Home Vestnik MGSU Library Vestnik MGSU 2017/6

Vestnik MGSU 2017/6

DOI : 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6

Articles count - 16

Pages - 695

Aerodynamics in Construction

ARCHITECTURAL-BUILDING AERODYNAMICS

  • Poddaeva Olga Igorevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, associate professor, head of the Educational Scientific and Production Laboratory for Aerodynamic and Aeroacoustic Testing of Building Constructions, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Dunichkin Ilya Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Urban planning, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 602-609

This article gives a brief historical digression about the formation of architectural and building aerodynamics as a separate branch of the construction science. The main methods and approaches to the solution of problems of architectural and building aerodynamics are listed; the classification of problems of aerodynamics of structural steel according to the studied objects is given; main peculiarities of the research in selected areas are briefly indicated. The aim of the work is to systematize existing approaches to assessing wind impact on structural steel taking into account some modern international requirements, as well as to choose the optimal method for solving this problem in relation to various structural steel. It is established that, currently, the study about wind impact is especially important for high-rise buildings, structures, and structural steel nonresistant to dynamic loads (long span bridge conduits, gins polarized, thin-shell tubes, etc.), as well as for residential estates with restrained urban conditions. It is necessary to carry-out these aerodynamic studies at the designing stage for the above objects because it is directly related to the issues of reliability and safety.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.602-609

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ARCHITECTURE AND ITS WINDAGE

  • Limonad Mikhail Yurievich - State University of Land Use Planning (GUZ) Doсtor of Architecture, Professor, Professor of the Architecture Department, State University of Land Use Planning (GUZ), 15 Kazakova str., Moscow, 105005, Russian Federation.

Pages 610-618

The article deals with the composition of the landscape and building on the basis of the laws of aerodynamic resistance of objects to the wind flow and the resulting physical effect of sail. The application of landscape-visual assessment based on windage properties as a criterion for the development of the architectural and town-planning appearance of buildings is presented. Windage is studied as a physical phenomenon arising in landscape forms, buildings, loose materials, surface and vegetation of the relief. Similarities are found between the silhouettes of windage ships and urban buildings. It is revealed that in the architectural qualification the center of the sail and the center of the lateral resistance of the object can help assess the relative position of the elements of the landscape and the appearance of the building in order to achieve compositional integrity. Thus, a technique for assessing visual appearance based on a system of visual moments of sailness with respect to the object’s observation center has been developed. The influence of high-rise buildings on the conditions of the active surface for human stay on domestic and foreign examples is analyzed. Among the described objects there are high-rise buildings on Novy Arbat in Moscow, the sculpture “Motherland Calls!” In Volgograd, Spinaker Tower in Portsmouth (United Kingdom), Burj Al Arab Hotel in Dubai (United Arab Emirates). It is noted that to assess the compositional integrity of the observed landscapes by visual windage, photographs from the ground level and significant heights of window openings are used. It is proposed to use this to assess the existing types and panoramas, for which they need to capture a photo or video of planar or volumetric images, while performing editing to establish the adequacy of visual perception of a person in real conditions. In conclusion, the result of the study reveals the application of the method of assessing visual windage to determine the proportional unity of the external volume of the building with the environment. On this compositional characteristic, the creation of an artistically completed whole landscape is based, which increases its aesthetic and economic value.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.610-618

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WIND PROTECTION OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

  • Trubitsyna Natalja Anatolevna - State University of Land Use Planning (GUZ) postgraduate student, State University of Land Use Planning (GUZ), 15 Kazakova str., Moscow, 105005, Russian Federation.

Pages 619-630

The article discusses the interaction between the wind regime and the landscape. Examples of objects of landscape architecture in high-tech and science-intensive spheres, such as the launch pad of a spacecraft, are given. Wind protection is represented as a result of work on wind power engineering and a means of increasing bioclimatic comfort. The terms of landscape architecture are disclosed and mutual influence on the climate and impact on woody-shrub vegetation and field crops are analyzed. The phenomenon of air permeability for optimal operation of windproof structures and orientations of geoplastics and dendroplastics is described. In this paper, a classification of terrain types is described with a description of their elemental composition, as well as various categories of landscape. The proposal to consider the landscape as a territorial complex, and landscape buildings, landscape-architectural structures as objects of landscape architecture possessing properties of wind protection and air permeability was introduced. Thus, the concept of a landscape-architectural complex as a single group of landscape-architectural objects located on the territory and connected by a common system of communications, functions, technical elements and a visual image is formulated. Further research is based on the rationale for the use of the term ensemble in relation to the objects of the landscape and architectural complex and the identification of their design and planning features that can affect the parameters of wind protection and air permeability. The paper concludes that frequent coincidence of favorable for the fauna wind regime and mimicry of landscape architecture objects. The combination in the landscape of functions for wind protection and aesthetics is analyzed with analysis of such elements of landscape architecture as hedges and windproof properties of green plantations. In the work examples of wind engineering small architectural forms are shown in the form of sculptures moving from air streams, which also change the speed and direction of the wind. All this is generalized in further directions of research within the framework of the designated terrain theme, bioclimatic comfort and wind protection.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.619-630

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DESIGNING AND DETAILING OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. MECHANICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

NUMERICAL METHOD OF CALCULATION OF ROUND PLATES IN A GEOMETRICALLY NONLINEAR STATEMENT

  • Gabbasov Radek Fatykhovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Construction and Theoretical Mechanics Departmenе, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), .
  • Uvarova Natalia Borisovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Construction and Theoretical Mechanics Department, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), .

Pages 631-635

The article considers the axisymmetric problem about the calculation of round plates with dead loading in a geometrically nonlinear system. To solve the problem some generalized equations of finite difference method (FMD) are needed that allow to solve tasks within intergrable scope taking into account discontinuities of the required function, its first-order derivative and the right-hand side of the primitive differential equation. Resolvent differential equations of the question comprised fractionally the required function of the inflection and stresses are reduced to four differential equations, two of which are linear of the first-order and two are nonlinear of the second order. The obtained system of differential equations is solved numerically. The proposed method is shown with the example of calculation of a round plate; the given data are taken from work [1]. The calculation data with the minimum number of partitions are compared to the known solution of A.S. Vol’mir [1] and they indicate the possibility of using a numerical method for handling the problem in nonlinear statement.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.631-635

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LIGHTWEIGHT SLAB CAST OVER PRECAST JOISTS

  • Koyankin Aleksandr Aleksandrovich - Siberian Federal University (SibFU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures and Control Systems, Siberian Federal University (SibFU), 79 Svobodny Avenue, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation.

Pages 636-641

Precast-monolithic house-building in domestic and world practice is a significant part in the mass construction. We propose a relatively large number of designs of precast-monolithic buildings, as well as its individual elements. Despite this, we cannot say that found the most effective constructive solutions able to satisfy the requirements of consumers (future residents) and builders. On this basis, we developed quite effective, from the point of view of construction and further operation, a constructive solution of light weight precast-monolithic overlap. Some features offered are overlapping: smaller mass, compared with beams of heavy concrete; increased heat and sound insulation properties; optimal use of the structural properties of heavy and light precast monolithic concrete and longitudinal reinforcement, depending on the stage of construction. The author has carried out in this article the results of numerical studies the proposed design of precast-monolithic overlap, confirming its compliance with the requirements of 1st and 2nd group of limit States.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.636-641

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RESEARCH OF BUILDING MATERIALS

THE CONSTRUCTION OF A COMPOSITION BASED ON MAGNESIA BINDER WITH PEAT

  • Lebedeva Natalia Shamilievna - Ivanovo Fire Rescue Academy of State Firefighting Service of Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (IFRA SFS EMERCOM OF RUSSIA) Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Natural Sciences Department, Ivanovo Fire Rescue Academy of State Firefighting Service of Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (IFRA SFS EMERCOM OF RUSSIA), 33 Stroiteley prospect, 153040, Ivanovo, Russian Federation.
  • Nedayvodin Evgeniy Gennadievich - Ivanovo Fire Rescue Academy of State Firefighting Service of Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (IFRA SFS EMERCOM OF RUSSIA) Postgraduate Institute of Development, Ivanovo Fire Rescue Academy of State Firefighting Service of Ministry of Russian Federation for Civil Defense, Emergencies and Elimination of Consequences of Natural Disasters (IFRA SFS EMERCOM OF RUSSIA), 33 Stroiteley prospect, 153040, Ivanovo, Russian Federation.

Pages 642-646

Obtained building material based on magnesia binder with different content of peat (0 to 90 %), on a specially developed technique. As a binder used PMK 87, for mixing mixtures used aqueous solution of magnesium chloride and peat from the Ivanovo region. It were determined such physical and physico-mechanical properties of the investigated material as the compressive strength and the density. The strength characteristics of silicate bricks, ceramic bricks and the investigated material based on magnesia binder and peat was analyzed and compared. It is established that the samples of construction material with content of peat not exceeding 40 wt.% can be attributed to the materials of structural purpose by its compressive strength. Samples of the material with content of the peat 40% have a density 943,75 kg/m3, that provides good heat and sound insulation properties. It is revealed that the solution of the raw material mixture of magnesia binder, peat, the solution of bischofite is optimized to place, and the material gets at least 85% of its strength during 30 days.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.642-646

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DETERMINATION OF ADHESIVE STRENGTH LAYER’S ROLLER COMPACTED CONCRETE THE METHOD AXIAL EXTENSION

  • Tang Van Lam - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Postgraduate Student, Department Technology of Binders and Concretes, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Bulgakov Boris Igorevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of the Technology of Binders and Concretes, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Aleksandrova Olga Vladimirovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department Technology of Binders and Concretes, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 647-653

Roller compacted concrete for the construction of hydraulic and hydroelectric buildings is a composite material, which consists of a binder, fine aggregate (sand), coarse aggregate (gravel or crushed stone), water and special additives that provide the desired concrete workability and impart the required concrete performance properties. Concrete mixture is prepared at from concrete mixing plants strictly metered quantities of cement, water, additives and graded aggregates, whereupon they are delivered to the site laying Mixer Truck and sealing layers with each stack layer. The advantages of roller compaction technology should include the reduction of construction time, which allows fast commissioning construction projects, as well as reduce the amount of investment required. One of the main problems encountered in the process of roller compaction of the concrete mix is the need to provide the required adhesion strength between layers of concrete. This paper presents a method for determining the strength of adhesion between the concrete layers of different ages roller compacted concrete using axial tension. This method makes it possible to obtain objective and accurate results with a total thickness of layers of compacted concrete of up to 300…400 mm. Results from this method, studies have shown that the value of strength between the concrete layers in addition to the composition of the concrete and adhesion depends on the quality and the parallel end surfaces of the cylinder-models, which are mounted steel plates for axial tension, as well as the state of the contact surfaces of the concrete layer. The method can be used to determine the strength of interlayer adhesion in roller compacted concrete, which are used in the construction of dams and other hydraulic structures.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.647-653

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INFLUENCE OF POLYMERIC-DISPERSED REINFORCEMENT ADDITIVES ON THE PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF ASPHALT CONCRETE

  • Chernov Sergey Anatolevych - Academy of Construction and Architecture, State Don Technical University (DSTU ASA) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Auto Roads Department, Academy of Construction and Architecture, State Don Technical University (DSTU ASA), 162 Socialisticheskaya str., Rostov-na-Donu, 344022, Russian Federation.
  • Kaklyugin Alexander Viktorovich - Academy of Construction and Architecture, State Don Technical University (DSTU ASA) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Constructional Materials Department, Academy of Construction and Architecture, State Don Technical University (DSTU ASA), 162 Socialisticheskaya str., Rostov-na-Donu, 344022, Russian Federation.
  • Nikitina Anna Nykolaevna - Academy of Construction and Architecture, State Don Technical University (DSTU ASA) Candidate of Economical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Transport and Traffic Management Department, Academy of Construction and Architecture, State Don Technical University (DSTU ASA), 162 Socialisticheskaya str., Rostov-na-Donu, 344022, Russian Federation.
  • Golyubyn Kirill Dmitrievich - Academy of Construction and Architecture, State Don Technical University (DSTU ASA) post-graduate, Auto Roads Department, Academy of Construction and Architecture, State Don Technical University (DSTU ASA), 162 Socialisticheskaya str., Rostov-na-Donu, 344022, Russian Federation.

Pages 654-660

The technique and results of the studies of the influence of a polymeric-dispersed reinforcement additive on the performance characteristics of road hot asphalt concrete, namely, its resistance to fatigue failures, rutting and development of residual deformation are described. It is shown that the proposed method of modification of asphalt-concrete mixtures ensures an increase in the durability of layers of pavement road surface.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.654-660

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POLYMER RESIDUE BASED HYDROPHOBIC-FUNGICIDAL ADDITIVE AND PLASTER DRY MIX BASED ON IT

  • Chikichev Artur Andreevich - Bratsk State University (BrSU) Postgraduate Student, Department of Construction Material Science and Technologies, Bratsk State University (BrSU), 40 Makarenko st., Bratsk, 665709, Russian Federation.
  • Belykh Svetlana Andreevna - Bratsk State University (BrSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Head of the Department of Construction Materials Science and Technologies, Bratsk State University (BrSU), 40 Makarenko st., Bratsk, 665709, Russian Federation.
  • Kudyakov Aleksandr Ivanovich - Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB) Doсtor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Construction Materials and Technologies, Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building (TSUAB), 2 Solyanaya sq., Tomsk, 634003, Russian Federation.

Pages 661-668

Subject of study is the effect of additives on the structure formation of cement. Improvement of the re-sistance to aggressive media of materials for wet rooms. Objective is to develop a scientifically grounded composition of a plaster dry construction mix with increased water resistance and funginertness, with the use of locally available materials and man-made waste.The study was carried out by standard methods of research using XRF and DTA. The hydrophobic fungicidal additive based on the polymer residue of turpentine production and fly ash with the ratio by weight ZU: PO = 1.15: 1 was developed. It has been established that while adding the de-veloped additive in an amount of 2.5 % of the mass of cement, the rate of hydration of cement minerals and resistibility of the sand-cement mortar decrease in early strength with medium workability concrete mix. This creates conditions for the formation of a dense structure with increased resistance to aggressive envi-ronments.Using new hydrophobic fungicidal additive, a dry plaster mortar for wet rooms has been developed. It has increased water resistance values corresponding to the W8 grade and funginertness especially with respect to A. Niger, the pathogen and widespread decomposer.The additive is effective; it is developed on the basis of industrial wastes and recycled materials. Its use in the composition of materials with increased requirements for watertightness and biostability makes it pos-sible to reduce their cost and environmental stress, to increase the efficiency of the use of natural re-sources. The use of the developed plaster mixture will increase the resistance of walls of wet rooms to aggressive environments.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.661-668

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Safety of building systems. Ecological problems of construction projects . Geoecology

HIGH-PRESSURE WATER SPRAY APPLICATION FOR AUTOMATIC FIRE EXTINCTION IN THE UNDERGROUND

  • Prokhorov V.P. - Research Analytical Center (NIAC) , Research Analytical Center (NIAC), 29 1st Brest str., Moscow, 125047, Russian Federation.
  • Vagner E.S. - Research Analytical Center (NIAC) , Research Analytical Center (NIAC), 29 1st Brest str., Moscow, 125047, Russian Federation.

Pages 669-673

The paper is devoted to ensuring the fire safety of an important object for the majority of megacities as the underground. The author examines in detail the fire-hazardous production processes and talks about the use of high-pressure water spray (WS) for extinguishing fires at underground facilities as the most effective firefighting measures. The paper describes the advantages of using of high-pressure water spray for automatic fire extinguishing in terms of safety and cost-effectiveness.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.669-673

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ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES

ELIMINATION OF THE DISADVANTAGES OF SCHEDULING-NETWORK PLANNING BY APPLYING THE MATRIX OF KEY PROJECT EVENTS

  • Morozenko Andrey Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doсtor of Technical Sciences, Head of the Thermal and Nuclear Power Objects Construction Department, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Krasovskiy Dmitriy Viktorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Postgraduate Student, Thermal and Nuclear Power Objects Construction Department, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 674-679

The article discusses the current disadvantages of the scheduling-network planning in the management of the terms of investment-construction project. Problems associated with the construction of the schedule and the definitions of the duration of the construction project are being studied. The problems of project management for the management apparatus are shown, which consists in the absence of mechanisms for prompt response to deviations in the parameters of the scheduling-network diagram. A new approach to planning the implementation of an investment-construction project based on a matrix of key events and a rejection of the current practice of determining the duration based on inauthentic regulatory data. An algorithm for determining the key events of the project is presented. For increase the reliability of the organizational structure, the load factor of the functional block in the process of achieving the key event is proposed. Recommendations for improving the interaction of the participants in the investment-construction project are given.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.674-679

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METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF ECONOMIC EVENTS CYCLICITY METHOD CONSIDERATION

  • Yaskova Natalia Yur'ievna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Economical Sciences, Professor, Professor of the Economy and Management in Construction Departement, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 680-686

The cyclicity of economic phenomena is not only their immanent property but also the subject of economic analysis. The modern way of making managerial decisions requires analysis of a number of cycles that fill any kind of activity. Accounting and reconciliation of construction, design, investment, purchasing, reproduction, leasing and other cycles is important for the investment and construction sector, both from the point of view of the need for their synchronization and from the position of determining trends in sectoral development. The analysis has showed that three main types of development are characteristic for investment and construction activity. Increasing intensity is inherent in a high level of cyclic synchronization. The degradation trend arises as a result of mismatched cycles. The stabilization character is inherent in the regular modes of maintaining the established proportions and cyclical inter-conformity. The study of the cyclical nature of investment and building processes is impossible without understanding their co-ordination. The principles of synchronization and subordination of the cycles should be used not only for the construction of cost-effective systems but also for the development of management tools.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.680-686

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INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

INFORMATION SUPPLY FOR SOLAR THERMAL SYSTEMS MATHEMATICAL MODELING

  • Kitaytseva Elena Khalilovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Information Systems, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Konstantinova Daria Arkadyevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) postgraduate student, Information Systems, Technologies and Automation in Construction Department, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 687-691

Solar thermal system are its constituent elements with their connection between each other, thermal processes within them and also input/output data. The conjunction of external and internal factors determines the efficiency of solar thermal system. No excess heat as well as its deficiency displays us high level efficiency of system. The initial data for modeling of solar thermal systems functioning are dissimilar. Parameters of system’s equipment are constant. Solar radiation amount and water consumption are variable data. The more close initial data to reality, the more definite simulated result is. The main problem is in unpredictability of water consumption by the reason of daily regime and requirement of each user. In this way user is the most instable element of the system. In this study the input data for mathematical modeling of solar thermal systems was analyzed. The climatic databases and standard specifications of hot water demand were also analyzed. The operability estimation method for solar thermal systems with variable input data was offered. The extent of suitability of any solar thermal system can be defined by certain characteristic. The value of this characteristic displays energy accumulation process.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2017.6.687-691

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BRIEF MESSAGES. DISCUSSIONS AND REVIEWS