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Vestnik MGSU 2019/2

DOI : 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2

Articles count - 10

Pages - 261

The influence of city planning on the emergence of heat islands in megacities with a tropical climate (Hanoi)

  • Le Minh Tuan - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) postgraduate student of Department of Architecture, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 148-157

Introduction. Rapid urbanization causes critical changes in global, as well as changes in earth surface temperature. The transformation of land use purposes significantly affects the surface temperature and exacerbates the effect of the negative heat island. Therefore, it is important to conduct a study to optimize urban cooling. Gives town-planning recommendations for limiting the negative impact of urban heat islands (UHI) on human. Analyzing urban and suburban planning in the city of Hanoi, the author proposes the use of certain town-planning principles that contribute to reducing the effect UHI. Materials and methods. This study is focused on green space using as a means of combating environmental problems due to the effect of urban heat island and creating a favorable urban ecological environment. The definition of the relationship between the ratio of green spaces and a decrease in temperature is given. The analysis was taken from 21 green spaces of the city of Hanoi. Results. The study showed a relationship between the intensity of heat reduction and the shape indicator of green space - a linear inverted system and the positive effect of the green zone on reducing the effects of heat island. Conclusions. One of the most important tasks of a city planner is the placement and adjustment of industrial zones of the city, the main transport arteries of the city, meaning that the placement and planning of industrial, residential and public territories, and also the system of roads depends on the formation of “heat islands”, which in the tropical climate of Vietnam, adversely affects human health.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.148-157

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Principles of area development strategic planning (the case of the free state of Bavaria)

  • Ilyichev Vyacheslav А. - Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (RAACS) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Vice-President in the field of innovation, academician of RAACS, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (RAACS), 24 Bolshaya Dmitrovka st., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation.
  • Kolchunov Vitaliy I. - Southwest State University (SWSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Unique Buildings and Structures, Southwest State University (SWSU), 94 50 years of October st., Kursk, 305040, Russian Federation.
  • Bakaeva Natalya V. - Southwest State University (SWSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Professor of the Department of Civil Engineering, Southwest State University (SWSU), 94 50 years of October st., Kursk, 305040, Russian Federation.

Pages 158-168

Introduction. To accomplish the task of area development a new creative approach, that is urban development connected with the dramatic improvement of the quality of urban development environment, is proposed. In the context of this approach, the study of the experience and practice of area development strategic planning using the example of the Free State of Bavaria as a German region with significant scientific potential and economic strength is of great interest. The purpose of area development strategic planning is the achievement of such a situation when the welfare of the people living in the area increases. Today, in the context of spatial development imbalances, violation of territorial integrity, environmental pollution and other challenges, the development of new cities is an exceptional practice. Materials and methods. The methodological framework of the research is a new conceptual approach to the city planning environment, that is urban development. The methods of the research are: familiarization with relevant regulatory documents of the Federal Republic of Germany and system analysis of urban planning documentation for the accomplishment of the tasks of strategic planning of area development. Results. The specifics of the area planning in Germany including specifics of area comprehensive development (types, purposes, objectives and the content of urban regulatory documents) has been revealed. The analysis of the strategic planning of area development in Bavaria performed in terms of urban development principles shows that the emphasis in the development is on the historical value of settlements. Special attention is paid to the redevelopment of industrial and transport zones. Elements of Smart City are employed in the area management. Conclusions. The experience of strategic planning of area development using the example of the Free State of Bavaria can be helpful for practice of regulating the process of area development in Russia.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.158-168

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Numerical simulations of local and global buckling of hyperelastic tubes with different cross-sections

  • Kovalevsky Lukasz - Warsaw University of Technology Master of Science in Civil Engineering, Reasearch-Teaching Assistant, Warsaw University of Technology, 16 Lech Kaczynski st., Warsaw, 00-637, Poland.
  • Emelo Stanislav - Warsaw University of Technology Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, civil engineer (mechanical construction), Head of the Department of Strength of Materials and Theory of Elasticity and Plasticity, Warsaw University of Technology, 16 Lech Kaczynski st., Warsaw, 00-637, Poland.
  • Andreev Vladimir I. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Strength of Materials, academic of the RAACS, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 169-178

Introduction. An approach to the application of finite element programs (FEM) ABAQUS/Standard and ABAQUS/Explicit with various equations of state of incompressible isotropic hyperelastic materials is presented when analyzing compressed and stretched shell elements of elastomers. Elastomers are commonly used in construction as well as in structural shell elements, in particular pipes of different cross sections. Materials and methods. Three FEM models for pipes with the same length and initial stiffness were created. Pipes with elliptical, square and triangular cross sections are considered. Three types of structural models of rubber-like material (elastomer) were used - with a polynomial elastic energy function in the form of the MV model and the standard models of Neo - Hooke and Mooney - Rivlin. In the FEM models of the analyzed pipes, not enter initial imperfections. Numerical modeling buckling of pipes was performed for two types of initial and boundary conditions - for quasistatic and dynamic problems. Results. It is shown that the type of buckling depends on the cross section of the pipe. Comparison of buckling solutions for simulated pipes with different structural models demonstrated a good correlation of the results. An approximate history of the deformation of an elliptical sample analyzed by ABAQUS/Standard, loaded by moving the boundary, is given. Conclusions. It has been established that the ABAQUS/Standard program allows the use of incompressible hyperelastic materials, the ABAQUS/Explicit program does not provide this possibility. This implies the need to set the parameters of the material associated with the spherical part of the stress tensor. The parameter should not be too small, otherwise it will lead to numerical errors. Solving problems on the stability of pipe models with different physical models give good correlations of results.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.169-178

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Numerical model of beem-to-column joint finite stifness

  • Bagautdinov Ruslan I. - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) Postgraduate of Department of Construction Mechanics and Building Structures, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Polytechnicheskaya st., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.
  • Komarov Yuriy P. - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) undergraduated of Department of Construction Mechanics and Building Structures, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Polytechnicheskaya st., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.
  • Mostovskiy Nikolaiy N. - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) student, Department of Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Polytechnicheskaya st., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.
  • Daurov Zaur S. - Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU) student, Department of Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures, Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University (SPbPU), 29 Polytechnicheskaya st., St. Petersburg, 195251, Russian Federation.

Pages 179-187

Introduction. One of the greatest accents in the steel structures researches is the optimization of the design model. It is possible to reduce the cost of steel structures, optimize moment distribution and dynamic characteristics of the frame using the finite secant stiffness, which can be obtained by the described in the paper numerical modeling method. There are a lot of perspectives for the engineer in the field of numerical modeling. Most of them are possible to implement in the design procedure nowadays, but it is important to develop methods and standards for numerical modeling, in order to obtain convenient tools and reliable results. In order to study this issue in more depth, the “moment - turn” curve was studied, maximum stress values were determined, and rigidity and strength characteristics were prepared for each type of joint for structural analysis. Materials and methods. In the program Ansys was modelling three types of steel joints: end-plate connections, double web-angle connections and top and seat angle connections. Results. For three types of joints was obtained ultimate moment, location of destruction and moment-rotation curve. For extended end-plate connections was comparison of the obtained curve with experimental data. Conclusions. Three types of steel joints were modeled in the paper. The numerical modeling results show good correlation with the experimental ones. The data about the behavior of the joints were extracted and analyzed. As result, “moment-angle of rotation” curves were obtained. Finite secant stiffness of the joints for considering steel structures was obtained in the analysis. The resulting finite secant stiffness can be used in the steel frames design procedure.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.179-187

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Numerical investigations of work of driven pile on claystones

  • Sychkina Evgeniya N. - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor of the Department of Construction Technology and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolsky prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.
  • Antipov Vadim V. - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) postgraduate student of Department of Construction Technology and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolsky prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.
  • Ofrikhter Yan V. - Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU) postgraduate student of Department of Construction Technology and Geotechnics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University (PNRPU), 29 Komsomolsky prospekt, Perm, 614990, Russian Federation.

Pages 188-198

Introduction. Reviewed the features of the work of the pile on Permian claystones with the help of numerical and field experiments, analytical calculations. Materials and methods. Numerical modeling was performed in the Plaxis 3D and Midas GTS NX software packages. Full-scale tests of driven piles are made in accordance with the requirements of GOST 20276-2012. The obtained results are compared with the results of analytical calculations according to SP 24.13330.2011. Results. The scientific novelty of the investigation consists in a comparative analysis of the results of numerical modeling of the interaction of a driving pile with claystones with the results of field tests and analytical calculations. Finite element analysis in software package Plaxis 3D using Hardening Soil model shows higher values of settlement (up to 6 times) in relation to stabilized settlement of full-scale pile tests. Calculations in the software package Midas GTS NX showed overestimated values of pile settlements in relation to full-scale pile tests (13-24 times). Analytical calculations in accordance with SP 24.13330.2011 also showed overestimated (up to 3 times) values of the maximum pile settlement in relation to the stabilized settlement during full-scale pile tests. Conclusions. The calculations by the finite element method in the package Plaxis 3D and Midas GTS NX, by the analytical method according to SP 24.13330.2011, show overestimated values of settlement in relation to the stabilized settlement of piles on claystones. Using the Linear-Elastic model for claystones in numerical calculations in Plaxis 3D provides a value close to the settlement of full-scale pile. However, the use of this model is not fully justified for claystones due to the presence of residual deformations and the nonlinear character of pile settlement during loading. Necessary to correct the existing numerical and analytical methods for calculating pile foundations on claystones. It is necessary to continue the work on the further generalization of the experience of arranging piles on weathered claystones in order to evaluate the long-term work of not only a single pile, but also a pile foundation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.188-198

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Roofing granules with additive of copper-zinc powder having biocidal properties

  • Chervenko Yuriy V. - Factory “StroyMineral” hief Technologist, Factory “StroyMineral”, 1 Krovelnaya st., Uchaly, 453700, Bashkortostan, Russian Federation.
  • Sokov Victor N. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Professor of Department of Technology of Binders and Concretes, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Almatov Alexey S. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Postgraduate student of Department of Technology of Binders and Concretes, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 199-206

Introduction. In the world practice, ceramic coated roofing granules with various biocidal (algicidal) additives are used to prevent discoloration of asphalt roofing shingle. The paper propose the application of the selective dissolution of brass process to accelerate the algicidal effect of surface mineral granules. The authors show that incorporating of brass pigment in the color coat of roofing granules provides the desired degree of algae resistance over an extended period of time. Materials and methods. The brass pigment powder was taken as an algicidal additive. Algae resistant granules with the brass pigment were made in Stroymineral plant. Standard AR granules from North America market were taken as a control sample. Algicidal effect was measured by comparison of control sample and manufactured algae retardant granules performance in the 4 weeks quantitative spectrophotometric chlorophyll test. Measurement of an optical density of the liquid culture solution were made to determine the algae growth rates. The measurement was performed in the laboratory for the development of innovative medicines and biotechnologies in MIPT University. Results. The results show that manufactured algae retardant granules displayed level of the algicidal activity which is equal to control sample during the research. It was found that the highest algicidal activity was shown by products manufactured using finely dispersed copper-zinc alloy powder with a zinc content between 15-30 %. Conclusions. The manufactured granules with brass pigment in the color coating reveal ability to inhibit the algae growth.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.199-206

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Concrete-faced rockfill dams: experience in study of stress-strain state

  • Soroka Vladislav B. - SpetsNovostroy engineer, SpetsNovostroy, 20 Communal quarter, Krasnogorsk, 143405, Russian Federation.
  • Sainov Mikhail P. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor of Department of Hydraulics and Hydraulic Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Korolev Denis V. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) student, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 207-224

Introduction. At present the urgent problem in hydraulic construction is establishing the causes of crack formation in seepage-control reinforced concrete faces at a number of rockfill dams. For solving this problem the studies are conducted of stress-strain state (SSS) of concrete-faced rockfill dams which are fulfilled by different methods. Materials and methods. Gives a review and analysis of the results of studies of stress-strain state of concrete-faced rockfill dams (CFRD) fulfilled by different authors over the last 15 years. The results of analytical, experimental and numerical studies are considered. Descriptions are given of the models used for simulation of non-linear character of rockfill deformation at numerical modeling of dam SSS. Results. Analysis showed that solving the problem of CFRD SSS causes a number of methodological difficulties. At present the only method permitting study of CFRD SSS is numerical modeling. The rest methods do not permit considering the impact of important factors on SSS. Large complications are caused by scarce knowledge of rockfill deformation properties in real dams. Conclusions. It was revealed that at present SSS of reinforced concrete faces has been studied insufficiently. The results of conducted studies do not give full and adequate understanding about operation conditions of reinforced concrete faces. Impact of various factors on the face SSS has not been studied. Besides, there are contradictions in the results of studies obtained by different authors. Differences in the results are based on objective and subjective reasons. A considerable obstruction for numerical studies is complicated modeling of rigid thin-walled reinforced concrete face behavior at large deformations inherent to rockfill. The obtained results of studies often do not permit conducting full analysis of SSS of concrete-faced rockfill dams.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.207-224

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Research of sewage intake of small settlements in dry weather

  • Ivanenkо Irina I. - Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associated Professor, Associated Professor of the chair Water use and Ecology, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU), 4 2-ya Krasnoarmeyskaya st., Saint-Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation.
  • Senicheva Kseniya S. - Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU) magistrant, Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU), 4 2-ya Krasnoarmeyskaya st., Saint-Petersburg, 190005, Russian Federation.

Pages 225-236

Introduction. Attempts to apply classical wastewater treatment technologies to small volumes are often impossible due to the high irregularity of wastewater inflows, and fundamental fluctuations in the composition of wastewaters, which are very diverse in comparison with medium and large cities. At three sites located in the Leningrad Region, full-scale measurements of wastewater discharges from settlements with a population of 1000 people and an industrial enterprise were carried out in order to determine the irregularity coefficients of wastewater during the dry season. The irregularity coefficients used in the design practice for such objects differ greatly in their values, as determined in the process of analyzing the literature data, which, when designing head sewage treatment plants, can lead to significant errors in calculations. Materials and methods. Measurement of a daily consumption of sewage flowmeters counters, elimination of improbable values, definition of consumption in dry weather, comparison of these various objects. Results. Mathematical dependences are proposed for describing fluctuations in the daily coefficient of irregularity of waste during the year. It was proposed to describe the weekly fluctuation of expenses with the help of the weekly coefficient of non-uniformity and its values were determined for the studied objects. A method has been developed for determining estimated costs for small objects with a population of 1000 people. Conclusions. The developed technique allows to predict the size of coefficient of daily unevenness within a year in dry weather for small settlements with number of inhabitants of 1000 people and a small share of production drains. It is possible to recommend values of coefficients of week unevenness.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.225-236

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Graphic method of calculation of the direct solar radiation received on the facade with available opposing building

  • Korkina Elena V. - Research Institute of building physics of the Russian Academy of architecture and building sciences (NIISF RAACS) Senior Researcher, Research Institute of building physics of the Russian Academy of architecture and building sciences (NIISF RAACS), 21 Locomotive travel, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation.

Pages 237-249

Introduction. An approach to the development of a method for taking into account the influence of a single opposing building on direct solar radiation inflows to the building under study, taking into account all the irradiation periods of the facade under study, is presented. When calculating the consumption of thermal energy for heating and ventilation of a building in accordance with the method presented in regulatory documents, it is necessary to perform calculations of heat gain to the building from solar radiation. These calculations are carried out without taking into account the influence of the opposing building, what reduces the accuracy of the results. In foreign and domestic literature sources not found suitable for construction calculations and taking into account all periods of exposure methods. The objectives of this study are: the mathematical substantiation of the method, the possibility of its practical application, the formation of the calculation algorithm. Materials and methods. Calculations of the angular height and azimuth of the Sun by astronomical formulas, trigonometric calculations, construction of graphs of the tangents of changes in solar coordinates from the true solar time are applied. Results. The graphical method is proposed for determining irradiation periods by direct solar radiation of a facade of any orientation. The method is based on consideration of the formulas of the solar coordinates and the location of the opposing building. In this case, the graphic field is used to plot the changes in the tangents of the angular height of the Sun and the tangents of the difference between the azimuths of the Sun and the normal to the surface of the facade from the true solar time. The parameters of the building are applied to the graphic field and, in accordance with the proposed recommendations, the periods of irradiation of the facade are determined. Then the summation of direct solar radiation for the periods of irradiation of the facade is made. The algorithm of calculations on the example of a building in the presence of an opposing building is presented. The decrease of incoming direct solar radiation is shown. Conclusions. The developed graphic method is mathematically justified, has a practical orientation, which makes it relevant to the purpose and easy to use. The calculations for the presented method showed a significant decrease in the received direct solar radiation compared with the calculation without taking into account the influence of the opposing building, which shows the need to apply the method. The implementation of the method will contribute to an increase in the accuracy of calculations of direct solar radiation received on the facade and, therefore, the accuracy of calculations of energy consumption for heating and ventilation of the building.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.237-249

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Organizational and technological modeling of the processes of the device of roofing coatings with modular system of greening

  • Korol Elena A. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head of the Department of Housing and Communal Utility, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Shushunova Natalia S. - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) Postgraduate student of Department of Housing and Communal Utility, Lecturer of the Department of Environmental Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 250-261

Introduction. Presents an approach to the development of organizational-technological models of the processes of the device of operated roofing coatings with landscaping systems, which allow the systematization of constructive-technological solutions. Are given the the organizational and technological parameters of the device roofing with landscaping. At present, the problems associated with the study of organizational and technological parameters when constructing unconventional energy-saving engineering systems are not well understood. Materials and methods. Analyzed of scientific and technical studies of domestic and foreign scientists in the field of green building technologies in relation to roofing. Formulated determination of organizational and technological parameters of technological processes and technological operations in the production of coatings. The study applied methods of mathematical modeling, as well as methods of structural-functional modeling. Results. Determined the organizational and technological parameters of green roof coverings the composition and sequence of technological processes and operations for roofing coverings with landscaping systems. The work ordering of technological processes of the device of modular landscaping systems of operated roofing coatings has been made. Spatial-technological and functional models of technological processes of the device of operated roofing coatings with landscaping systems have been built, which allow revealing reserves and eliminating technological non-production interruptions in the course of work. Conclusions. Established that in the field of green building technologies there is a need to develop new standards and supplement the provisions of the regulatory framework containing guidelines that cover the design and construction processes with a detailed description of the organizational, technological and structural characteristics. The constructed spatial-technological and functional models of the technological processes of the device of the operated roofing coatings with landscaping systems make it possible to identify reserves and eliminate technological non-production interruptions in the production process.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2019.2.250-261

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