscow. In the article the version about the emergence of the Place of Execution on the basis of earlier existing construction - a tower “the Peal” which is repeatedly mentioned in written sources in connection with S. Razin’s revolt is considered. The metropolitan Sampson, trying to keep the value of the Astrakhan metropolitanate, builds the Assumption Cathedral and the Place of Execution directly appealing to a capital prototype to emphasize the continuity and close connection with Moscow.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.7-24

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DESIGNING AND DETAILING OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. MECHANICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

MODELING OF THE SNOW LOAD ON THE ROOFS OF INDUSTRIAL BUILDINGS

  • Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirovna - State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU") Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, First Vice-rector, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich - State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU") Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 25-33

When designing load-bearing framework structures using the method of limiting states it is necessary to determine the maximum possible value of snow load for the entire period of operation of an industrial building for the possibility of transition. The magnitude of the snow load is randomly changed over the time, and therefore the most appropriate form of its display is a probabilistic model of random process. The authors have identified the most preferable approach to modeling of snow load. It consists in presenting a selective sequence of the year maximums in the form of a continuous random variable distributed according to the Gumbel law. Its parameters are expressed through the mathematical expectation and the standard sample set of meteorological observations. According to the calculated values of the parameters the authors have built a graphic interpretation of the law of distribution of this random variable. When building a model of the total snow load on the roof of a building the influence of various factors should be considered, such as: • snow shedding at a given roof slope; • snow movement caused by wind; • distribution of snow depending on the roof shape; • snow melting depending on the thermal characteristics of the roof; • the ability to drain meltwater from the surface of the roof. The resulting model of snow load is adapted for implementation using software complex “DINCIB-new” developed by the authors. The proposed approach to the modeling of the snow load on the roof of an industrial building allows correlating the repeatability period of its limit calculated value with the residual life of the research object. This has become possible due to the multiple implementation of an automated algorithm for calculating an industrial building, which was developed by the authors, with account of the varying values of snow load in relation to the corresponding mathematical expectation, with registering the quantities of other components of the generalized load.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.25-33

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MODIFIED METHOD OF LINES

  • Stankevich Anatoliy Nikolaevich - Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture (KNUCA) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, chair, Department of Strength of Materials, Kyiv National University of Construction and Architecture (KNUCA), 31 Vozdukhoflotskiy prospekt, Kiev, 03680, Ukraine; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 34-47

The main idea of the method of solving multidimensional boundary problems is reduction of initial differential equations in partial derivatives to the system of ordinary differential equations. One-dimensional resolving equations allow extending the potential of the method of lines. Although efficient and highly-precise numerical methods have been developed for solution of one-dimensional and initial-boundary value problems their use is impossible in the method of lines. The author considers a new method of lines which is used in order to reduce the dimensionality of multidimensional problems of structural mechanics. The method is used for calculation of thick plates, plates of variable thickness, heterogeneous and multilayered plates. It is proposed to replace finite-difference relations by projection relations which will extend the potential of the method of lines and will allow using the method in the dynamic problems.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.34-47

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RESEARCH OF BUILDING MATERIALS

INVESTIGATION OF RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MODIFIED BITUMEN

  • Erofeev Vladimir Trofimovich - Ogarev Mordovia State University (Ogarev MSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, chair, Department of Construction Materials and Technologies, Ogarev Mordovia State University (Ogarev MSU), 68 Bolshevistskaya str., Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sal’nikova Anzhelika Igorevna - Ogarev Mordovia State University (Ogarev MSU) head, Department of Intellectual Property Management, Ogarev Mordovia State University (Ogarev MSU), 68 Bolshevistskaya str., Saransk, 430005, Republic of Mordovia, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 48-63

At the present time the most widely used type of road pavement is asphalt-concrete pavement produced on the basis of oil bitumen. One of the efficient ways to increase the quality and durability of asphalt-concrete pavement is modification of bitumen. Though Russian specialists still don’t have the global view of the ideal and real asphalt cement, the requirements to its quality and durability indicators in the composition of road structure haven’t yet formed. The authors present the investigation results of the properties of oil asphalt cement containing 0.5-2.0% of modifier “Olazol”. The physical, mechanical and rheological properties of the modified bitumen are determined. The dependences of the dynamic viscosity of the modified bitumen from the quantity of introduced modifier, shear rate and reheat temperature are analyzed.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.48-63

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THE INFLUENCE OF JOINT GRINDING OF CEMENT AND COOPER SLAG ON MORTAR PROPERTIES

  • Kravtsov Aleksey Vladimirovich - Kostroma State Agricultural Academy (KSAA) postgraduate student, Department of Technology, Management and Economy in Construction, Kostroma State Agricultural Academy (KSAA), 34 Uchebnyy gorodok str., Karavaevo settlement, Kostroma district, Kostroma region, 156530, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Tsybakin Sergey Valer’evich - Kostroma State Agricultural Academy (KSAA) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, dean, Department of Architecture and Construction, Kostroma State Agricultural Academy (KSAA), 34 Uchebnyy gorodok str., Karavaevo settlement, Kostroma district, Kostroma region, 156530, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 64-77

The problem of applying copper manufacturing waste locating in the Chelyabinsk region as a component of mixed is considered in this article. Application of mixed binder with superplasticizers, based on esters with carboxyl groups, have not sufficiently been studied by the present time due to the diversity of species and complexity of the chemical structure. This trend is current for today’s science because of the growing rates and scales of building production, in particular, of concrete works. Copper slag dumps located in the Ural Federal district haven’t been widely used in building production or in other industrial production by the present time. Efficient utilization of copper production waste materials will help to solve ecological problems in many regions of Russia. Structure formation period of cement stone based on mixed binder made of Portland cement and granulated cooper slag with application of superplasticizer is studied in the article. The authors present a thermal variation diagram of mortar based on mixed binder made of Portland cement and granulated cooper slag in the process of 21 hours of hardening under normal conditions and the results of ultrasound investigation of concrete structure formation period during 5 hours of hardening. The strength development process diagram of mortar based on mixed binder made of Portland cement and granulated cooper slag for 28 days of hardening under normal conditions and the research results of the compressive strength of concrete samples are shown in this article. The obtained characteristics don’t confirm the prospects of applying joint grinding for mortar with the observed kind of non-ferrous metallurgy waste. Also, the obtained results allow us to make a conclusion about little advantages of using this method of binder production. Copper slag can be more effectively used as a component of complex organic and mineral admixture for building production with different purposes and fields of application.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.64-77

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REGULATION OF ELECTRICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HETEROGENEOUS SYSTEMS ON THE BASIS OF QUARTZ SAND AND GRAPHITE BY MECHANICAL ACTIVATION OF QUARTZ SAND

  • Lopanov Aleksandr Nikolaevich - Belgorod StateTechnological University named after V.G. Shukhov (BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, chair, Department of Health and Safety, Belgorod StateTechnological University named after V.G. Shukhov (BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov), 46 Kostyukova str., Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Fanina Evgeniya Aleksandrovna - Belgorod StateTechnological University named after V.G. Shukhov (BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, chair, Department of Health and Safety, Belgorod StateTechnological University named after V.G. Shukhov (BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov), 46 Kostyukova str., Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Guzeeva Oksana Nikolaevna - Belgorod StateTechnological University named after V.G. Shukhov (BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov) postgraduate student, Department of Health and Safety, Belgorod StateTechnological University named after V.G. Shukhov (BSTU named after V.G. Shoukhov), 46 Kostyukova str., Belgorod, 308012, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 78-87

The authors present the experimental performance of the heat of wetting depending on the number of functional groups on the surface of quartz sand. It is established that in the process of increase of specific surface of fine ground quartz filler naturally there is an increase in the total number of active centers, but their number does not change per unit of surface. The calorimetric method of analysis established that the mechanical activation increases the reactivity centers. This is the result of chemical reactions occurring on the surface, for example, under the influence of water present in the air. The authors observed hydration of surface groups and change in their reactivity. A method of regulation of rheological characteristics of pastes with plasticizing additives in the system ”cement - quartz sand - graphite“ was developed, which was aimed to reduce the ultimate shear stress up to 0.5...1.3 PA and water-composite relationship of a sand mix by 15...25 % while maintaining the viscosity of the paste that provides a uniform application of the composite in screed floors technology possessing electrical conductivity. Polycarboxylate is an efficient plasticizing additive which maintains self-levelling effect of the mixture at optimum water-cement ratio. It was determined that the threshold concentration of electrical current flow in the studied system is 0.15 (wt.), at which the aggregation of contacting graphite particles with the formation of a continuous three-dimensional mesh a conducting current is observed in the structure of the composite. The change in the concentration of the graphite allows ensuring the stability of the electrophysical parameters of the resistive materials and structures based on them. In order to increase the electrical conductivity of graphite dispersions in a model system a plasticizer was added, which reduces water-composite ratio in the formation of pastes. Chemical-based plasticizer has no significant effect on the magnitude of the threshold concentration. The increase in activation time of silica sand leads to the increased resistance of the prototypes and to the reduction of specific electrical conductivity of graphite dispersions in the system under study from 9.8 Om-1·m-1to 0.018 Om-1·m-1. The optimum grind time is 2...5 minutes. Further grinding is impractical due to the deterioration of the electrical characteristics of the samples.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.78-87

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SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

THE USE OF ENVIRONMENTAL RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF RETIREMENT PROGRAMS FOR OLD DUMPS

  • Slyusar’ Natal’ya Nikolaevna - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Environmental Protection, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomol’skiy prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 88-99

Though the technologies of waste recycling and disposal are continuously developing, waste storage on dumps and landfills still remains one of the most popular storage methods. There are twice more illegal dumps than legal ones. Waste dumps have negative effect on the environment and attract insects, rodents and stray animals. The analysis of data on beginning of operation of municipal solid waste disposals showed that the majority of them are on the stage biogas emission and filtrate formation. The paper presents a method for environmental risk assessment for old dumps and landfills. The assessment method is based on point scoring according to a group of criteria and takes into account the objects’ sites, geological and hydrological conditions, technical facilities. The method allows ranking dumps’ sites basing on the priority for dump closing and it can be used for the development of regional programs for closing old dumps and operating municipal landfills.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.88-99

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HYDRAULICS. ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY. HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

ANTHROPOGENIC LOAD ON RIVERS OF URBAN AREAS

  • Kurochkina Valentina Aleksandrovna - 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Hydraulics and Water Resources, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation, ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bogomolova Tat’yana Gennad’evna - 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation, ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kirov Borislav Lyubomirov - University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy (UACEG) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Geotechnical Engineering, University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy (UACEG), University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy (UACEG); This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 100-109

The increasing speed of urbanization and population growth lead to the increasing anthropogenic load on water bodies. The urbanization processes in Russia are more intensive than in other countries. The dense population and great industrial potential lead to the fact that the urbanized territories become the main sources of water pollution. That’s why the environmental control of the state of water objects is needed. In the article the authors study the problem of anthropogenic load impact on river hydraulics processes and on the properties of river sediments that determine river channels evolution and general ecological state of water bodies. The interrelation between ecological state of water bodies, the quality of water in it and the level of contamination with sediments was determined. It is established that the conditions of long-term aquatic life as a whole and of water quality in particular depend on the contamination level with sediments. The author proposes a method of estimation of anthropogenic load on rivers. The paper analyses the calculation results of the value of anthropogenic load on different rivers of Russia.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.100-109

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ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES

DIRECTIONS OF IMPROVING SELF-REGULATING SYSTEM IN CONSTRUCTION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE THEORY OF CHANGE

  • Uvarova Svetlana Sergeevna - Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Voronezh GASU) Doctor of Economical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Economy and Bases of Entrepreneurship, Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Voronezh GASU), 84 20-letiya Oktyabrya str., Voronezh, 394006, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Myshovskaya Lyudmila Petrovna - Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Voronezh GASU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Construction Organization, Inspection and Real Estate Control, Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Voronezh GASU), 84 20-letiya Oktyabrya str., Voronezh, 394006, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Belyaeva Svetlana Viktorovna - Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Voronezh GASU) Candidate of Economical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Economy and Bases of Entrepreneurship, Voronezh State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (Voronezh GASU), 84 20-letiya Oktyabrya str., Voronezh, 394006, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 110-120

Self-regulation in construction is characterized by a number of essential disadvantages, which reduce its efficiency. The authors justify scientific and methodological base of self-regulation, which includes the elements of the theory of change and self-organization. Introduction of self-regulation is considered as organizational and economical change, the life cycle of which is an implementation process of the projects of change. According to the lifecycle, key problem zones of self-regulation process are determined and a number of required economical and institutional changes are offered.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.110-120

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INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Software package to automate the design and production of translucent building structures made of pvc

  • Petrova Irina Yur’evna - Astrakhan State University of Civil Engineering (ASUACE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, chair, Department of Design and Modeling Automation Systems, Astrakhan State University of Civil Engineering (ASUACE), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Puchkova Anna Aleksandrovna - Astrakhan State University of Civil Engineering (ASUACE) postgraduate student, Department of Information Technologies, Astrakhan State University of Civil Engineering (ASUACE), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 121-132

The article describes the features of the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC. The analysis of the automation systems of this process currently existing on the market is carried out, their advantages and disadvantages are identified. Basing on this analysis, a set of requirements for automation systems for the design and production of translucent building structures made of PVC is formulated; the basic entities are involved in those business processes. The necessary functions for the main application and for dealers’ application are specified. The main application is based on technological platform 1C: Enterprise 8.2. The dealers’ module is .NET application and is developed with the use of Microsoft Visual Studio and Microsoft SQL Server because these software products have client versions free for end users (.NET Framework 4.0 Client Profile and Microsoft SQL Server 2008 Express). The features of the developed software complex implementation are described; the relevant charts are given. The scheme of system deployment and protocols of data exchange between 1C server, 1C client and dealer is presented. Also the functions supported by 1C module and .NET module are described. The article describes the content of class library developed for .NET module. The specification of integration of the two applications in a single software package is given. The features of the GUI organization are described; the corresponding screenshots are given. The possible ways of further development of the described software complex are presented and a conclusion about its competitiveness and expediency of new researches is made.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.121-132

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Modeling of regional warehouse network generation

  • Popov Pavel Vladimirovich - Volzhskiy Institute of Humanities, Branch of Volgograd State University (VolGU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Applied Mathematics and Computer Science, Volzhskiy Institute of Humanities, Branch of Volgograd State University (VolGU), 11, 40 Let Pobedy str., Volzhskiy, Volgograd Region, 404133, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khartovskiy Vadim Evgen’evich - Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno (YKSUG) Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, chair, Department of Logistics and Control Method, Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno (YKSUG), 22 Ozheshko str., Grodno, 230023, Republic of Belarus; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 133-142

One of the factors that has a significant impact on the socio-economic development of the Russian Federation’s regions is the logistics infrastructure. It provides integrated transportation and distribution service of material flows. One of the main elements of logistics infrastructure is a storage infrastructure, which includes distribution center, distribution-and-sortout and sortout warehouses. It is the most expedient to place distribution center in the vicinity of the regional center. One of the tasks of the distribution network creation within the regions of the Russian Federation is to determine the location, capacity and number of stores. When determining regional network location of general purpose warehouses methodological approaches to solving the problems of location of production and non-production can be used which depend on various economic factors. The mathematical models for solving relevant problems are the deployment models. However, the existing models focus on the dimensionless power storage. The purpose of the given work is to develop a model to determine the optimal location of general-purpose warehouses on the Russian Federation area. At the first stage of the work, the authors assess the main economic indicators influencing the choice of the location of general purpose warehouses. An algorithm for solving the first stage, based on ABC, discriminant and cluster analysis were proposed by the authors in earlier papers. At the second stage the specific locations of general purpose warehouses and their power is chosen to provide the cost minimization for the construction and subsequent maintenance of warehouses and transportation heterogeneous products. In order to solve this problem the authors developed a mathematical model that takes into account the possibility of delivery in heterogeneous goods from suppliers and manufacturers in the distribution and storage sorting with specified set of capacities. The model allows determining the capacity and location of the home network of warehouses in the Russian Federation regions based on the minimization of the total costs associated with the delivery of goods from suppliers / manufacturers to the warehouse and from the warehouse to customers, material handling products, and annual operating costs for the maintenance of the core network of warehouses.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.133-142

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PROBLEMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

FORMATION OF SPATIAL REPRESENTATION OF STUDENTS IN THE LESSONS OF GRAPHICAL DISCIPLINES

  • Tel’noy Viktor Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Military Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Descriptive Geometry and Graphics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 143-151

The authors consider the reasons for the poor development of spatial representation of students from first rate universities. As a method of successful development of spatial representation while studying graphic disciplines it is proposed to use an approach, including objectives, methods, techniques and exercises, assignments and tests, which was developed at the Department of descriptive geometry and graphics. All the exercises are classified into the following groups: building a left view basing on two given projections; addition of the views (main, top or left) with the missing lines according to a projection relationship; building axonometric projection of a detail (node) on the given orthogonal projections; comparison of the detail drawing with the model and its visual image; mapping a complex drawing and a visual depiction of a component; building of missing projections of points on certain surfaces of the details; the view of the subject’s form by partitioning it into separate geometric bodies, etc. The authors also demonstrate the importance of taking into account individual characteristics of students in order to improve their spatial representations. Each group of exercises of this system focuses on conscious and active work of students and solves a certain problem arising from the theoretical foundations of the development of spatial representation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2016.8.143-151

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