Home Vestnik MGSU Library Vestnik MGSU 2014/3

Vestnik MGSU 2014/3

DOI : 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3

Articles count - 29

Pages - 261

GENERAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION-RELATED SCIENCES AND OPERATIONS. UNIFICATION AND STANDARDIZATION IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Building reguliarities: compulsive or optional? The project of the list of reguliariries, application of which on compulsory basis ensures fullfillment of the requirements of technical regulations: ”On the security of buildings and structures”

  • Travush Vladimir Il'ich - Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, member, Vise-president, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, 24 Bol'shaya Dmitrovka st., Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Volkov Yuriy Sergeevich - Scientific and Research, design-and-engineering and Technological Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Named after Gvozdev A.A. (NIIZhB) Candidate of Technical Sciences, advisor, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, Scientific and Research, design-and-engineering and Technological Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Named after Gvozdev A.A. (NIIZhB), 6, 2 Institutskaya st., Moscow, 109428, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-14

A complex of problems is not solved in technical regulation of construction. This includes the list of regulatory documents of compulsory application is not revised yet. The issue of developing high-quality regulative documents for the construction field is of great importance, because their fulfillment guarantees the safety of the population. The project of this list consists of 76 documents; that’s 15 less, than in the existing list. The reasons for reducing the number of documents are doubtful. In the list project there are no standards for building materials. All the documents concerning the rules of work execution are also out of this list, though the documents affecting the building safety should be included it the compulsory list. It is offered not to make a list of documents. It is enough to enumerate all the reference documents in project documentation, which is subject to inspection by the building supervision agencies as compulsory. There will be no need for the additional list of documents for optional application.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.7-14

References
  1. Federal'nyy zakon «O tekhnicheskom regulirovanii» ot 27.12.2002 ¹ 184-FZ [Federal Law “On Technical Regulations” from 27.12.2002 # 184-FZ]. Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/popular/techreg. Date of access: 12.01.2014.
  2. Mezhdunarodnaya konferentsiya «Tekhnicheskoe regulirovanie v stroitel'stve» [International Conference “Technical Regulations in Construction”]. BST: byulleten' stroitel'noy tekhniki [Bulletin of Building Technology]. 2013, no. 12, pp. 45—48.
  3. Federal'nyy zakon ot 30.12.2009 ¹ 384-FZ «Tekhnicheskiy reglament o bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy» [Federal Law from 30.12.2009 # 384-FZ “Technical Regulations for the Security of Buildings and Structures]. Available at: http://www.consultant.ru/popular/techreg. Date of access: 12.01.2014.
  4. Proekt perechnya norm, v rezul'tate primeneniya kotorykh na obyazatel'noy osnove obespechivaetsya vypolnenie trebovaniy Tekhnicheskogo reglamenta «O bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy» [The Project of the List of Regularities, Application of Which on Compulsory Basis Ensures Fulfi llment of the Requirements of Technical Regulations “On the Security of Buildings and Structures]. Available at: http://www.nop.ru/. Date of access: 12.01.2014.

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ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

The problems of design and construction of health facilities in Angola

  • Bindanda Antonio Afonso - Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN) Master of Architecture, postgraduate student, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN), 6 Miklukho-Maklaya St., Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 15-26

Angola is a country with great economic potential, which can contribute to the solution of construction, architecture and social problems of the country in case of rational use of financial resources. The author focuses on the negative factors that prevent the health authorities from the efficient construction of large hospitals and clinical facilities in Angola. Brief description of the Angolan population is given. The article provides a brief overview of the climate and overall social health problems. Basing on the stated goals, the following problems are considered: Features of architectural and planning decisions of clinical facilities and a brief description of the existing hospitals. The article deals with those minor progressive changes in planning decisions and in the siting of health facilities. Space-planning decisions, the most rational options and requirements for building new hospitals in Angola. The author indentified the main factors that influence architectural solutions for the design and construction of medical facilities. The most rational design options for clinic hospitals were determined. The objectives of the study were formulated with a view to identifying architectural solutions in the construction of new clinical hospitals. The main objective of the study is to improve health care in Angola. The problems are considered in order to identify rational architectural design of new clinical hospitals.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.15-26

References
  1. Posobie po proektirovaniyu uchrezhdeniy zdravookhraneniya (k SNiP 35-110—2004) [Textbook on Healthcare Facilities Design (to Construction Requirements 35-110—2004]. Moscow, 1990.
  2. Shevchenko Yu. Zdravookhranenie Rossii na poroge tret'ego tysyacheletiya [Healthcare of Russia on the Eve of 3rd Millennium]. Rossiyskiy meditsinskiy katalog [Russian Medical Catalogue]. 2001, no. 1, pp. 1—9.
  3. Kitsul I.S. Sovremennoe sostoyanie zdravookhraneniya SShA: vzglyad amerikanskikh uchenykh (nauchnyy obzor) [Modern State of the USA Healthcare: View of American Scientists]. Problemy sotsial'noy gigieny, zdravookhraneniya i istorii meditsiny [Problems of Social Sanitation, Healthcare and History of Medicine]. 1997, no. 6, pp. 31—33.
  4. Golikov A.P., Galkin V.A., El'kis I.S. Aktual'nye voprosy neotlozhnoy kardiologicheskoy pomoshchi na dogospital'nom etape [Current Problems of Emergency Cardiological Aid]. Terapevticheskiy arkhiv [Therapeutic Archive]. 2001, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 6—7.
  5. Fursov V., Lenok V. Novaya zhizn' klinicheskoy bol'nitsy: proekt rekonstruktsii i novogo stroitel'stva lechebnykh korpusov ¹ 1, 2, 5 na territorii 1 GKB im. N.I. Pirogova [New Life of Clinic Hospital: the Project of Reconstruction and New Construction of Medical Pavilions no. 1, 2, 5 on the Territory of the 1st City Clinic Hospital Named after N.I. Pirogov]. Arkhitektura. Stroitel'stvo. Dizayn [Architecture. Construction. Design]. 2004, no. 6 (46), pp. 12.
  6. Razin A.D. Arkhitekturno-planirovochnye osobennosti sovremennykh diplomaticheskikh kompleksov [Architectural and Planning Features of Modern Diplomatic Complexes]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 5, pp. 47—50.
  7. Yakimenko V.B. Metody obrabotki meditsinskikh otkhodov [Methods of Medical Waste Processing]. TBO [Municipal Solid Waste]. 2006, no. 12, pp. 8—16. Available at: http://steriflash.narod.ru/magazine.pdf. Date of access: 02.11.2013.
  8. Barker J., Huber C. The Future of Ambulatory Care. American Institute of Architects; Academy of Architecture for Health. November 10, 2010, pp. 1—8. Available at: http://www.aia.org/practicing/groups/kc/AIAB086508.
  9. Glasser V.L. Emergency Departments: The New Front Door. American Institute of Architects; Academy of Architecture for Health. Academy journal. Journal Archives: November, 2000. Available at: http://aia.org. Date of access: 21.11.2013.
  10. Naresh S.M. Designing a Health Center. American Institute of Architects; Academy of Architecture for Health. Academy journal. Journal Archives: November, 2008. pp. 1—9. Available at: http://www.aia.org/groups/aia/documents/pdf/aiab090823.pdf. Date of access: 20.11.2013.
  11. Skuratov S., Kiselev S., architects. Mnogofunktsional'nyy kompleks s detskoy stomatologicheskoy poliklinikoy [Multifunctional Complex with Child Dentist Center]. Proekt Rossiya [Project Russia]. 2001, no. 20 (2), no. 62—63.
  12. Boykov A.A., Khanin A.Z. Osnovnye napravleniya organizatsionno-metodicheskoy raboty [Main Directions of Organizational and Methodological Work]. Skoraya meditsinskaya pomoshch' [Emergency Medical Services]. 2003, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 35—36.
  13. Babanov A. Puti optimizatsii meditsinskoy pomoshchi naseleniyu [Ways to Optimize Medical Aid to Population]. Problemy sotsial'noy gigieny, zdravookhraneniya i istorii meditsiny [Problems of Social Sanitation, Healthcare and History of Medicine]. 2001, no. 3, pp. 30—32.
  14. Lawson R. How Patient Treatment and Behavior Can be Improved with New Architecture. The Architectural Review. 2002, no. 3, pp. 72—76.

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Architectural, spatial and composite features of the temples location in Saint-Petersburg and the surrounding counties in the 18th - 1st half of 19th centuries

  • Krylova Severina Vyacheslavovna - Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU) graduate student, assistant, Department of Architectural and Town-planning Heritage, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU), 4, 2 Krasnoarmeiskaya Str., St. Petersburg, 190005; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 27-35

This article shows the interdependences of territorial distribution of temples and their architectural-spatial and compositional features in St. Petersburg and the counties. The author revealed two different approaches to temple arrangement depending on the type of environment - in urban areas and rural areas. The construction of a temple in St. Petersburg was strictly regulated: its space-planning solution, accommodation, the place assigned for parish church, etc. The article draws attention to the particular choice of solutions, removal of land for construction, and certain architectural features of the temples. The author generally distinguishes four types of space-planning decisions of religious buildings: hall multiplex (The Basilica) in the form of a Latin cross, centric (cross dome as the most common types of churches), combined. In turn, these types of temples were correlated with various types of accommodation identified by the author. Spatial distribution of temples include: a) the location of temples in the natural landscape system and b) with respect to the location of the man-made temples' environment (historical and cultural), in correlation with the buildings and / or communications (land and water communications), c) the formation of a spatially-visual network (system) of the city and surrounding area. For a better understanding of the revealed dependences chronological phase analysis was used, since the time prior to Saint Petersburg construction and till 1850. The periodization of temple architecture development during 1703-1850 was identified. The period before Saint Petersburg was also considered, though less detailed. The stages are minimal chronological segments, within which settlement system was unified by spatial and social characteristics, as well as uniform rules of specific territorial, economic and social development. As chronological boundaries, specific dates of the events were identified, which determined the transition to new stages. This approach allowed to gradually track changes in the methods of selecting and placing three-dimensional solution of various temples. The studies revealed that the temple was a member of the system, which includes urban development, individual settlements and their groups, the natural landscape. They were all interrelated, representing the idea of continuity, harmony with each other and the environment (natural and manmade). Such an organic fusion of church and surroundings have a mutual influence: the temple on the environment and the environment on the object.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.27-35

References
  1. Speranskiy M.M., editor. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii. Sobranie pervoe. 1649—1825 gg.: v 50 tomakh [Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Collection One. 1649—1825. In 50 volumes]. Saint Petersburg, Tip II Otdeleniya Sobstvennoy Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva Kantselyarii Publ., 1830, vol, VI., years 1720—1722, no. 4122, p. 791.
  2. Speranskiy M.M., editor. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii. Sobranie pervoe. 1649—1825 gg.: v 50 tomakh [Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Collection One. 1649—1825. In 50 volumes]. Saint Petersburg, Tip II Otdeleniya Sobstvennoy Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva Kantselyarii Publ., 1830, vol. VII, no. 4988, 1723—1727, 925 p.
  3. Speranskiy M.M., editor. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii. Sobranie pervoe. 1649—1825 gg.: v 50 tomakh [Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Collection One. 1649—1825. In 50 volumes]. Saint Petersburg, Tip II Otdeleniya Sobstvennoy Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva Kantselyarii Publ., 1830, no. 10780, vol. XIV, 1754—1757, pp. 716—717.
  4. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii. Sobranie vtoroe. 1825—1881 gg.: v 55 t. [Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Collection Two. 1649—1825. In 55 volumes]. Saint Petersburg, Tip II Otdeleniya Sobstvennoy Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva Kantselyarii Publ., 1830, vol. I, 1825—1827, no. 186, pp. 278—284.
  5. Voznyak E.R. Ob"emno-planirovochnoe reshenie sobornykh khramov [Space Planning Decision of Cathedral Churches]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 6, pp. 15—16.
  6. Kuznetsov A.V. Tektonika i konstruktsiya tsentricheskikh zdaniy [Tectonics and Construction of Centric Buildings]. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoye izdatel’stvo arkhitektury i gradostroitel'stva Publ., 1951, vol. 1.
  7. Voznyak E.R. Ob"emno-planirovochnoe reshenie pravoslavnykh khramov Sankt-Peterburga [Space Planning Decision of Orthodox Churches of Saint Petersburg]. Arkhitektura i vremya [Architecture and Time]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 23—28.
  8. Sementsov S.V. Sistema poseleniy shvedskogo vremeni v planirovke Sankt-Peterburga pri Petre 1 [The System of Settlements of the Sweden Time in Saint Petersburg Townplanning during Peter the Great]. Shvetsiya i Sankt-Peterburg: Tretiy nauchnyy seminar 10-11 oktyabrya 1996 goda. Teksty dokladov [Sweden and Saint Petersburg: the 3rd Scientific Seminar, October 10-11, 1996. Abstracts]. Saint Petersburg, 1996, pp. 19—26.
  9. Speranskiy M.M., editor. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii. Sobranie pervoe. 1649—1825 gg.: v 50 tomakh [Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Collection One. 1649—1825. In 50 volumes]. Saint Petersburg, Tip II Otdeleniya Sobstvennoy Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva Kantselyarii Publ., 1830, no. 27180, vol. XXXIV, 35, 1817, p. 911.
  10. Polnoe sobranie zakonov Rossiyskoy Imperii. Sobranie vtoroe. 1825—1881 gg.: v 55 tomakh [Complete Collection of Laws of the Russian Empire. Collection Two. 1649—1825. In 55 volumes]. Saint Petersburg, Tip II Otdeleniya Sobstvennoy Ego Imperatorskogo Velichestva Kantselyarii Publ., 1831, no. 4037, vol. V, II, § 16, 1830, p. 22.

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Reconstruction of the building history of the Demidovs’ estate “Almazovo” situated near Moscow

  • Aksenova Irina Vasil’evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 36-49

The currency of the topic covered in the article is not only the necessity of national cultural traditions revival, but also the possibility of applying the restored historical objects in modern life as multifunctional cultural and touristic complexes. At present, this is one of the most prospective tendencies in tourism, entertainment industry and educational programmes. The revival of historical estates and cultural traditions is nowadays insufficiently used but inexhaustible source for economical and cultural development of Russian regions. Attracting investments allow preserving ancient buildings in future. The Demidovs’ estate “Sergievskaya dacha” in Almazovo (belonged to the Demidovs, the Ural owners of mines and metallurgical works) is an object of historic and cultural interest of Federal significance and it is of great scientific, educational and architectural value. To date the published information about the estate is laconic and sometimes contradictive. The results of historic and architectural researches based upon detailed study of literary materials and especially archives are offered in the article. All building stages of the estate are considered. Unique unpublished drafts of demolished and not erected (because of a disease of the owner) buildings and elements of landscape architecture, which form an entity of the whole complex, have been discovered by the author. The scientific importance of researches carried out by the author consists of the possibility (to the great degree of trustworthiness) to reconstruct the building history of the whole estate complex. The volume of the obtained information allows to speak of the possibility of the estate restoration and to work out the project for its new contemporary usage as a museum of the noble family way of life. This will encourage the development of tourism in the region and draw the attraction of investments in order to preserve the estate.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.36-49

References
  1. Official website of the Society of Russian Estate Investigation (OIRU). Available at: http://www.oiru.org/members.html. Date of access: 26.09.13.
  2. Oynas D. Usad’ba — proshloe v nastoyashchem [Estate — the Past in the Present]. Natsional’nyy fond «Vozrozhdeniya russkoy usad’by» [National Fond of “Revival of Russian Estate”]. Available at: http://www.fondus.ru/. Date of access: 26.09.13.
  3. Muzey russkoy usadebnoy kul’tury «Usad’ba knyazey Golitsynykh «Vlakhernskoe-Kuz’minki» [Museum of Russian Estate Culture — the Estate of the Knyazhs Galitsins “Vlahernskoe-Kuzminki”]. Available at: «http://mosmuseum.ru/museum-menu-mansionmuseum.html. Date of access: 26.09.13.
  4. Tsalobanova V.A., Stepanova G.G. Usad’ba Mar’ino. Dva nachala [Estate“Mar’ino”. Two Origins]. Saint Petersburg, Oliver Publ., 2011.
  5. Pasport na pamyatnik istorii i kul’tury federal’nogo znacheniya «Usad’ba Almazovo. XIX v.» [Passport of the object of historic and cultural interest of Federal significance the estate “Almazovo”. 19th century]. Ministerstvo kul’tury Moskovskoy oblasti. Glavnoe upravlenie po okhrane pamyatnikov istorii i kul’tury [Ministry of Culture of the Moscow Region. Central Administrative Board for the Preservation of the Objects of Historic and Cultural Significance].
  6. Shchukina E.P. Podmoskovnye usadebnye sady i parki kontsa XVIII veka [Estate Gardens and Parks of the Moscow Region in the End of the 19th Century]. Moscow, Institut naslediya Publ., 2007, pp. 53—57, 245—258.
  7. Mezhdunarodnyy Demidovskiy fond [International Demidovs’ Fond]. Available at: http://www.indf.ru/demidoff.asp?m=4&sm=47&t=171. Date of access: 26.09.13.
  8. Kusov V.S. Zemli Moskovskoy gubernii v XVIII veke: Karty uezdov: Opisanie zemlevladeniy [Lands of Moscow Province in the 17th Century. Maps of Districts. Descriptions of Land Assets]. Moscow, 2004, vol. 1, p. 62.
  9. Shchukina E.P. «Natural’nyy sad» russkoy usad’by v kontse XVIII veka [“Natural garden” of Russian Estate in the End of 18th Century]. Russkoe iskusstvo XVIII veka : Materialy i issledovaniya [Russian Art of the 18th Century. Materials and Researches]. Moscow, 1973, pp. 109—117.
  10. MArkhI. Otchet NIR «Restavratsiya i rekonstruktsiya parkovogo kompleksa Almazovo» (promezh.) [Moscow Architectural Institute. Scientific and research work: Restoration and Reconstruction of the “Almazovo” Park Complex]. Research advisor Ozhegov S.S. State Registration 01.83.0030100. Moscow, All Russian Scientific and Technical Research Center (VNTIT), 1984.
  11. Kosterina-Azaryan A.B. Teatr v zhizni N.N. Demidova [Theatre in the Life of N.N. Demidovs]. Demidovskiy vremennik: Istoricheskiy al’manakh [Demidovs’ Annals. Historic Miscellany]. Ekaterinburg, 1994, vol. 1, pp. 147—162.
  12. Otchet NIR «Razrabotka predlozheniy po organizatsii bazy truda i otdykha Minvuza RSFSR v Almazovo» (promezh.) [Moscow Architectural Institute. Scientific and research work: Working Out the Proposals for the Organization of the Work-rest Resourt “Almazovo” of the Ministry of University Education]. Research advisor Ozhegov S.S. State Registration 01.86.0034289. Moscow, All Russian Scientific and Technical Research Center (VNTIT), 1987.
  13. Yarovoy I.Yu. Novaya zhizn’ podmoskovnogo Almazova [New Life of Almazovo Estate of the Moscow Region]. Arkhitektura SSSR [The Architecture of USSR]. 1987, no. 6, pp. 106—109.
  14. Aksenova I.V. Podmoskovnaya usad’ba Demidovykh Almazovo-Sergievskoe. Istoriya «sela Sergievskogo, Almazovo tozh» [The Demidovs’ Estate Almazovo-Sergievskoe in Moscow Region. The History of “Sergievskoe Village or Almazovo”]. Russkaya usad’ba: sbornik obshchestva izucheniya russkoy usad’by [Russian Estate: the Collection of the Society of Russian Estates Investigation]. Saint Petersburg, Kolo Publ., 2013, no. 18(34), pp. 397—436.

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DESIGNING AND DETAILING OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. MECHANICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Natural frequencies and forms of flexural vibrations of a beam with a crack

  • Gordon Vladimir Aleksandrovich - State University - Education-Science-Production Complex (UNPK) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, head, Department of Higher Mathematics, State University - Education-Science-Production Complex (UNPK), 29 Naugorskoe shosse, Orel, 302020, Russian Federation; +7(4862) 41-98-48; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kravtsova El'vira Aleksandrovna - State University - Education-Science-Production Complex (UNPK) Senior Lecturer, Department of Information Systems, State University - Education-Science-Production Complex (UNPK), 29 Naugorskoe shosse, Orel, 302020, Russian Federation; +7(4862) 41-98-48; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 50-58

In view of providing durability of constructions, the urgent problem is studying dynamic processes in loaded rod structures occurring in the process of sudden local defects formation, such as breakage of support bonds, partial destruction, transverse and longitudinal cracks etc., which are united under general term "beyond design impacts". To date, a number of problems related to this topic are solved: the problem of dynamic loadings at sudden formation of transverse cracks, the problem of partial tie breaks in the bearings, partial destruction and longitudinal lamination of compound bars. In the paper the authors propose a method of determining the spectrum of natural frequencies of flexural vibrations of a rod system with this type of injury. The results are to be used for modal analysis of forced vibrations of a beam with a defect of longitudinal lamination, depending on its level.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.50-58

References
  1. Gordon V.A., Poturaeva T.V. Chastoty sobstvennykh izgibnykh kolebaniy svobodno opertoy balki s treshchinoy [Natural Flexural Vibrations of a freely supported beam with a crack]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 2009, no. 3 (224), pp. 19—23.
  2. Lin H.-P. Direct and Inverse Methods of Free Vibration Analysis of the Simply Supported Beams with Cracks. Engineering Structures. 2004, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 427—436. DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2003.10.014.
  3. Poturaeva T.V. Perekhodnye protsessy v balkakh pri vnezapnykh strukturnykh perestroykakh i treshchinoobrazovanii: dissertatsiya kandidata tekhnicheskikh nauk [Transition Processes in Beams in Case of Sudden Structural Reorganizations and Crack-formation. Thesis of the Candidate of Technical Sciences]. Orel, 2009, 143 p.
  4. Lin Hai-Ping. Dynamic Design of Beams Using Soft Tuning. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Sound and Vibration. Daejeon, Korea, 2008, pp. 215—222.
  5. Gordon V.A., Pavlova T.A. Dinamicheskie yavleniya v balke pri lavinoobraznom protsesse vyklyucheniya svyazey v oporakh [Dynamic Effects in a Beam in Case of Snowballing Process of Support Connections Shutting off]. Vibratsionnye mashiny i tekhnologii: sbornik nauchykh trudov v 2 chastyakh [Vibrating Machines and Technologies. Collection of Scientific Works. In 2 Parts]. Kursk, KurskGTU Publ., 2005, Part 1, pp. 166—169.
  6. Gordon V.A., Klyueva N.V., Bukhtiyarova A.S., Poturaeva T.V. Raschet dinamicheskikh usiliy v konstruktivno-nelineynykh elementakh sterzhnevykh sistem pri vnezapnykh strukturnykh izmeneniyakh [Calculating Dynamic Impact in Constructive Non-linear Elements of Bar Systems in Case of Sudden Structural Changes]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Construction Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 2008, no. 6, pp. 23—26.
  7. Pavlova T.A. Razvitie metoda rascheta stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy na zhivuchest' pri vnezapnykh strukturnykh izmeneniyakh: dissertatsiya kandidata tekhnicheskikh nauk [Development of the Durability Calculating Method for Building Structures in Case of Sudden Structural Changes. Thesis of the Candidate of Technical Sciences]. Orel, 2006.
  8. Klyueva N.V., Gordon V.A. Raschet dinamicheskikh dogruzheniy v sterzhnevoy prostranstvennoy sisteme s vnezapno vyklyuchayushchimisya elementami [Calculating Dynamic Loads in a Space Bare Structure with Suddenly Shutting off Elements]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika inzhenernykh konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics of Engineering Structures and Constructions]. 2008, no. 6, pp. 72—79.
  9. Gordon V.A., Brusova V.I., Volchkov A.A. Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyanie nagruzhennoy balki pri vnezapnom umen'shenii ploshchadi poperechnogo secheniya [Stressstrain State of a Loaded Beam in Case of Sudden Cross Section Area Decrease]. Izvestiya OrelGTU. Seriya Stroitel'stvo. Transport. [News of Orel Technical University. Series: Construction. Transport]. 2006, no. 3—4, pp. 20—27.
  10. Gordon V.A., Brusova V.I., Volchkov A.A. Analiz dinamicheskogo protsessa v nagruzhennoy balke pri ee chastichnom razrushenii [Dynamic Process Analysis in a Loaded Beam in Case of its Partial Destruction]. Sovremennye problemy matematiki, mekhaniki, informatiki: materialy Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii [Current Issues of Mathematics, Mechanics, Computer Science: Works of International Conference]. Tula, TulGU Publ., 2007, pp. 136—137.
  11. Gordon V.A., Klyueva N.V., Bukhtiyarova A.S., Poturaeva T.V. Raschet dinamicheskikh usiliy v konstruktivno-nelineynykh elementakh sterzhnevykh sistem pri vnezapnykh strukturnykh izmeneniyakh [Dynamic Impact Calculation in Constructive Non-linear Elements of Bar Systems in Case of Sudden Structural Changes]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 2008, no. 6, pp. 23—26.
  12. Gordon V.A., Kravtsova E.A. Pereraspredelenie napryazheniy v nagruzhennoy sostavnoy balke pri degradatsii svyazey sdviga [Stress Redistribution in a Loaded Composite Beam in Case of Shift Connections Degradation]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 2010, no. 4, pp. 2—6.
  13. Gordon V., Anokhin P., Stepanov Y. Transitional Processes in the Constructions with the Sudden Structural Reconstructions. Proceedings of the 15th International Congress on Sound and Vibration. Daejeon, Korea, 2008, pp. 1544—1556.
  14. Gordon V.A., Kravtsova E.A. Vliyanie prodol'nogo rassloeniya sostavnogo sterzhnya na chastoty sobstvennykh izgibnykh kolebaniy [The Infl uence of Longitudinal Lamination of a Compound Bar on Natural Flexural Vibrations]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 19—24.

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Comparative analysis of the construction solution variants for flat arch coverings of buildings

  • Ibragimov Aleksandr Mayorovich - Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (IvGPU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, advisor, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, head, Department of Architecture and Graphics, Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (IvGPU), 20, 8 Marta st., Ivanovo, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kukushkin Igor’ Sergeevich - Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (IvGPU) postgraduate student, assistant, Department of Building Structures, Ivanovo State Polytechnical University (IvGPU), 20, 8 Marta st., Ivanovo, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 59-66

Arch structures of long span buildings’ coverings are more beneficial in respect to material expenses, than beam and frame systems. Constructive schemes of roof frameworks of arch coverings are diverse, which means their operation under loading differs much. The authors offer a number of construction solutions for flat arch coverings of long span buildings. The comparative analysis of these construction solutions is presented. The operation of radial link arch is observed. The arch consists of discontinuous top chord and radial bowstring under the single load (uniformly distributed and concentrated in nods) with different spans and rises. The problem of radial link arch optimization is solved in dependence with arising forces and rise. The optimal camber of arch was found. In further works the authors plan to analyze spans more than 36 meters and solve the problem in case of asymmetrical loadings.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.59-66

References
  1. Eremeev P.G. Spravochnik po proektirovaniyu sovremennykh metallicheskikh konstruktsiy bol'sheproletnykh pokrytiy [Reference book on Design of Contemporary Metal Structures of Long Span Coverings]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2011, 256 p.
  2. Ibragimov A.M., Kukushkin I.S. Analiz «zhivuchesti» luchevoy arki [Analysis of Radial Arch Durability]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 8, pp. 63—65.
  3. Ibragimov A.M., Kukushkin I.S. Stropil'naya konstruktsiya — luchevaya khordovaya arka [Building Structure — Radial Link Arch]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 9, pp. 49—51.
  4. Eremeev P.G. Osobennosti proektirovaniya unikal'nykh bol'sheproletnykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Design Features of Unique Long Span Buildings and Structures]. Sovremennoe promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Contemporary Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2006, no. 1, vol. 2, pp. 5—15.

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The influence of manufacturing factors on the formation of layer connections in multilayer exterior walls

  • Korol' Elena Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Production Management and Renovation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Pugach Evgeniy Mikhaylovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Construction Technologies and Management, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khar'kin Yuriy Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, assistant, Department of Production Management and Renovation, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 67-75

Multilayer exterior walls are wide-spread in modern civil construction. One type of such structures is a three-layer wall with insulation layer made of lightweight concrete and exterior layers made of structural concrete. It is necessary to provide durable monolithic connection of concrete layers in the process of manufacturing this structure in order to decrease the percentage of web reinforcement and increase thermal engineering homogeneity of multilayer exterior walls. Experimental research of three-layer samples with external layers made of claydite-concrete and internal layer made of polystyrene concrete were conducted in order to establish the strength of layer connections in the multilayer exterior wall. Different temporal parameters and concrete strength were assigned during manufacturing of the samples. The samples were tested under axial tension and shear in the layer contact zone. The nature of tensile rupture and shearing failure was checked after the tests. The relations between manufacturing parameters, strength of the concrete used in samples and layer connection strength were established as a result of experimental research. The climatic tests of three-layer exterior wall model made of claydite-concrete and polystyrene concrete were conducted in order to establish the reduction of the layers contact zone strength during the maintenance. The wall model was made of concrete samples of varying strength. The experimental model was exposed to 35 cycles of alternate freezing and thawing in climatic chamber. During freezing and thawing, the strength tests of external and internal layers contact zone by tearing the cylindrical samples were conducted. Consequently, the nature of contact zone strength reduction for the samples with different concrete strength of external and internal layers was established. As a result of the conducted research, the optimal temporal parameters of manufacturing and optimal concrete strength were established. It is recommended to use these parameters in the process of manufacturing multilayer concrete exterior walls in order to provide durability of the concrete layers monolithic connection during maintenance of the structure.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.67-75

References
  1. Bogatova S.N., Bogatov A.D., Erofeev V.T. Dolgovechnost' yacheistogo betona na osnove boya stekla [Durability of Cellular Concrete on the Basis of Broken Glass]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 52—54.
  2. Vorob'ev A.A. Ograzhdayushchie konstruktsii iz gazobetona [Enclosure Made of Aerocrete]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 2003, no. 7, pp. 25—26.
  3. Sazhnev N.P., Belanovich S.B., Bukhta D.P., Fedosov N.N., Ovcharenko V.A., Katsynel' R.B., Kuz'michev R.V. Naruzhnye ograzhdayushchie konstruktsii zdaniy iz krupnorazmernykh yacheisto-betonnykh izdeliy [External Enclosing Structures of Buildings Made of Large-Size Cellular Concrete Products]. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011, no. 3, pp. 12—18.
  4. Suleymanova L.A., Erokhina I.A., Suleymanov A.G. Resursosberegayushchie materialy v stroitel'stve [Resource-saving Materials in Construction]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel'stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2007, no. 7, pp. 113—116.
  5. Yarmakovskiy V.N., Semchenkov A.S. Konstruktsionnye legkie betony novykh modifikatsiy — v resursoenergosberegayushchikh stroitel'nykh sistemakh zdaniy [New Modifications of Lightweight Structural Concrete — in Resources and Energy Saving Construction Systems of Buildings]. Academia. Arkhitektura i stroitel'stvo [Academia. Architecture and Construction]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 31—39.
  6. Del Ñoz D?az J.J., Beteg?n Biempica C., Prendes Gero M.B., Garc?a Nieto P.J. Analysis and Optimization of the Heat-insulating Light Concrete Hollow Brick Walls Design by the Finite Element Method. Applied Thermal Engineering. 2007, vol. 27, no. 8—9, pp. 1445—1456. DOI: 10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2006.10.010.
  7. Sales A., Almeida F.D.C.R., De Souza F.R., Dos Santos W.N., Zimer A.M. Lightweight Composite Concrete Produced with Water Treatment Sludge and Sawdust: Thermal Properties and Potential Application. Construction and Building Materials. 2010, vol. 24, no 12, pp. 2446—2453. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.06.012.
  8. Bazhenov Yu.M., Korol' E.A., Erofeev V.T., Mitina E.A. Ograzhdayushchie konstruktsii s ispol'zovaniem betonov nizkoy teploprovodnosti. Osnovy teorii, metody rascheta i tekhnologicheskoe proektirovanie [Exterior Walls Using Low Thermal Conductivity Concrete. Fundamentals of the Theory, Calculation Procedure and Technological Design]. Moscow, 2008, 320 p.
  9. Dobshits L.M., Fedorov V.S. Povyshenie prochnosti i dolgovechnosti stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [Increasing the Strength and Durability of Building Structures]. Izvestiya Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Stroitel'stvo i transport [News of Orlov State Technical University. Construction and Transport]. 2007, no. 2/14, pp. 196—198.
  10. Kolchunov V.I., Akimochkina I.V. Metodika eksperimental'nykh issledovaniy prochnosti i deformativnosti kontaktnoy zony dvukh betonov s razlichnymi fiziko-mekhanicheskimi svoystvami [Experimental Research Procedure of Strength and Deformability of a Contact Zone of Two Concretes with Different Physical and Mechanical Properties]. Izvestiya Orlovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta. Stroitel'stvo i transport [News of Orlov State Technical University. Construction and Transport]. 2005, no. 3—4, pp. 46—48.
  11. Fedorov V.S., Bashirov Kh.Z., Kolchunov Vl.I., Chernov K.M. Prochnost' zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy po naklonnym treshchinam tret'ego tipa [Shear Strength of Reinforced Concrete Structures Considering the Third Type Shear Cracking]. Vestnik grazhdanskikh ingenerov [Proceedings of Civil Engineers]. 2012, no. 5 (34), pp. 50—54.
  12. Korol' E.A., Pugach E.M., Nikolaev A.E. Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya stsepleniya betonov razlichnoy prochnosti v mnogosloynykh zhelezobetonnykh elementakh [Experimental Research of the Concrete Connections of Different Strength in Multilayer Reinforced Concrete Elements]. Tekhnologii betonov [Concrete Technologies]. 2006, no. 4, pp. 54—55.
  13. Korol' E.A., Khar'kin Yu.A., Bykov E.N. Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya vliyaniya klimaticheskikh vozdeystviy na monolitnuyu svyaz' betonnykh sloev razlichnoy prochnosti v mnogosloynykh konstruktsiyakh [Experimental Research of the CLimatic Infl uences on the Solid Joint of Concrete Layers with Different Strength in Sandwich Structures]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 164—169.
  14. Pugach E.M., Korol' O.A. Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya raboty trekhsloynykh konstruktsiy so srednim sloem iz betona nizkoy teploprovodnosti v nestatsionarnom teplovlazhnostnom rezhime [Experimental Research of a Three-layer Structure with Middle Layer Made of Concrete with Low Thermal Conductivity in Nonstationary Heat and Humidity Mode]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 3, vol. 2, pp. 154—158.
  15. Khar'kin Yu.A. O vliyanii fiziko-mekhanicheskikh kharakteristik betonov na prochnost' stsepleniya sloev v mnogosloynykh konstruktsiyakh pri klimaticheskikh vozdeystviyakh [On the Influence of Physical and Mechanical Characteristics of Concrete on the Bond Strength of Layers in the Sandwich Structures at Climate Exposures]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 170—173.

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The influence of concrete joints on the structural behavior

  • Koyankin Aleksandr Aleksandrovich - Siberian Federal University (SibFU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Structures and Control Systems, Siberian Federal University (SibFU), 79 Svobodny Avenue, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Beletskaya Valeriya Igorevna - Siberian Federal University (SFU) Master Degree student, Department of Engineering Structures and Controlled Systems, Siberian Federal University (SFU), 79 Svobodnyy Prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Guzhevskaya Anastasiya Igorevna - Siberian Federal University (SFU) Master Degree student, Department of Engineering Structures and Controlled Systems, Siberian Federal University (SFU), 79 Svobodnyy Prospekt, Krasnoyarsk, 660041, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 76-81

The buildings made of monolithic reinforced concrete currently enjoy great popularity. Along with a great number of advantages of monolithic building, which are repeatedly listed in the works of many authors, there are many unexplored issues which require detailed consideration. The technological concrete joints are among them. The joints are inevitable in the process of construction of almost any monolithic building and their quality affects the reliability of buildings and structures. Despite regular use of the concept of cold joint and clear instructions in building standards on the technology of joint production, most organizations do not follow the correct technology of concreting the elements. As a result, the strength and stiffness characteristics of the construction deteriorate, because the linkage value of new concrete with the old one is significantly lower than in monolith. In order to conduct experimental studies the reinforced concrete beams of rectangular section were produced. As a result of testing, it was determined that the presence of a concrete joint significantly reduces the stiffness and carrying capacity of the structures. It is confirmed by the fact that the received deflections of solid beams without joint are significantly lower than the deflections of beams with cold joint. It also noted that the deflections of the beams manufactured following the normative technology are lower, than the deflections of the beams, manufactured with violation of the rules. Basing on the obtained results, it was concluded, that more detailed study of the work of a construction with cold joints in concrete is required. The reason for it is in the changing for the worse of the strength and stiffness characteristics of structural element, which is made produced with a joint, while in the process of real designing, the monolith buildings are calculated as solid monolithic, without joints.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.76-81

References
  1. Sokolov M.E. Rekomendatsii po ratsional'nomu primeneniyu konstruktsiy iz monolitnogo betona dlya zhilykh i obshchestvennykh zdaniy [Recommendations for Rational Use of the Structures Made of Monolithic Concrete for Residential and Public Buildings]. Moscow, TsNIIEPzh Publ., 1983.
  2. Sigalov E.E., Protasov V.A. K opredeleniyu osrednennoy zhestkosti zhelezobetonnykh vnetsentrenno szhatykh stoek s uchetom treshchin v rastyanutykh zonakh [On the Rigidity Determination of Reinforced Concrete Off-centre Compressed Columns]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1971, no. 2, pp. 34—36.
  3. Popova M.V. Nesushchaya sposobnost' i deformativnost' monolitnykh plit perekrytiy s uchetom obrazovaniya tekhnologicheskikh treshchin [Bearing Capacity and Deformability of Monolithic Floor Slabs with Account for Technological Cracks Formation]. Moscow, 2002, 186 p.
  4. Spaethe G. Die Siclierhcit tragender Baukonstruktionen. 1992, Springer Aufl age, 306 p.
  5. Eisenberger M., Bielak J. Finite Beams on Infi nite Two-parameter Elastic Foundations. Computers & Structures. 1992, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 661—664. DOI: 10.1016/0045-7949(92)90133-K.
  6. Sokolov M.E. Issledovanie treshchinoobrazovaniya v monolitnykh zdaniyakh [Crack Formation Study in Monolithic Buildings]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo [Housing Construction]. 1978, no. 8, pp. 11—16.
  7. Gvozdev A.A. Treshchinostoykost' i deformativnost' obychnykh i predvaritel'no napryazhennykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [Crack Resistance and Deformability of Usual and Prestressed Concrete Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1965.
  8. Gushcha Yu.P. Issledovanie shiriny raskrytiya normal'nykh treshchin [Width Study of Normal Cracks]. Prochnost' i zhestkost' zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [Durability and Rigidity of Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1971.
  9. Karpenko N.I. K postroeniyu obshchikh kriteriev deformirovaniya i razrusheniya zhelezobetonnykh elementov [On the Question of Developing General Criteria of Deformation and Destruction of Reinforced Concrete Elements]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 2002, no. 6, pp. 20—25.
  10. Razaqpur A., Shah K. Exact Analysis of Beams on Two-parameter Elastic Foundations. International Journal of Solids and Structures. 1991, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 435—454. DOI: 10.1016/0020-7683(91)90133-Z.
  11. Pishchulev A.A. Sovershenstvovanie rascheta prochnosti normal'nykh secheniy izgibaemykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy s povrezhdennoy szhatoy zonoy betona [Improvement of Strength Calculation of the Normal Sections of Bending Reinforced Concrete Structures with the Damaged Compressed Concrete Area]. Samara, 2010, 192 p.
  12. Korenev B.G. Voprosy rascheta balok i plit na uprugom osnovanii [Questions of the Calculation of Beams and Slabs on Elastic Foundation]. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1954, 231 p.

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The features of riveted connections of metal elements

  • Mysak Vladimir Vasil’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior lecturer, Department of Metal Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Tusnina Olga Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Metal Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Danilov Aleksandr Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Metal Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Tusnin Aleksandr Romanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Metal Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 82-91

The steel thin-walled structures are widespread in civil and industrial engineering nowadays. Self-drilling screws or rivets are used to interconnect thin-walled elements. Blind rivets and nuts as connectors are considered in the frames of this paper. Rivets have some benefits over self-drilling screws. They are: we can obtain more dense connection when using rivets. So we can increase bearing capacity of connection; a lower cost of riveted connection; a large variety of installation tools for riveted connection: manual, pneumatic, battery; side; an easy installation: access to the connected element is required only from one. These benefits provide increasingly growling popularity to rivets. In the paper 4 types of rivets are considered: combined (aluminum/steel) blind rivets, zinc-coated steel blind rivets, stainless steel blind rivets and blind nuts. The features of each type of rivets are described in the paper. The influence on the behaviour of connections is revealed. The results of experimental research performed by the authors are presented in the paper. A bearing capacity shear of riveted connections is studied in the experiment. There are 3 types of riveted connections subjected to experiment: connection made by blind combined rivets; connection made by zinc-coated steel blind rivets; connection made by blind nuts. A connection between elements with significantly different thicknesses is modeled in the experiment. In reality this situation takes place, for example, in the roofing of buildings, where trapezoidal sheet can be fastened to purlin by rivets. As a result of the experiment the authors found out that the local deformations occuring under rivet head in the thick element significantly affect the behaviour and bearing capacity of the connection. That’s why the results of connection's bearing capacity obtained in tests were lower than the bearing capacity of rivet declared by manufacturers.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.82-91

References
  1. Vatin N.I., Sinel'nikov A.S. Bolsheproletnye nadzemnye peshekhodnye perekhody iz legkogo kholodnognutogo stal'nogo [Long Span Footway Bridges: Cold-Formed Steel Cross-Section]. Stroitelstvo unikalnykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Construction of Unique Buildings and Structures]. 2012, no.1, pp. 47—53.
  2. Mezentseva E.A., Lushnikov S.D. Bystrovozvodimye zdaniya iz legkikh stal'nykh konstruktsiy [Prefabricated Buildings of Light Steel Structures]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 62—64.
  3. Kurazhova V.G., Nazmeeva T.V. Vidy uzlovykh soedineniy v legkikh stal'nykh tonkostennykh konstruktsiyakh [Types of Node Connections of Cold-formed Steel Structures]: Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal [Magazine of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no.3, pp. 47—53.
  4. Toma A., Sedlacek G., Weinand K. Connections in Cold-formed Steel. Thin-walled Structures. 1993, vol. 16, pp. 219—237.
  5. Ayrumyan E.L., Kamynin S.V., Ganichev S.V. Vytyazhnyye zaklepki ili samonarezayushchiye vinty? [Rivets or Self-tapping Screws]. Montazhnyye i spetsialnyye raboty v stroitelstve [Erecting and Special Works in Construction]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 2—9.
  6. Katranov I.G., Kunin Yu.S. Vytyazhnye zaklepki v uzlakh soedineniy legkikh stal'nykh tonkostennykh konstruktsiy. Assortiment i oblast' primeneniya [Rivets in the Junctions of Light Steel Thin-walled Structures. Range and Scope]. Promyshlennoye i grazhdanskoye stroitelstvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 41—43.
  7. Kunin Yu.S., Katranov I.G. Optimizatsiya primeneniya vytyazhnykh zaklepok i samosverlyashchikh vintov v soyedineniyakh LSTK [Optimizing the Use of Rivets and Self-drilling Self-tapping Screws in the Compounds of LSTC.]. Stroitelnyye materialy, oborudovaniye, tekhnologii XXI veka [Construction Materials, Equipment, Technologies of 21st Century]. 2010, no. 7, pp. 35—37.
  8. Orlov I.V. Zaklepki: tipichnye oshibki i kontrol' kachestva [Rivets: Typical Errors and Quality Control]. Tekhnologii stroitelstva [Construction Technologies]. 2005, no. 7(41), p. 5.
  9. Moss S., Mahendran M. Structural Behaviour of Self-Piercing Riveted Connections in Steel Framed Housing. Sixteenth International Specialty Conference on Cold-Formed Steel Structures. Orlando, Florida USA, October 17-18, 2002, pp. 748—762.
  10. Holmstrom P. H., Sonstabo J.K. Behaviour and Modelling of Self-piercing Screw and Self-piercing Rivet Connections. Master thesis. Norwegian University of Science and Technology, 2013, 158 p.

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On the influence of plate properties of thin-walled beams, modeled by the system of related plates, on the natural frequencies and mode shapes

  • Seregin Sergey Valer'evich - Komsomolsk on Amur State Technical University (KnAGTU) postgraduate student, Department of Construction and Architecture, Komsomolsk on Amur State Technical University (KnAGTU), 27 Lenina st, Komsomolsk on Amur, 681013, Russian Federation; (4217) 24-11-41; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 92-98

Thin-walled rods are widely used in construction and other industries. In the design of bridges, crane beams, gas-producing constructions there are cases when flange width is greater than the height profile of its wall. The currently used V.Z. Vlasov’s beam approximation in the process of determining the dynamic characteristics, is based on a set of assumptions, which do not allow to take into account the plate properties of thin-walled rods. In this paper the torsional vibrations of thin-walled beams modeled by a system of related plates with different geometrical characteristics are studied using finite element method. Also the case of an asymmetrical I-beam is studied. It was revealed that the transition from the uniaxial system to spatial structure with appropriate geometric parameters of the rod significantly thickens the frequency spectrum and can lead to more complex (mixed) modes of vibration. The author identified the cases when neglect of inertial forces in the wall and flanges and the assumption of non-deformability in the plane of the profile cross-section can lead to errors in determining the frequencies and modes of torsional vibrations. The application limits of the Vlasov’s theory are investigated and practical recommendations are given.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.92-98

References
  1. Vlasov V.Z. Tonkostennye uprugie sterzhni [Thin-walled Elastic Rods]. Moscow, Fizmatgiz Publ., 1959, 568 p.
  2. Timoshenko S.P. Teoriya kolebaniy v inzhenernom dele [Theory of Oscillations in Engineering]. Leningrad-Moscow, Gosudarstvennoe tekhniko-teoreticheskoe izdatel'stvo Publ., 1932, 345 p.
  3. Korbut B.A., Lazareva G.V. (Kucha G.V.) O dinamicheskoy teorii tonkostennykh krivolineynykh sterzhney [On the Dynamical Theory of Thin-walled Curved Bars]. Prikladnaya mekhanika [Applied Mechanics]. 1982, vol. XXIII, no. 5, pp. 98—104.
  4. Beylin E.A., Lazareva G.V. (Kucha G.V.) Opredelenie chastot svobodnyh izgibnokrutil'nykh kolebaniy tonkostennykh krivolineynykh sterzhney s uchetom deformatsii vrashcheniya secheniy [Determination of the Frequencies of Free Flexural-torsional Vibrations of Thin-walled Curved Bars Taking into Account the Deformation of Sections Rotation]. Leningrad, Leningradskiy inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy institut Publ.,1985, 13 p.
  5. Taranukha N.A. Matematicheskoe i eksperimental'noe modelirovanie kolebaniy sterzhnevykh sudovykh konstruktsiy s uchetom soprotivleniya vneshney sredy razlichnoy plotnosti [Mathematical and Experimental Modeling of Ship Bar Systems Oscillations with Account for the Resistance of the Media of Different Densities]. Uchennye zapiski KnAGTU [Scientific Notes of Komsomolsk on Amur State Technical University]. Komsomolsk on Amur, KnAGTU Publ., 2010, vol. 1, no. 4, pp. 81—91.
  6. Taranuha N.A., Zherebko K.V., Petrova A.N., Petrov M.R. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie bezmomentnoy sterzhnevoy sistemy pri bol'shikh peremeshcheniyakh [Mathematical Modeling of a Membrane Core System in Case of Substantial Displacements]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2003, no. 3, pp.12—18.
  7. Gavrilov A.A., Kudina L.I., Kucha G.V., Morozov N.A. Vliyanie geometricheskikh kharakteristik secheniy na znacheniya chastot svobodnykh izgibnykh kolebaniy tonkostennykh sterzhney [The Infl uence of the Cross Sections Geometric Characteristics on the Frequencies of Free Flexural Vibrations of Thin-walled Beams]. Vestnik OGU [Proceedings of Orenburg State University]. 2011, no. 5, pp. 146—150.
  8. Arpaci A., Bozdag S. E., Sunbuloglu E. Triply Coupled Vibrations of Thin-walled Open Cross-section Beams Including Rotary Inertia Effects. Journal of Sound and Vibration. 2003, vol. 260, no. 5, pp. 889—900. DOI: 10.1016/S0022-460X(02)00935-5.
  9. Li J., Shen R., Hua H., Jin X. Coupled Bending and Torsional Vibration of Axially Loaded Thin-walled Timoshenko Beams. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. 2004, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 299—320. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2004.02.009.
  10. Prokic A. On Fivefold Coupled Vibrations of Timoshenko Thin-walled Beams. Engineering Structures. 2006, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 54—62. DOI: 10.1016/j.engstruct.2005.07.002.
  11. Senjanovic I., Catipovic I., Tomasevic S. Coupled Flexural and Torsional Vibrations of Ship-like Girders. Thin-Walled Structures. 2007, vol. 45, no. 12, pp. 1002–1021. DOI: 10.1016/j.tws.2007.07.013.
  12. Kim J.S., Wang K.W. Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams with End Effects via the Formal Asymptotic Method. Journal of Vibration and Acoustics. 2010, vol. 132 (4), 041003, pp. 1—8. DOI: 10.1115/1.4000972.
  13. Senjanovi? I., Toma?evi? S., Vladimir N., Tomi? M., Malenica ?. Application of an Advanced Beam Theory to Ship Hydroelastic Analysis. Proceedings of International Workshop on Advanced Ship Design for Pollution Prevention. Taylor & Francis, London, 2010, pp. 31—42. DOI: 10.1201/b10565-6.
  14. Senjanovi? I., Toma?evi? S., Vladimir N. An Advanced Theory of Thin-walled Girders with Application to Ship Vibrations. Marine Structures. 2009, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 387—437. DOI: 10.1016/j.marstruc.2009.03.004.
  15. Senjanovi? I., Grubi?i? R. Coupled Horizontal and Torsional Vibration of a Ship Hull with Large Hatch Openings. Computers & Structures. 1991, vol. 41, no. 2, pp. 213—226. DOI: 10.1016/0045-7949(91)90425-L.
  16. Pavazza R. Torsion of Thin-walled Beams of Open Cross-sections with Infl uence of Shear. International Journal of Mechanical Sciences. 2005, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 1099—1122. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2005.02.007.

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The results of masonry and reinforced masonry research

  • Sokolov Boris Sergeevich - Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (KazGASU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, corresponding member of the Russian academy of architecture and building sciences, head, Department of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (KazGASU), 1 Zelyonaya St., Kazan, 420043, Republic of Tatarstan; (843) 238-25-93; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Antakov Aleksey Borisovich - Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (KazGASU) Candidate of Technical Science, Associate Professor, Department of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering (KazGASU), 1 Zelyonaya St., Kazan, 420043, Republic of Tatarstan; (843)273-03-22; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 99-106

In the article the survey results of durability and crack resistance investigation of masonry are presented. The aim of the investigations is improving calculation methods of masonry and reinforced masonry. The relevancy of the problem is determined by the necessity of new efficient materials implementation. In accordance with scientific search methodology complex investigations were carried out, which includes gathering, analyzing and revising the existing data on the topic together with determining essential factors and their value rate. Within the framework of the investigations the features of masonry have been studied. The developed calculation method on the basis of the theory of resistance of anisotropic materials at the compression, which reflects the stress-strain state features and nature of destruction, allows to carry out an assessment of durability and crack resistance of the compressed members and structures made of masonry. The research results can be used at revising or updating the existing normative documents.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.99-106

References
  1. Sokolov B.S. Teoriya silovogo soprotivleniya anizotropnykh materialov szhatiyu i ee prakticheskoe primenenie: monografi ya [Theory of Strength Resistance to Compression of Anisotropic Materials and its Practical Application. Monograph]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2011, 160 p.
  2. Sokolov B.S., Antakov A.B. Issledovaniya szhatykh elementov kamennykh i armokamennykh konstruktsiy [Study of Compressed Elements of Masonry and Reinforced Masonry Structures]. Moscov, ASV Publ., 2010, 104 p.
  3. Onishchik L.I. Kamennye konstruktsii [Masonry Structures]. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoye Izdatel'stvo stroitel'noy literatury Publ., 1939, 208 p.
  4. SP 15.13330.2012. Kamennye i armokamennye konstruktsii. Normy proektirovaniya [Regularities 15.13330.2012. Masonry and Reinforced Masonry Structures. Design Norms]. Minregion Rossii Publ.. Moscow, 2012, 78 p.
  5. Sokolov B.S., Antakov A.B., Fabrichnaya K.A. Kompleksnye issledovaniya prochnosti pustotelo-porizovannykh keramicheskikh kamney i kladok pri szhatii [Complex Investigations of Hollow Porous Ceramic Masonry under Compression]. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov [Proceedings of Civil Engineers]. 2012, no. 5(34), pp. 65—71.
  6. Eurocode 6. Design of Masonry Struktures. Part. 1-1: General Rules for Buildings. Rules for Reinforced and Unreinforced Masonry. Brussels, 1994, 200 p.
  7. Zuccyini A., Louren?o P.B. Mechanics of Masonry in Compression. Result from a Homogenization Approach. Computers and Structures. 2007, vol. 85, no, 3—4, pp. 193—204. DOI: 10.1016/j.compstruc.2006.08.054.
  8. Dykhovichnyy Yu.A., Kolchunov V.I., editors. Zhilye i obshchestvennye zdaniya: kratkiy spravochnik inzhenera-konstruktora [Residential and Public Buildings: Quick Reference of Design Engineer]. Moscow, 2011, ASV Publ., vol. 1, 360 p.

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Methods of calculating the bearing capacity of eccentrically compressed concrete elements and suggestions for its improvement

  • Starishko Ivan Nikolaevich - Vologda State University (VoGTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Motor Roads, Vologda State University (VoGTU), 15 Lenina str., Vologda, 160000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 107-116

The proposed calculation method is specific in terms of determining the carrying capacity of eccentrically compressed concrete elements, in contrast to the calculation by error method, as in the existing regulations, where in the result of the calculation is not known what is the limit load the eccentric compression element can withstand. The proposed calculation method, the publication of which is expected in the next issue of the "Vestnik MGSU" the above mentioned shortcomings of the existing calculation methods, as well as the shortcomings listed in this article are eliminated, which results in the higher convergence of theoretical and experimental results of eccentrically compressed concrete elements strength and hence a high reliability of their operation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.107-116

References
  1. SNiP 2.03.01—84*. Betonnye i zhelezobetonnye konstruktsii [Construction Norms and Regulations 2.03.01—84*. Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Moscow, 2002, 76 p.
  2. SP 52-101—2003. Betonnye i zhelezobetonnye konstruktsii bez predvaritel'nogo napryazheniya armatury [Regulations 52-101—2003. Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures without Prestress of the Reinforcement]. Moscow, 2004, 53 p.
  3. Posobie po proektirovaniyu betonnykh i zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy iz tyazhelykh i legkikh betonov bez predvaritel'nogo napryazheniya armatury (k SNiP 2.03.01—84) [Guidebook on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures Design Made of Heavy and Light Concretes without Prestress of the Reinforcement (to Construction Norms and Regulations 2.03.01—84)]. TsNIIPromzdaniy, NIIZhB Publ. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 192 p.
  4. Posobie po proektirovaniyu betonnykh i zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy iz tyazhelogo betona bez predvaritel'nogo napryazheniya armatury (k SP 52-101—2003) [Guidebook on Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures Design Made of Heavy Concrete without Prestress of the Reinforcement (to Regulations 52-101—2003]. Moscow, TsNIIPromzdaniy Publ., 2005, 214 p.
  5. Baykov V.N., Sigalov E.E. Zhelezobetonnye konstruktsii. Obshchiy kurs [Reinforced Concrete Structures. Guidelines]. 6th edition. Moscow, BASTET Publ., 2009, 766 p.
  6. Bondarenko V.M., Bakirov R.O., Nazarenko V.G., Rimshin V.I. Zhelezobetonnye i kamennye konstruktsii [Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures]. 5th edition. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 2008, 886 p.
  7. Tal' K.E., Chistyakov E.A. Issledovanie nesushchey sposobnosti gibkikh zhelezobetonnykh kolonn, rabotayushchikh po pervomu sluchayu vnetsentrennogo szhatiya [Research of the Bearing Capacity of Bending Reinforced Concrete Columns, Working on the First Case of Eccentric Compression]. Raschet zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy: trudy NIIZhB [Reinforced Concrete Structures Calculation: Works of the Scientific and Research Institute of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1963, no. 23, pp. 127—196.
  8. Chistyakov E.A. Osnovy teorii, metody rascheta i eksperimental'nye issledovaniya nesushchey sposobnosti szhatykh zhelezobetonnykh elementov pri staticheskom nagruzhenii: dissertatsiya doktorara tekhnicheskikh nauk [Fundamentals of the Theory, Calculation Methods and Experimental Research of the Bearing Capacity of the Compressed Reinforced Concrete Elements in Case of Static Loading. Dissertation of the Doctor of Technical Sciences]. Moscow, 1988, pp. 73—155.
  9. Baykov V.N., Gorbatov S.V. Nekotorye predposylki k raschetu zhelezobetonnykh elementov pri deystvii vnetsentrennogo szhatiya i poperechnogo izgiba v ortogonal'nykh ploskostyakh [Some Prerequisites to the Reinforced Concrete Elements Calculation under the Action of Eccentric Compression and Lateral Bending in Orthogonal Planes]. Zhelezobetonnye konstruktsii promyshlennogo i grazhdanskogo stroitel'stva: sbornik trudov Moskovskogo inzhenerno-stroitel'nogo instituta im. V.V. Kuybysheva [Reinforced Concrete Structures of Industrial and Civil Engineering: Collection of the Works of Moscow Engineering and Construction Institute named after V.V. Kuybyshev]. Moscow, 1981, no. 185, pp. 95—99.
  10. Rudakov V.N. Povyshenie nadezhnosti elementov konstruktsiy pri osevom i radial'nom szhatii [Raising the Reliability of the Structure's Elements in Case of Axial Compression and Radial Compression]. Ekspluatatsiya i remont zdaniy i sooruzheniy gorodskogo khozyaystva: sbornik nauchykh trudov [Operation and Repairs of the Buildings of the Municipal Services]. Kiev, ICDO Publ., 1994, pp. 157—165.
  11. Veretennikov V.I., Bulavitskiy M.S. Utochnenie kriteriya massivnosti sterzhnevykh elementov iz tyazhelogo betona s uchetom izmeneniya ikh masshtabnogo faktora k nachalu ekspluatatsii zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Refi nement of the Solidness Criteria of the Axial Elements Made of Heavy Concrete with Account for their Size Factor Change before the Beginning of the Buildings and Structures Operation]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 27—30.
  12. Bulavytskyi M., Veretennykov V., Dolmatov A. Technological Factors, Arising under Vertical Members of the Skeleton-type In-situ Buildings Production and Infl uence of Some Onto Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Concrete. Beton — zhizneutverzhdayushchiy vybor stroitel'stva: sbornik dokladov 7-go Mezhdunarodnogo Kongressa [Concrete — Reassuring Choice of Construction: Collection of the Reports of the 7th International Congress]. Dundee, Scotland, 8-10 July 2008, p. 10.
  13. Veretennikov V.I., Bulavits'kiy M.S. Doslidzhennya neodnoridnosti betonu po ob’ºmu vertikal'nikh monolitnikh elementiv [Research of Concrete Inhomogeniety in Size of the Vertical Monolithic Elements]. Resursoekonomni materiali, konstruktsi¿, budivli ta sporudi: zbirnik naukovikh prats' [Resource Saving Materials, Constructions, Buildings and Structures: Collection of Scientific Works]. Rovno, 2008, no. 18 part 1. Nats. univ. vodnogo gospodarstva ta prirodokoristuvannya Publ., p. 142—147.
  14. Veretennykov V.I., Yugov A.M., Dolmatov A.O., Bulavytskyi M.S., Kukharev D.I., Bulavytskyi A.S. Concrete Inhomogeneity of Vertical Cast-in-Place Elements in Skeleton-Type Buildings. Proceedings of the 2008 Architectural Engineering National Conference “Building Integration Solutions”. September 24-27, 2008, Denver, Colorado, USA., AEI of the ASCE.
  15. Starishko I.N. Varianty i sluchai, predlagaemye dlya raschetov vnetsentrenno szhatykh elementov [Variants and Cases, Offered for the Calculations of the Eccentric Compressed Elements]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 14—20.
  16. Starishko I.N. Sovershenstvovanie teorii raschetov vnetsentrenno szhatykh zhelezobetonnykh elementov putem sovmestnogo resheniya uravneniy, otrazhayushchikh ikh napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyanie [Improving Theory of Eccentrically Compressed Concrete Elements Calculations by Solving the Equations that Refl ect their Stress-strain State]. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov [Proceedings of Civil Engineers]. 2012, no. 5(34), pp. 72—81.
  17. Toryanik M.S., editor. Primery rascheta zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [Examples of the Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1979, 240 p.

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Strength and durability tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing under the influence of operational loads

  • Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich - Research Institute of Oil and Oil Products Transportation (NII TNN) Deputy Director General for the Technology of Oil and Oil Products Transportation, Research Institute of Oil and Oil Products Transportation (NII TNN), 9-5, 2 Verhniy Mikhaylovskiy proezd, 115419, Moscow, Rus- sian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bondarenko Valeriy Vyacheslavovich - Limited Liability Company "Konar" ("Konar") Candidate of Technical Sciences, director, Limited Liability Company "Konar" ("Konar"), 5 Hlebozavodskaya st, 454038, Chely- abinsk, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korgin Andrey Valentinovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Supervisor, Scientific and Educational Center of Constructions Investigations and Examinations, Department of Test of Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-54-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shonin Kirill Sergeevich - Joint stock company “Konar” (JSC “Konar”) head, Designing Department of the project “Metal Structures”, Joint stock company “Konar” (JSC “Konar”), 4b Prospect Lenina, 454085, Chelyabinsk; +7 (351) 222-33-00; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Mikheev Yuriy Borisovich - Research Institute for Oil and Oil Products Transportation (NII TNN) chief specialist, Department of Mechanical and Processing Equipment for the Pipeline Transportation Facilities, Research Institute for Oil and Oil Products Transportation (NII TNN), 47A Sevastopolskiy prospect, 117186, Moscow, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 950-82-95 (25-41); This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 117-125

The present article deals with integrated research works and tests of pipeline supports for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” which is laid in the eternally frozen grounds. In order to ensure the above-ground routing method for the oil pipeline “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe” and in view of the lack of construction experience in case of above-ground routing of oil pipelines, the leading research institute of JSC “Transneft” - LLC “NII TNN” over the period of August, 2011 - September, 2012 performed a research and development work on the subject “Development and production of pipeline supports and pile foundation test specimens for the areas of above-ground routing of the pipeline system “Zapolyarye - Pur-pe”. In the course of the works, the test specimens of fixed support, linear-sliding and free-sliding pipeline supports DN1000 and DN800 were produced and examined. For ensuring the stable structural reliability of the supports constructions and operational integrity of the pipelines the complex research works and tests were performed: 1. Cyclic tests of structural elements of the fixed support on the test bed of JSC “Diascan” by means of internal pressure and bending moment with the application of specially prepared equipment for defining the pipeline supports strength and durability. 2. Tests of the fixed support under the influence of limit operating loads and by means of internal pressure for confirming the support’s integrity. On the test bed there were simulated all the maximum loads on the support (vertical, longitudinal, side loadings, bending moment including subsidence of the neighboring sliding support) and, simultaneously, internal pressure of the carried medium. 3. Cyclic tests of endurance and stability of the displacements of sliding supports under the influence of limit operating loads for confirming their operation capacity. Relocation of the pipeline on the sliding supports from temperature expansion in case of preheated oil charge into a “cold” pipeline was simulated. 4. Cyclic tests of durability of frictional couples under the influence of operational and maximum loads. On the test bed there were examined various materials for the sliding surface of the supports, ensuring the norm friction coefficient.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.117-125

References
  1. Opory dlya truboprovodov na uchastkakh nadzemnoy prokladki truboprovodnoy sistemy «Zapolyar'e — NPS „Pur-Pe“»: Spetsial'nye tekhnicheskie trebovaniya [Supports for the Pipelines on the Areas of Above-ground Routing of the Pipeline System “Zapolyarye — Purpe”: Special Technical Requirements]. 2012, 92 p.
  2. Petrov I.P., Spiridonov V.V. Nadzemnaya prokladka truboprovodov [Above-ground Pipelining]. Moscow, Nedra Publ., 1973, 472 p.
  3. Kazakevich M.I., Lyubin A.E. Proektirovanie metallicheskikh konstruktsiy nadzemnykh promyshlennykh truboprovodov [Metal Structures Design for Above-ground Industrial Pipelines]. 2nd Edition. Kiev, Budivel'nik Publ., 1989, 160 p.
  4. McFadden T.T., Lawrense Bennett F. Construction in Cold Regions: A Guide for Planners, Engineers, Contractors, and Managers. Wiley Series of Practical Construction Guides. Wiley-Interscience, 1 edition, 1991, 640 p.
  5. Palmer A. Arctic Pipelines and the Future. Journal of Pipeline Engineering. 2011, vol. 10, no. 2.
  6. Coates P. Trans-Alaskan Pipeline Controversy: Technology, Conservation, and the Frontier. University of Alaska Press, 1 edition, 1993, 447 p.
  7. Cole D. Amazing Pipeline Stories: How Building the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Transformed Life in America's Last Frontier. Paperback, Epicenter Press, 1997, 224 p.
  8. Tiratsoo J. Trans Alaska Pipeline System. Pipelines International, ISSUE 004, 2010.
  9. Amerikanskaya tekhnika i promyshlennost': sbornik reklamnykh materialov [American Technologies and Industry: Collection of Advertizing Materials]. Moscow, V/O «Vneshtorgreklama» Publ, Chilton Ko, 1977, no. III, 407 p.
  10. Tipovye konstruktsii i detali zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Standard Constructions and Components of Buildings and Structures]. Seriya 4.903-10. Izdeliya i detali truboprovodov dlya teplovykh setey [Series 4.903-10. Items and Components of Pipelines for Heating Networks]. Vyp. 4. Opory truboprovodov nepodvizhnye [no.4. Fixed Pipeline Supports]. Leningrad, Leningradskiy filial proektno-tekhnologicheskogo instituta «Energomontazhproekt» Publ., 1972, 111 p.
  11. Unifi tsirovannaya dokumentatsiya na konstruktsii i uzly zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Unified Documentation for the Constructions and Node Points of Buildings and Structures]. Seriya 5.903-13. Izdeliya i detali truboprovodov dlya teplovykh setey [Series 5.903-13. Items and Components of Pipelines for Heating Networks]. Vyp. 8-95. Opory truboprovodov podvizhnye [no. 8-95. Pipeline Supports]. Rabochie chertezhi Publ., 2013, 199 p.
  12. Otchet po rezul'tatam poseshcheniya ob"ektov NK «Rosneft'» spetsialistami OAO «AK «Transneft'» [Report on the Visiting the Objects of the Oil Company “Rosneft” by the Specialists of JSCo «AK «Transneft'»]. 2011, p. 28.
  13. SP 16.13330.2011. Stal'nye konstruktsii [Rules and Regularities 16.13330.2011. Steel Structures]. 177 p.
  14. GOST 11629—75. Plastmassy. Metody opredeleniya koeffi tsienta treniya [All Union State Standard 11629—75. Methods of Friction Coefficient Determination]. 3 p.
  15. Surikov V.I., Varshitskiy V.M., Bondarenko V.V., Korgin A.V., Bogach A.A. Primenenie metoda konechnykh elementov pri raschete na prochnost' opor truboprovodov dlya uchastkov nadzemnoy prokladki nefteprovoda «Zapolyar'e — NPS “Pur-Pe”» [Using Finite Element Method in the Process of Strength Calculation for the Pipeline Supports in Above-Ground Area of "Zapolyar'e — NPS "Pur-Pe" Oil Pipeline]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2014, no. 1, pp. 66—74.

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Developing arithmetic deformation model of complex reiforced concrete plate with polymer concrete layer under the impact of corrosive medium

  • Treshchev Aleksandr Anatol'evich - Tula State University (TulGU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Construction, Building Materials and Structures, Tula State University (TulGU), 92 prospect Lenina, Tula, 300012, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Telichko Viktor Grigor'evich - Tula State University (TulGU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Construction, Building Materials and Structures, Tula State University (TulGU), 92 prospect Lenina, Tula, 300012, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bashkatov Aleksandr Valer'evich - Tula State University (TulGU) postgraduate student, Department of Construction, Building Materials and Structures, Tula State University (TulGU), 92 prospect Lenina, Tula, 300012, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 126-132

The arithmetic model of reinforced concrete slab distortion with a polymer-concrete layer exposed to aggressive influences is introduced. The relevance of this object choice as a matter of actual practice. The least contradictory model for specification of the strain-stress state of reinforced concrete constructions is sampled. The most efficient way of solving such tasks is the finite elements method, which lacks the drawbacks of the finite differences method. In this article, the arithmetic model of hybrid finite element qualification for the armored reinforced concrete slabs design is considered. The problem of reinforced concrete slab with a polymer-concrete layer bending is dealt with in the presence of dynamic deformation and simple loading, which gives the opportunity to introduce concrete as a nonlinear material with its elastic-plastic properties, which stay within the strain potential limits. The deformation of creep is not taken into account. The incremental equations connecting stress and deformation increments are provided.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.126-132

References
  1. Treshchev A.A. Teoriya deformirovaniya i prochnosti materialov, chuvstvitel'nykh k vidu napryazhennogo sostoyaniya. Opredelyayushchie sootnosheniya [The Theory of Deformation and Strength of Materials, Sensitive to a Form of Strained Stress. Defi ning Relations]. Tula, TulGU Publ., 2008, 264 p.
  2. Cook R.D. Two Hybrid Elements for Analysis of Thick Thin and Sandwich Plates. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. 1972, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 277—288. DOI: 10.1002/nme.1620050213.
  3. Telichko V.G., Treshchev A.A. Gibridnyy konechnyy element dlya rascheta prostranstvennykh konstruktsiy s uslozhnennymi svoystvami [Hybrid Finite Element for Calculating Spatial Structures with Complicated Properties]. Aktual'nye problemy sovremennogo stroitel'stva: sbornik nauchnykh trudov 32 Vserossiyskoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii [Proceedings of 32nd Russian Scientific and Technical Conference "Current Problems of the Modern Construction"]. Penza, PGASA Publ., 2003, Part 2 Stroitel'nye konstruktsii [Building Structures], pp. 138—143.
  4. Artemov A.N., Treshchev A.A. Poperechnyy izgib zhelezobetonnykh plit s uchetom treshchin [Transverse Bending of Concrete Slabs with Account for Cracks]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 1994, no. 9—10, pp. 7—12.
  5. Tong P., Pian T.H.H. A Variation Principle and the Convergence of a Finite-element Method Based on Assumed Stress Distribution. International Journal of Solids and Structures. 1969, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 463—472. DOI: 10.1016/0020-7683(69)90036-5.
  6. Geniev G.A., Kissyuk V.N., Tyupin G.A. Teoriya plastichnosti betona i zhelezobetona [Plasticity Theory of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1974, 316 p.
  7. Telichko V.G., Treshchev A.A. Matematicheskaya model' rascheta prostranstvennykh konstruktsiy s uslozhnennymi svoystvami [A Mathematical Model for Calculating Spatial Structures with Complicated Properties]. Matematicheskoe modelirovanie i kraevye zadachi: trudy Vserossiyskoy nauchnnoy konferentsii [Proceedings of the All-Russian Scientific Conference "Mathematical Modeling and Boundary Value Problems"]. Samara, SamGTU Publ., 2004, Part 1, pp. 223—226.
  8. Petrov V.V. Postroenie inkremental'nykh sootnosheniy dlya fi zicheski nelineynogo materiala s razvivayushcheysya neodnorodnost'yu svoystv [Building Incremental Relations for Physically Non-linear Material with Developing Heterogeneity of Properties]. Problemy prochnosti elementov konstruktsiy pod deystviem nagruzok i rabochikh sred [Problems of Structures' Elements Strength under Loading and Working Environments]. Saratov, Saratov University, 2005, pp. 6—10.

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ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND EXAMINATION OF BUILDINGS. SPECIAL-PURPOSE CONSTRUCTION

Dynamic monitoring of engineering structures as a key element of its technical security

  • Patrikeev Aleksandr Vladimirovich - Centre for Diagnostics and Monitoring (TsDM) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director, Monitoring Department, Centre for Diagnostics and Monitoring (TsDM), 95A Varshavskoye shosse, Moscow, 117556, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 133-140

On an example of a complex engineering structure with aerodynamically unfavorable constructive form, equipped with mechanisms dampers, the results of long-term observations of the oscillation frequency under the influence of wind loads were reviewed. The experimental dependence of the first tone oscillation frequency on time for this structure is shown. The hypothesis on the causes of frequency oscillations change in engineering structures in time is proposed. The experimental data confirms this hypothesis. The results of a comparison of the experimental data for long-term observations with the oscillation frequency in accordance with the safety criteria of GOST 31937-2011 “Buildings and Constructions. Rules of inspection and monitoring of the technical condition” are shown. It has been shown that the results of comparison indicate technical safety of the whole object. It is offered to use dynamic monitoring systems for technically complex heavy-duty engineering structures for early detection of the transition beginning of the control object to the limited functional or emergency condition.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.133-140

References
  1. Shablinskiy G.E. Monitoring unikal'nykh vysotnykh zdaniy i sooruzheniy na dinamicheskie i seysmicheskie vozdeystviya [Monitoring of Unique High-rise Buildings and Structures for the Dynamic and Seismic Effects]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2013, 328 p.
  2. Novak Yu.V., Vinogradova O.A., Solomentsev M.E. Dinamicheskie metody ispytaniya mostovykh konstruktsiy i unikal'nykh sooruzheniy[Dynamic Test Methods of Bridge Structures and Unique Structures]. Transportnoe stroitel'stvo [Transport Construction]. 2009, no. 7, pp. 2—4.
  3. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po vibrodiagnostike avtodorozhnykh mostov [Guidelines for Highway Bridges Vibrodiagnostics]. Moscow, Rosavtodor Publ., 2001, 25 p.
  4. Kapustyan N.K. Seysmobezopasnost': obobshchenie opyta monitoringa zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Seismic Safety: Summarizing the Experience of Monitoring of Buildings and Structures]. Proektirovanie i inzhenernye izyskaniya [Design and Engineering Surveys]. 2012, no. 4 (18). Available at: http://www.acdjournal.ru/Priz%2018/3/p.html.
  5. Monitoring sostoyaniya zdaniy [Monitoring of Building Condition]. Tsentr tekhnicheskikh obsledovaniy OOO «IST». [Technical Survey Center LLC «IST»]. Novosibirsk, 2012. Available at: http://toist.ru. Date of access: 13.12.13.
  6. Patrikeev A.V., Salatov E.K., Spiridonov V.P. Dinamicheskiy monitoring zdaniy i sooruzheniy kak odin iz kriteriev obespecheniya bezopasnoy ekspluatatsii [Dynamic Monitoring of Buildings and Structures as One of the Criteria for the Safe Exploitation]. Tekhnologicheskie problemy prochnosti: Materialy 18 Mezhdunarodnogo seminara [Collected Works of the 18th International Seminar «Technological Problems of Strength»]. Podol'sk, 2011, pp. 78—81.
  7. Ostroumov B.V. Uvelichenie obshchego dempfi rovaniya vysotnykh sooruzheniy pri ustanovke na nikh dinamicheskikh gasiteley kolebaniy s zatukhaniem [Increase of the Total Damping of High-rise Buildings when Installing Dynamic Vibration Absorbers with Damping]. Montazhnye i spetsial'nye raboty v stroitel'stve [Mounting and Special Works in Construction]. 2005, no. 9, pp. 22—24.
  8. Patrikeev A.V. Povyshenie urovnya bezopasnosti inzhenernykh sooruzheniy na primere Glavnogo monumenta pamyatnika Pobedy na Poklonnoy gore v g. Moskve [Improvement of Safety of Engineering Structures Exemplifi ed by the Main Monument of the Victory Memorial on Poklonnaya Hill in the City of Moscow]. Problemy upravleniya kachestvom gorodskoy sredy: 11 nauchno-prakticheskaya konferentsiya. 27—28.09.2007 [Problems of the Urban Environment Quality Management. Collected works of the 11th Scientific and Practical Conference «Problems of Quality Management of the Urban Environment»]. Moscow, RAGS Publ., 2007, p. 82.
  9. Patrikeev A.V., Salatov E.K. Osnovy metodiki dinamicheskogo monitoringa deformacionnykh kharakteristik zdaniy i soorzhjeniy [Fundamentals of the Method of Dynamic Monitoring of Deformation Characteristics of Buildings and Structures]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 133—138.

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TECHNOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES. MECHANISMS AND EQUIPMENT

The cooling processes of metal billets

  • Miram Andrey Olegovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Heat Engineering and Heat and Gas Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-26-92; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Belov Yuriy Vital'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, assistant, Department of Heat Engineering and Heat and Gas Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-26-92; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Belov Vitaliy Mikhaylovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Heat Engineering and Heat and Gas Supply, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-26-92; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 141-148

The article describes various methods for solving problems of nonstationary heat transfer. Nonstationary heat transfer is characterized by the fact that the temperature changes not only from point to point, but also in time. The process of cooling metal blanks must be considered a transient thermal conductivity. When solving the problem of cooling metal blanks we need to find the temperature change in the section. The authors show the complexity of the tasks of nonstationary heat transfer. If we consider the process of cooling metal billets as a complex process, in which the addition of nonstationary heat transfer is presented as a process of heat transfer by radiation, great probability of errors in calculations occurs. There is the feasibility of the use of experimental researches of cooling processes for metal blanks after continuous casting, in order to determine the error in the calculated values.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.141-148

References
  1. Lykov A.V. Nekotorye problemnye voprosy teorii teplomassoperenosa [Some Problematic Issues of Heat and Mass Transfer Theory]. Problema teplo- i massoperenosa: Sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Problems of Heat and Mass Transfer: Collection of Scientific Articles]. Minsk, Nauka i tekhnika Publ., 1976, pp. 9—82.
  2. Fokin V.M., Boykov G.P., Vidin Yu.V. Osnovy energosberezheniya v voprosakh teploobmena [Basics of Energy Saving in Matters of Heat Transfer]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 2005, 192 p.
  3. Yudanov V.A., Grechukhin A.A., Tokarev A.V. Nestatsionarnyy teplovoy nasos [Nonstationary Heat Pump]. Vestnik KRSU [Proceedings of Kyrgyz-Russian Slavic University]. 2010, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 109—115.
  4. Mikheev M.A., Mikheeva I.M. Osnovy teploperedachi [Fundamentals of Heat Transfer]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1977, 343 p.
  5. Kalitaev A.N. Identifi katsiya koeffi tsientov teplootdachi nepreryvnolitogo slitka v zone vtorichnogo okhlazhdeniya mashiny nepreryvnogo lit'ya zagotovok metodami optimal'nogo upravleniya [Identifying Heat-transfer Coefficient of a Continuous Casting in a Secondary Cooling Zone of a Continuous Casting Machine Using Optimal-control Techniques]. Nauka. Tekhnologii. Innovatsii: tezisy dokladov Vserossiyskoy konferentsii: v 2 tovakh [Science. Technologies. Innovations: Theses of the All-Russian Conference: in 2 volumes]. Novosibirsk, NGTU Publ., 2004, vol. 1, pp. 91—92.
  6. Dymnich A.Kh., Troyanskiy A.A. Teploprovodnost' [Heat Transfer]. Donetsk, Nord-Pres Publ., 2004, 370 p.
  7. Il'inskiy I.V., Prokhach E.E., Pershin V.P. Nestatsionarnyy konvektivnyy teploobmen pri estestvennom ostyvanii vertikal'nykh plastin [Nonstationary Convective Heat Transfer]. Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal [Engineering and Physical Journal]. 1974, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 524.
  8. Rabinovich G.D. Nestatsionarnyy teploobmen v protivotochnom rekuperativnom apparate [Unsteady Heat Transfer in Counterfl ow Recuperative Unit]. Inzhenerno-fizicheskiy zhurnal [Engineering and Physical Journal]. 1961, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 58—62.
  9. Bukhmirov V.V., Sozinova T.E., Nosova S.V., Nikitin K.B. Issledovanie protsessa nestatsionarnoy teploprovodnosti i teplonapryazhennogo sostoyaniya tverdykh tel na imitatsionnoy matematicheskoy modeli [Investigation of Non-stationary Thermal Conductivity Process and Heat-stressed State of Solids on Mathematical Simulation Model]. Ivanovo, Ivanovskiy gosudarstvennyy energeticheskiy universitet Publ., 2003, 41 p.
  10. Petrazhitskiy G.B., Polezhaev V.I. Inzhenernyy metod rascheta nestatsionarnykh protsessov teploprovodnosti v tonkikh mnogosloynykh stenkakh [Engineering Calculation Method for Unsteady Processes of Thermal Conductivity in Thin Multi-layer Walls]. Teploenergetika [Thermal Engineering]. 1962, no. 2, pp. 73—76.
  11. Egorov V.I. Tochnye metody resheniya zadach teploprovodnosti [Accurate Methods of Thermal Conductivity Analysis]. Saint Petersburg, ITMO Publ., 2006, 46 p.
  12. Kuznetsov G.V., Sheremet M.A. Raznostnye metody resheniya zadach teploprovodnosti [Differential Methods of Solving the Problems of Heat Conductivity]. Tomsk, TPU Publ., 2008, 172 p.
  13. Gukhman A.A. Primenenie teorii podobiya k issledovaniyu protsessov teplomassoobmena [Application of the Similarity Law in the Study of Heat-mass Exchange Processes]. Moscow, Vysshaya shkola Publ., 1974, 329 p.
  14. Buslenko N.P. Modelirovanie slozhnykh sistem [Complex Systems Modeling]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1968, 355 p.
  15. Pereverzev D.A., Kostrykin V.A., Paley V.A. Modelirovanie i issledovanie protsessov ostyvaniya moshchnykh paroturbinnykh agregatov [Modeling and Study of the Cooling Processes of Powerful Steam-turbine Units]. Teploenergetika [Thermal Engineering]. 1980, no. 9, pp. 34—38.

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Low-energy thermal processing technology of foamed concrete products in landfills using solar energy

  • Dauzhanov Nabi Tokmurzaevich - Kyzylorda State University Named after Korkyt Ata (KGU im. Korkyt Ata) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Architecture and Construction Production, Kyzylorda State University Named after Korkyt Ata (KGU im. Korkyt Ata), 29A Ayteke bi St., Kyzylorda, 120014, Kazakhstan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Krylov Boris Aleksandrovich - Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (RAASN) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Academician, Department of Construction Sciences, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (RAASN), 24 Bolshaya Dmitrovka, Moscow, 107031, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 149-157

Based on the comprehensive research and industrial development there is a new method developed for accelerating the hardening of foamed products using thermal heating of products by soft modes, which allows to receive high quality material and organize energy-efficient and environmentally friendly production of foam concrete products.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.149-157

References
  1. Ukhova T.A. Energosberezhenie pri proizvodstve i primenenii izdeliy iz neavtoklavnogo porobetona [Energy Saving in the Process of Production and Application of Non-autoclaved Cellular Concrete Products]. Kriticheskie tekhnologii v stroitel'stve: trudy konferentsii [Critical Technologies in the Construction. Proceedings of the Conference]. Moscow, ÌGSU Publ., 1998, pp. 116—118.
  2. Sakharov G.P., Strel'bitskiy V.P. Porobeton i tekhniko-ekonomicheskie problemy resursosberezheniya [Porous Concrete and Technical and Economic Problems of Resource Saving]. Penobeton: sbornik nauchnykh trudov [The Foamed Concrete: Collection of Scientific Works]. Belgorod, 2003, no. 4, pp. 25—32.
  3. Pinsker V.A. Sostoyanie i problemy proizvodstva i primeneniya yacheistykh betonov [State and Problems of Production and Application of Cellular Concrete]. Yacheistye betony v sovremennom stroitel'stve: sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, 21—23 aprelya 2004 goda [Cellular Concretes in the Modern Construction: the collection of Reports of International Scientific and Technical Conference, 21-23 April, 2004]. Saint Petersburg, 2004, pp. 1—5.
  4. Kulikova L.V. Osnovy ispol'zovaniya vozobnovlyaemykh istochnikov energii [Basics of Renewable Energy Sources Application]. Moscow, 2008. Available at: http://ecoclub.nsu.ru/altenergy/common/common2_3.shtm. Date of access: 28.01.14.
  5. Krylov B.A. Solnechnaya energiya i perspektivy ee ispol'zovaniya dlya intensifikatsii tverdeniya betona [The Solar Energy and the Perspectives of its Use for the Intensification of the Concrete’s Hardening]. Ispol'zovanie solnechnoy energii v tekhnologii betona: Materialy soveshchaniya po probleme: sbornik [Materials of the Meeting on the Problem: The Use of Solar Energy in the Technology of Concrete. Collection]. Ashkhabad, 1982, pp. 20—25.
  6. Bazhenov Yu.M. Kriterii otsenki povedeniya betona v zharkom i sukhom klimate [Criteria for Assessing the Behavior of Concrete in Hot and Dry Climates]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1971, no. 8, pp. 9—11.
  7. Mironov S.A., Malinskiy E.N. Osnovy tekhnologii betona v usloviyakh sukhogo zharkogo klimata [Basics of Concrete Technology in Dry Hot Climate]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1985, 317 p.
  8. Shakhova L.D., Chernositova E.S. Reologicheskie kharakteristiki penobetonnykh smesey [The Rheological Characteristics of the Foamed Concrete Mixes]. Teoriya i praktika proizvodstva i primeneniya yacheistogo betona v stroitel'stve: sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Theory and Practice of Production and Application of Cellular Concrete in Construction: Collection of Scientific Works]. Dnepropetrovsk, PGASA Publ., 2005, no. 2, pp. 89—94.
  9. Posobie po geliotermoobrabotke betonnykh i zhelezobetonnykh izdeliy s primeneniem svetoprozrachnykh i teploizoliruyushchikh pokrytiy (SVITAP) k SNiP 3.09.01—85 [Manual on Solar Heat Treatment of Aerated Concrete and Ferroconcrete Items with the Application of Translucent and Heat-insulating Coverings. Solar Perceptive and Heat-Accumulating Covering (SVITAP) to Construction Norms and Rules (SNiP) 3.09.01-85]. Moscow, NIIZhB Publ., 1987, 14 p.
  10. Krylov B.A., Aruova L.B. Kombinirovannyy metod ispol'zovaniya geliotekhnologii na poligonakh [Combined Method of Using Solar Technology at Landfi lls]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1996, no. 12, pp. 11—13.
  11. Aruova L.B. Vliyanie intensivnosti obezvozhivaniya i velichiny vlagopoter' na formirovanie struktury betonov [The Infl uence of Intensity of Drainage and Moisture Loss Values on the Structure of Concrete]. Poisk [Search]. Almaty, 2002, no. 3, pp. 32—33.
  12. Mironov S.A., Malinskiy E.N. Osnovy tekhnologii betona v usloviyakh sukhogo zharkogo klimata [The Basics of Concrete Technology in Dry Hot Climate]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1985, 317 p.
  13. Aruova L.B. Kharakter formirovaniya temperaturnykh poley pri geliotermoobrabotke betona [Character of Temperature Fields Formation in the Concrete During Heat Treatment Using Solar Energy]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1996, no. 6, pp. 12—14.
  14. Krylov B.A., Maslov V.P. Dubliruyushchie istochniki energii pri kombinirovannoy geliotermoobrabotke zhelezobetonnykh izdeliy [Duplicate Sources of Energy in Combined Heat Treatment of Concrete Products]. Materialy Vsesoyuznogo nauchno-prakticheskogo soveshchaniya po tekhnologii izgotovleniya zhelezobetonnykh izdeliy i konstruktsiy s ispol'zovaniem klimaticheskikh faktorov zharkikh rayonov [Materials of Scientific and Practical Conference on Manufacturing Concrete Products and Structures Using Climatic Factors of Hot Areas]. Dushanbe, 1988, pp. 44—49.

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RESEARCH OF BUILDING MATERIALS

Choosing mineral carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt concrete

  • Inozemtsev Sergey Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, test engineer, Research and Educational Center on "Nanotechnology", Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7-499-188-04-00; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Adviser, Russian Academy of Architectural and Building Sciences (RAACS), director, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7-499-188-04-00; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 158-167

At present time the operation life of the majority of roads is essentially shorter than required. The reason for it is the increase in traffic intensity and axle loads of automobile transport. The obvious reasons for early wear of roads are the low quality of the components used and low industrial standards while producing asphalt pavement. In this paper the mineral material was selected as a carrier of nanoscale additives for asphalt. The optimal modes for grinding mineral materials were identified, which provide correspondence of their structure parameters with the developed model. The influence of different mineral nanomodifier carriers on the structure formation processes was estimated. It is shown that among a number of mineral materials diatomite has high activity in relation to the bitumen, because it has a highly porous structure. It is also shown that as a result of lighter fractions of bitumen adsorption on the border of phase interface, diatomite and bitumen changes from the free state to the film, and solvate shell of bitumen is saturated with asphaltenes. With the help of IR spectroscopy the authors defined the nature of the diatomite and bitumen interaction and proved that in the process of their interaction there occurs physical adsorption with additional absorption of bitumen components into the pore space of diatomite grains.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.158-167

References
  1. Levitin I.E. Analiticheskaya zapiska po teme: Povysheniye effektivnosti stroitel'stva i ekspluatatsii avtomobil'nykh dorog v rossiyskoy Federatsii [Analytical Note on the Topic: Raising the Efficiency of Construction and Operation of Roads in Russian Federation]. Sovmestnaya konferentsiya Obshchestvennogo soveta pri federal'nom dorozhnom agentstve Ministerstva transporta Rossiyskoy Federatsii, Obshchestvennoy palaty Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Joint Conference of the Public Council under the Federal Road Agency of the Ministry of Transport of the Russian Federation, the Public Chamber of the Russian Federation]. Moscow, 2011.
  2. Quintero Luz S., Sanabria Luis E. Analysis of Colombian Bitumen Modified With a Nanocomposite. Journal of Testing and Evaluation (JTE). 2012, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 1—7. DOI: 10.1520/JTE20120198.
  3. Gotovtcev V.M., Shatunov A.G., Rumyantcev A.N., Sukhov V.D. Nanotekhnologii v proizvodstve asfal'tobetona [Nanotechnologies in Bitumen Concrete Production]. Nauchnye issledovaniya [Scientific Investigations]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 191—195.
  4. Vysotskaya M. Polymer-bitumen Binder with the Addition of Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes. Advanced Materials Research. 2013, vol. 699, pp. 530—534. DOI: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.699.530.
  5. Vysotskaya M., Kuznetsov D., Barabash D. Nano-structured Road Building Materials on the Basis of Organic Binders. Construction Materials. 2013, no. 4, pp. 20—23.
  6. Xiao F., Amirkhanian A., Amirkhanian S. Infl uence of Carbon Nanoparticles on the Rheological Characteristics of Short-Term Aged Asphalt Binders. Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering. 2011, no. 23 (4), pp. 423—431.
  7. Ye Chao, Chen Huaxin. Study on Road Performance of Nano-SiO2 and Nano-TiO2 Modified Asphalt. New Building Materials. 2009, no. 6, pp. 82—84.
  8. Xiao Peng, Li Xue-feng. Research on the Performance and Mechanism of Nanometer ZnO/SBS Modifi ed Asphalt. Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development. 2007, no. 6, pp. 12—16.
  9. Korolev E.V. Problemy i perspektivy nanotekhnologii v stroitel'stve [Problems and Prospects of Nanotechnology in the Construction]. Izvestia KazGASU [Proceedings of Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering]. 2011, no. 2 (16), pp. 200—208.
  10. Inozemtcev S.S., Grishina A.N., Korolev E.V. Model' kompleksnogo nanorazmernogo modifikatora dlya asfal'tobetona [The Model of Complex Nanoscale Modifi er for Bitumen Concrete]. Regional`naya arhitektura i stroitel`stvo [Regional Architecture and Construction]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 15—21.
  11. Bazhenov Yu.M., Gar`kina I.A., Danilov A.M., Korolev E.V. Sistemnyy analiz v stroitel'nom materialovedenii [System Analysis in Construction Materials Science]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, 152 p.
  12. Korolev I.V. Model' stroyeniya bitumnoy plenki na mineral'nykh zernakh v asfal'tobetone [Structural Model of Bituminous Film on Mineral Grains in Bitumen Concrete]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction and Architecture]. 1981, no. 8, pp. 63—67.
  13. Gorelyshev N.V. Vzaimodeystviye bituma i mineral'nogo poroshka v asfal'tovom betone [The Interaction of Bitumen and Mineral Powder in Asphalt Concrete]. Trudy HADI [Works of Kharkiv National Automobile and Highway University]. Kharkiv, 1955, vol. 16, pp. 10—23.
  14. Yadykina V.V. Vzaimosvyaz' donorno-aktseptornykh svoystv poverkhnosti mineral'nykh materialov s ikh reaktsionnoy sposobnost'yu pri formirovanii organo-mineral'nykh kompozitov [Interrelation of Donor-acceptor Properties of the Mineral Materials Surface with their Reactive Capacity in the Process of Organo-mineral Composites Formation]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2004, no.4, pp. 46—50.
  15. Yadykina V.V. Vliyaniye aktivnykh poverkhnostnykh tsentrov kremnezemsoderzhashchikh mineral'nykh komponentov na vzaimodeystviye s bitumom [The Infl uence of Active Surface Sites of Mineral Components Containing Stones and Soil on the Interaction with Bitumen]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo [News of Higher Educational Institutions. Construction]. 2003, no. 9, pp. 75—79.
  16. Gorelysheva L.A. Teoreticheskiye aspekty vzaimodeystviya razlichnykh poroshkoobraznykh materialov s organicheskim vyazhushchim [Theoretical Aspects of Various Powder-like Materials Interaction with Organic Binder]. Puti ekonomii material'nykh i energeticheskikh resursov pri remonte i rekonstruktsii avtomobil'nykh dorog: sbornik nauchnykh trudov NPO Rosdornii [Ways of Saving Physical and Energy Resources in the Process of Repair and Reconstruction of Roads: Collection of Scientific Works of Rosdornii]. Moscow, MADI Publ., 1989, vol. 1, pp. 29—35.
  17. Inozemtcev S.S., Pozdyakov M.K., Korolev E.V. Issledovaniye adsorbtsionnosol'vatnogo sloya bituma na poverkhnosti mineral'nogo poroshka [Research of the Absorptionsolvate Layer of Bitumen on the Surface of the Mineral Filler]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 11, pp. 159—167.

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Method of calculating the parameters of concrete deformation in case of unloading from compressive stress

  • Karpenko Nikolay Ivanovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, member, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Physics of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences (NIISF RAASN), 21 Lokomotivnyy proezd, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Eryshev Valeriy Alekseevich - Togliatti State University (TGU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, advisor, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, Togliatti State University (TGU), 14 Belarusskaya st., Togliatti, 445667, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Latysheva Ekaterina Valer’evna - Togliatti State University (TGU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assosiate Professor, Togliatti State University (TGU), 14 Belarusskaya st., Togliatti, 445667, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 168-178

Deformation parameters of concrete are adequately studied under static uploading of samples until fracture. Methods of their determination during unloading (primarily due to the lack of experimental data) is not presented in the regulatory and scientific literature. That hinders the development of calculating methods of loadings for reinforced concrete structures, which vary according to certain cyclical regularities. The basis for computational models development for unloading are the results of the studies with short-term tests of concrete samples, where the sample is loaded to a predetermined level of compressive stresses, and then it is unloaded. The purpose of the research is to establish an analytical connection between stress and deformation parameters of concrete on axial loading and unloading branches with compressive stresses. The subject of the study is: axial and transverse deformation coefficient of transverse deformation volume deformations. The treated cycles have different values of maximum stress, including close to the limit values, taking into account the dilation of concrete. Permanent deformations during unloading are determined in increments of stress and strain by radial method. A connection is established between the initial elastic modulus of concrete and the modulus of deformation during unloading. On the basis of experimental data the analytical determination of the quantities depending on the residual strains for partial or complete unloading was offered. It was found out that in case of increasing stress level at the beginning of unloading the share of transverse strain increases and in case of full unloading, volume deformations increase. In case of unloading from the stress level, when dilatation property is manifested, they change the sign to the opposite, which is, become positive. The authors show a comparison of calculation results of the proposed method with experimental data obtained.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.168-178

References
  1. Karpenko N.I. Obshchie modeli mekhaniki zhelezobetona [General Mechanics Model of Reinforced Concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1996, 416 p.
  2. Bondarenko V.M., Kolchunov V.I. Raschetnye modeli silovogo soprotivleniya zhelezobetona [Computational Models of the Power Resistance of Reinforced Concrete. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 471 p.
  3. Stavrov G.N., Rudenko V.V., Fedoseev A.A. Prochnost' i deformativnost' betona pri povtorno-staticheskikh nagruzkakh [Strength and Deformability of Concrete at Re-static Loads]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1986, no. 1, pp. 33—34.
  4. Bekker V.A., Sergeev S.M. Osobennosti razvitiya ob"emnykh deformatsiy betonov pri povtornom nagruzhenii szhimayushchey nagruzkoy [Development Features of Volume Deformations of Concrete under Repeated Loading by Compressive Load]. Izvestiya vuzov. Seriya Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura [News of Higher Education Institutions. Series: Construction and Architecture]. 1983, no. 10, pp. 6—10.
  5. Merkin A.P., Fokin G.A. Kinetika razrusheniya betona pri tsiklicheskikh nagruzheniyakh [Kinetics of Concrete Destruction under Cyclic Loading]. Izvestiya vuzov. Seriya Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura [News of Higher Education Institutions. Series: Construction and Architecture]. 1982, no. 1, pp. 75—77.
  6. Kuzovchikova E.A., Yashin A.V. Issledovanie vliyaniya malotsiklovykh szhimayushchikh vozdeystviy na deformativnost', prochnost' i strukturnye izmeneniya betona [Investigation of Influence of Low-cycle Compressive Effects on Deformation, Strength and Structural Changes of Concrete]. Izvestiya vuzov. Seriya Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura [News of Higher Education Institutions. Series: Construction and Architecture]. 1986, no. 10, pp. 30—33.
  7. Rastorguev B.S., Yakovlev S.K. Sovershenstvovanie metoda rascheta ramnykh karkasov pri malotsiklovykh nagruzheniyakh [Improving the Method of Calculating Framework at Low-cycle Loading]. Issledovaniya karkasnykh konstruktsiy mnogoetazhnykh proizvodstvennykh zdaniy [Research of Frame Structures of Multi-storey Industrial Buildings]. 1985, pp. 117—126.
  8. Babich E.M., Pogorelyak A.P., Zalesov A.S. Rabota elementov na poperechnuyu silu pri nemnogokratno povtornykh nagruzheniyakh [Work of the Elements on the Transverse Force in Case of not Frequently Repeated Loadings]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1981, no. 6, pp. 8—10.
  9. Eryshev V.A., Latysheva E.V., Bondarenko A.S. Metodika eksperimental'nykh issledovaniy napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya lineynykh zhelezobetonnykh elementov pri osevom zagruzhenii povtornymi i znakoperemennymi nagruzkami [Methodology of Experimental Studies of the Stress-strain State of Linear Reinforced Concrete Elements under Axial Uploading by Repetitive and Alternating Loads]. Vektor nauki Tol'yattinskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta [Vector of Science of the Togliatti State University]. 2010, no. 3 (13), pp. 51—56.
  10. Berg O.Ya., Shcherbakov E.N., Pisanko G.N. Vysokoprochnyy beton [High-strength Concrete]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1971, 208 p.
  11. Karpenko N.I., Eryshev V.A., Latysheva E.V. K postroeniyu diagramm deformirovaniya betona povtornymi nagruzkami szhatiya pri postoyannykh urovnyakh napryazheniy [Developing Concrete Deformation Diagrams by Repeated Compression LOADS at Constant Stress Levels]. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 48—52.
  12. Eryshev V.A., Toshin D.S. Diagramma deformirovaniya betona pri nemnogokratnykh povtornykh nagruzkakh [Strain Diagram of Concrete at Non-Frequent Repeated Loads]. Izvestiya vuzov. Seriya Stroitel'stvo [News of Higher Education Institutions. Series: Construction]. 2005, no. 10, pp. 109—114.
  13. Hillerborg A. Analysis of one single crack. Report to RILLEM. Tl. 50-FMC. 1981, p. 21.

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The influence of the scale effect and high temperatures on the strength and strains of high performance concrete

  • Korsun Vladimyr Ivanovych - Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (DonNASA) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (DonNASA), 2 Derzhavin str., Makeyevka, Donetsk region, Ukraine, 86123; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korsun Artem Vladimirovych - Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (DonNASA) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture (DonNASA), 2 Derzhavin str., Makeyevka, Donetsk region, Ukraine, 86123; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 179-188

The most effective way to reduce the structure mass, labor input and expenses for its construction is to use modern high-performance concrete of the classes С50/60… С90/105, which possess high physical and mathematic characteristics. One of the constraints for their implementation in mass construction in Ukraine is that in design standards there are no experimental data on the physical and mathematic properties of concrete of the classes more than С50/60. Also there are no exact statements on calculating reinforced concrete structures made of high-performance concretes.The authors present the results of experimental research of the scale effect and short-term and long-term heating up to +200 ° C influence on temperature and shrinkage strain, on strength and strain characteristics under compression and tensioning of high-strength modified concrete of class C70/85. The application of high performance concretes is challenging in the process of constructing buildings aimed at operating in high technological temperatures: smoke pipes, coolers, basins, nuclear power plants' protective shells, etc. Reducing cross-sections can lead to reducing temperature drops and thermal stresses in the structures.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.179-188

References
  1. Korsun A.V. Osobennosti deformirovaniya i razrusheniya vysokoprochnykh modifitsirovannykh betonov v usloviyakh nagreva do +200 ?Ñ [Features of Deformation and Destruction of High Performance Modifi ed Concretes in Case of Heating up to +200 °Ñ]. Vestnik DonNASA [Proceedings of Donbas National Academy of Civil Engineering and Architecture]. 2007, no. 1(63), pp. 116—121.
  2. Korsun V.I. Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyanie zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy v usloviyakh temperaturnykh vozdeystviy [Stress and Strain State of Reinforced Concrete Structures under Thermal Impacts]. Makeevka, DonGASA Publ., 2003, 153 p.
  3. GOST 24452—80. Betony. Metody opredeleniya prizmennoy prochnosti, modulya uprugosti i koeffitsienta Puassona [Russian State Standard 24452—80. Concretes. Methods of Defining Prism Strength, Elastic Module and Poisson's ratio]. Moscow, Izdatel'stvo standartov Publ., 1980.
  4. CEN: Eurocode 2 (2004). Design of Concrete Structures: Part 1-1 General Rules and Rules for Buildings, EN 1992-1-1: 2004.
  5. Korsun V.I., Kalmykov Yu.Yu. Neodnorodnost' prochnostnykh i deformatsionnykh svoystv betona po ob"emu massivnykh elementov konstruktsiy [Heterogeneity of Strength and Strain Properties of Concrete According to the Size of Massive Construction Elements]. Sovremennye problemy stroitel'stva [Current Problems in Construction]. Donetsk, Donetskiy PromstroyNIIproekt, OOO «Lebed'» Publ. 2002, vol. 2, pp. 95—102.

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Efficiency of fiber reinforced concrete application in structures subjected to dynamic effects

  • Morozov Valeriy Ivanovich - Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, head, Department of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, corresponding member of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU), 4, 2 Krasnoarmeiskaya St., 190005, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Pukharenko Yuriy Vladimirovich - Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, head, Department of Building Materials Technology and Metrology, councilor of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, Saint-Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SPbGASU), 4, 2 Krasnoarmeiskaya St., 190005, St. Petersburg, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 189-196

Fiber reinforced concretes possess high strength under dynamic loadings, which include impact loads, thanks to their high structural viscosity. This is the reason for using them in difficult operating conditions, where increasing the performance characteristics and the structure durability is of prime importance, and the issues of the cost become less significant. Applying methods of disperse reinforcement is most challenging in case of subtle high-porous materials on mineral binders, for example foamed concrete. At the same time, the experiments conducted in Russia and abroad show, that also in other cases the concrete strength resistance several times increases as a result of disperse reinforcement. This doesn't depend on average density of the concrete and type of fiber used. In the article the fibre reinforced concrete impact resistance is analysed. Recommendations are given in regard to fibre concrete application in manufacture of monolithic floor units for industrial buildings and precast piles.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.189-196

References
  1. Pukharenko Yu.V. Nauchnye i prakticheskie osnovy formirovaniya struktury i svoystv fibrobetonov: avtoreferat dissertatsii doktora tekhnicheskikh nauk [Scientific and Practical Fundamentals of Fiber Concrete Structure and Properties. Thesis Abstract of the Doctor of Technical Sciences]. Saint Petersburg, 2004, 46 p.
  2. Lobanov I.A., Pukharenko Yu.V., Gurashkin Yu.A. Udarostoykost' fibrobetonov, armirovannykh nizkomodul'nymi sinteticheskimi voloknami [Shock Resistance of Fiber Concretes, Reinforced by Low-modulus Synthetic Fibers]. Tekhnologiya i dolgovechnost' dispersno-armirovannykh betonov [Technology and Durability of Fiber Reinforced Concretes]. Leningrad, LenZNIIEP Publ., 1984, pp. 92—96.
  3. Rabinovich F.N. Kompozity na osnove dispersno-armirovannykh betonov. Voprosy teorii i proektirovaniya, tekhnologii, konstruktsii [Composites Based on Fibre Reinforced Concretes. Problems of Theory and Design, Technologies, Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 560 p.
  4. Tefaruk Haktanir, Kamuran Ari, Fatih Altun, Cengiz D. Atis, Okan Karahan. Effects of Steel Fibers and Mineral Filler on the Water-tightness of Concrete Pipes. Cement and Concrete Composites. 2006, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 811—816. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2006.06.002.
  5. Bhikshma V., Manipal K. Study on Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Containing Steel Fibers. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering (Building and Housing). 2012, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 155—164.
  6. Bhikshma V., Singh J.L. Investigations on Mechanical Properties of Recycled Aggregate Concrete Containing Steel Fibers. Indian Concrete Institute Journal. 2010, no. 4—9 (10), pp. 15—19.
  7. Shah P.S., Rangan V.K. Effect of Fiber Addition on Concrete Strength. Indian Concrete Journal. 1994, vol. 5, no. 2—6, pp. 13—21.
  8. Rasheed M.H.F., Agha A.Z.S. Analysis of Fibrous Reinforced Concrete Beams. Engineering and Technical Journal. 2012, no. 30 (6), pp. 974—987.
  9. Morozov V.I., Opbul E.K. Raschet prochnosti izgibaemykh fi brozhelezobetonnykh elementov s vysokoprochnoy armaturoy bez predvaritel'nogo napryazheniya [Strength Calculation of Bending Fiber Reinforced Concrete Elements with High-strength Reinforcement without Preliminary Strain]. Doklad 62 nauchnnoy konferentsii [Report of the 62nd Scientific Conference]. Saint Petersburg, SPbGASU Publ., 2005, Part 1, pp. 210—214.
  10. RTM-17-01—2002. Rukovodyashchie tekhnicheskie materialy po proektirovaniyu i primeneniyu stalefi brobetonnykh stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [RTM-17-01—2002. Technical Guides on Designing and Calculating Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete Building Structures]. Moscow, 2003.
  11. Rodov G.S., Leykin B.V., Sterin V.S. Opyt primeneniya stal'nykh fibr diametrom 2 mm i fibr iz otrabotannykh trosov dlya proizvodstva zabivnykh svay: Ekspress-inform [Experience of Using Steel Fibers of 2 mm Diameter and Fibers Made of Used Wires for Producing Drive Piles: Express-Inform]. Stroitel'stvo v rayonakh Urala i Zapadniy Sibiri SSSR. Seriya: Sovershenstvovanie bazy stroitel'stva [Construction in the Regions of South Ural and Western Siberia of the USSR]. TsBNTI Publ. 1987, no. 1, pp. 31—33.

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Nanostructured silicate polymer concrete

  • Figovskiy Oleg L'vovich - International Nanotechnology Research Center "Polymate Ltd"; Kazan State Technical University (KAI) professor, Research and Development Director, Nanotech Industries, Inc. (USA), Academician of European Academy of Sciences, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Science and Research Executive Agency, Chairman of the UNESCO chair “Green Chemistry”, President of Israel Association of Inventors, Chief of laboratory "Environment Friendly Nanotechnologies", Kazan State Technical University (KAI), Research and Development Director, "Polymate Ltd", International Nanotechnology Research Center "Polymate Ltd"; Kazan State Technical University (KAI), P.O.B. 73, Migdal HaEmek, 23100, Israel; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Beilin Dmitriy Aleksandrovich - International Nanotechnology Research Center "Polymate Ltd" Head of Laboratory, International Nanotechnology Research Center "Polymate Ltd", P.O.B. 73, Migdal HaEmek, 23100, Israel; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 197-204

It has been known that acid-resistant concretes on the liquid glass basis have high porosity (up to 18~20 %), low strength and insufficient water resistance. Significant increasing of silicate matrix strength and density was carried out by incorporation of special liquid organic alkali-soluble silicate additives, which block superficial pores and reduce concrete shrinkage deformation. It was demonstrated that introduction of tetrafurfuryloxisilane additive sharply increases strength, durability and shock resistance of silicate polymer concrete in aggressive media. The experiments showed, that the strength and density of silicate polymer concrete increase in case of decreasing liquid glass content. The authors obtained optimal content of silicate polymer concrete, which possesses increased strength, durability, density and crack-resistance. Diffusive permeability of concrete and its chemical resistance has been investigated in various corroding media.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.197-204

References
  1. Beilin D.A., Borisov Yu.M., Figovskiy O.L., Surovtsev I.S. Patent RU 2408552. Nanostrukturiruyushchee svyazuyushchee dlya kompozitsionnykh stroitel'nykh materialov [Patent of Russian Federation 2408552. Nanostructured Binder for Composite Building Materials].
  2. Solomatov V.I., Bobryshev A.N., Khimmler N.G. Polimernye kompozitsionnye materialy v stroitel'stve [Polymer Composite Materials in Construction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1988.
  3. Figovsky O., Beilin D. Improvement of Strength and Chemical Resistance of Silicate Polymer Concrete. International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials. 2009, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 97—101. DOI: 10.4334/IJCSM.2009.3.2.097.
  4. Barbakadze V.S., Kozlov V.V., Mikul’skii V.G., Nikolov I.I. Durability of Building Structures and Constructions from Composite Materials. Science, 1995, 264 p.

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SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

Biological wastewater treatment in brewhouses

  • Voronov Yuriy Viktorovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Water Disposal and Water Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Bertsun Svetlana Petrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Master, Department of Water Disposal and Water Ecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 205-211

In the article the working principles of wastewater biological treatment for food companies is reviewed, including dairies and breweries, the waters of which are highly concentrated with dissolved organic contaminants and suspended solids. An example of successful implementation is anaerobic-aerobic treatment plants. Implementation of these treatment plants can achieve the required wastewater treatment at the lowest operational expenses and low volumes of secondary waste generated. Waste water from the food companies have high concentration of various organic contaminants (fats, proteins, starch, sugar, etc.). For such wastewater, high rates of suspended solids, grease and other contaminants are characteristic. Wastewater food industry requires effective purification flowsheets using biological treatment facilities. At the moment methods for the anaerobic-aerobic purification are applied. One of such methods is the treatment of wastewater at ASB-reactor (methane reactor) and the further tertiary treatment on the OSB-reactor (aeration). Anaerobic process means water treatment processes in anoxic conditions. The anaerobic treatment of organic contamination is based on the process of methane fermentation - the process of converting substances to biogas. The role of biological effluent treatment is discussed with special attention given to combined anaerobic/aerobic treatment. Combining anaerobic pre-treatment with aerobic post-treatment integrates the advantages of both processes, amongst which there are reduced energy consumption (net energy production), reduced biological sludge production and limited space requirements. This combination allows for significant savings for operational costs as compared to complete aerobic treatment without compromising the required discharge standards. Anaerobic treatment is a proven and energy efficient method to treat industrial wastewater effluents. These days, more and more emphasis is laid on low energy use, a small reactor surface area, low chemical usage and reduced sludge handling costs. When stringent discharge limits have to be met, in many cases anaerobic treatment is followed by aerobic post treatment. During aerobic polishing, final traces of organic pollution (COD/BOD) and nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorous can effectively be removed. Besides the decrease in the biosolids quantity, the quality of the aerobic sludge is often improved. With anaerobic pre-treatment biodegradable carbohydrates are less easily present in the aerobic reactor inlet. As a result, the number of filamentous bacteria causing bulking sludge in activated sludge plants, is significantly reduced. This results in an improved settleability of the aerobic sludge and consequently a more stable and secure operation of the activated sludge plant. Finally, due to the higher mineralization grade dewaterability of aerobic sludge from activated sludge plants after anaerobic pre-treatment it is often better than without anaerobic pre-treatment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.205-211

References
  1. Vayser T., Chebotareva M. Ochistka stochnykh vod na pivovarennykh zavodakh [Wastewater Treatment on Brewing Factories]. Official site of EnviroChemie. Available at: http://envopur.ru/public/beer1.htm. Date of access: 15.11.2013.
  2. Vayser T. Ochistnye sooruzheniya dlya pivovarennykh zavodov i solodoven [Treatment Facilities for Brewing Factories and Malt Houses]. Official site of EnviroChemie. Available at: http://enviro-chemie1.livejournal.com/18766.html. Date of access: 15.11.2013.
  3. Ayvazyan S.S. Chubakova E.Ya., Manuylova T.A. Osnovnye napravleniya ekologizatsii pivovarennoy promyshlennosti [Basic Directions of Beer Industry Ecologization]. Pivo i napitki. [Beer and Beverages]. 2006, no. 2. pp. 8—10.
  4. Vayser T., Khell'mann V., Chebotareva M. Ochistka stochnykh vod pivovarennykh predpriyatiy [Wastewater Treatment of Breweries]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and Beverages]. 2001, no.1, pp. 30—31.
  5. Ochistka stochnykh vod. Tekhnologiya Greenfort [Wastewater Treatment. Greenfort Technology]. Official site of Jurby Water Tech International. Available at: http://www.jurby.com/ru/tehnologii-i-produkty/ochistka-stocnyx-vod/. Date of access: 15.11.2013.
  6. Liu Y., Xu H.L., Yang S.F., Tay J.H. Mechanisms and Models for Anaerobic Granulation in Upfl ow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket Reactor. Water Research. 2003, vol. 3, no.3, pp. 661—673. DOI: 10.1016/S0043-1354(02)00351-2.
  7. Sam-Soon P., Loewenthal R.E., Dold P.L., Marais Gv.R. Hypothesis for Pelletisation in the Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactor. Water SA. 1987, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 69—80.
  8. Golub N.B. Povyshenie vykhoda energonositeley pri ochistke stochnykh vod [Increasing Energy Output in the Process of Wastewater Treatment]. Voda i Ekologiya [Water and Ecology]. 2013, no. 4, pp. 41—50.
  9. Ginkel S.W., Oh S.E., Logan Â.Å. Biohydrogen Gas Production from Food Processing and Domestic Wastewaters. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2005. vol. 30, no. 15, pp. 1535—1542. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2004.09.017.
  10. Vayser T., Khell'mann V., Chebotareva M. Ochistka stochnykh vod pivovarennykh predpriyatiy [Wastewater Treatment of Breweries]. Pivo i napitki [Beer and Beverages]. 2001, no.1, pp. 24—25.
  11. Anaerobnyy reaktor R2S [Anaerobic Reactor R2S]. Official site of Pineco. Available at: http://www.peneco.net/equipment/31/anaerobnyy-reaktor-r2s/. Date of access: 15.11.2013.
  12. Voronov Yu.V., Kudin A.V. Biologicheskaya ochistka stochnykh vod malykh naselennykh punktov i ob"ektov sel'skokhozyaystvennogo naznacheniya (chast' 2) [Biological Wastewater Treatment of Small Settlements and Facilities of an Agricultural Nature (part 2)]. Moscow, 1991, pp. 34—45.
  13. Lur'e A. A. Analiticheskaya khimiya promyshlennykh stochnykh vod. [Analytical Chemistry of Industrial Wastewater]. Moscow, 1978, 440 p.
  14. Yakovlev S.V., Skirdov I.V., Shvetsov V.N., Bondarev A.A., Andrianov Yu.N. Biologicheskaya ochistka proizvodstvennykh stochnykh vod. Protsessy, apparaty i sooruzheniya [Biological Treatment of Industrial Wastewater. Processes, Machines and Facilities]. Moscow, 1985, pp. 179—189.
  15. Thaveesri J., Daffonchio D., Liessens B., Vandermeren P., Verstraete W. Granulation and Sludge Bed Stability in Upfl ow Anaerobic Sludge Bed Reactors in Relation to Surface Thermodynamics. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 1995, no. 61(10), pp. 3681—3686.

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Geo-enviromental monitoring system of the oil storages on petrol stations

  • Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 212-219

In large cities, fuel consumption is growing rapidly, and therefore the number of filling stations. And they are a source of anthropogenic impact on the environment and represent current scientific and practical task, because recently no research was conducted into the optimization of monitoring systems in the construction of gas station storage tanks, and no activity on replacing the obsolete design with new storage tanks. In this regard, much attention should be paid to the creation of geo-environmental systems integrated assessment of the environment, as well as modeling and forecasting various negative situations. In the modern world, the creation of such systems is possible with the help of modern computer tools such as geographic information systems.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.212-219

References
  1. Graf M. La. Obzor osnovnoy problemy vzaimodeystviya toplivnogo biznesa i ekologii v mire [Overview of the Main Problem of Interaction of the Fuel Business and Ecology in the World] Sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii «Ekologicheskaya i pozharnaya bezopasnost' sovremennykh AZS» [Collection of the International Scientific-Practical Conference "Environmental and Fire Safety of Modern Gas Stations"]. Moscow, 1998, ðð. 10—12.
  2. Lampert F. Vybrosy parov benzina i reshenie etoy problemy v stranakh Evropeyskogo Soyuza [Gasoline Vapor Emissions and Solution of this Problem in the Countries of the EU]. Sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konfe-rentsii «Ekologicheskaya i pozharnaya bezopasnost' sovremennykh AZS» [Collection of the International Scientific-Practical Conference "Environmental and Fire Safety of Modern Gas Stations"]. Moscow, 1998, ðð. 35—39.
  3. Belyaev A.Yu. Otsenka vliyaniya avtozapravochnykh stantsiy (AZS) na geologicheskuyu sredu [Assessment of the Impact of Gas Stations on the Geological Environment]. Sbornik Mezhdunarodnoy konferentsii «Lomonosov—2000: molodezh' i nauka na rubezhe XXI veka» [Collection of International Conference «Lomonosov—2000: Youth and Science of the 21st Century»]. Moscow, 2000, pp. 178.
  4. Belyaev A. Yu., Kashperyuk P.I. Issledovaniya zagryazneniya poverkhnostnogo stoka s territorii AZS (na primere mnogofunktsional'nykh avtozapravochnykh kompleksov «BP» v g. Moskve) [Investigation of Pollution of Surface Runoff Caused by a Filling Station (on the Example of Multifunctional Filling Stations «BP», Moscow)] Sbornik Akademicheskie chteniya N.A. Tsitovicha [Collection of Academic Readings N.A. Tsitovich]. Moscow, 2003, pp.190—194.
  5. Dhanapal G. GIS-based Environmental and Ecological Planning for Sustainable Development. January 2012. Available at: http://www.geospatialworld.net. Date of access: 05.02.14.
  6. Antonio Miguel Mart?nez-Gra?a, Jose Luis Goy, Caridad Zazo. Cartographic-Environmental Analysis of the Landscape in Natural Protected Parks for His Management Using GIS. Application to the Natural Parks of the “Las Batuecas-Sierra de Francia” and “Quilamas” (Central System, Spain). Journal of Geographic Information System. February 2013, vol. 5, no. 1, ðp. 54—68. DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2013.51006.
  7. Reshma Parveen, Uday Kumar. Integrated Approach of Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and Geographical Information System (GIS) for Soil Loss Risk Assessment in Upper South Koel Basin, Jharkhand. Journal of Geographic Information System. December 2012, vol. 4, no. 6, ðp. 588—596. DOI: 10.4236/jgis.2012.46061.
  8. Gol'dberg V.M., Zverev V. P., Arbuzov A. I., Kazennov S. M., Kovalevskiy Yu. V., Putilina V. Tekhnogennoe zagryaznenie prirodnykh vod uglevodorodami i ego ekologicheskie posledstviya [Anthropogenic Pollution of Natural Waters with Hydrocarbons, and its Environmental Consequences]. Moscow. Nauka Publ., 2001,125 p.
  9. Dobrovol'skiy S.A., Kashperyuk P.I., Potapov A.D. K otsenke vliyaniya avtomobil'nykh vybrosov na zagryaznenie gruntov tyazhelymi elementami v razlichnykh zonakh polos gorodskikh avtodorog [To the Question of Assessing the Impact of Automobile Emissions on the Pollution of Soils with Heavy Elements in Different Areas of Urban Roads] Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 299—304.
  10. Dobrovol'skiy S.A. O zagryaznenii uchastkov vdol' avtomagistraley g. Moskvy tyazhelymi metallami [On the Pollution of the Areas along the Highways of Moscow by Heavy Metals]. Inzhenernye izyskaniya [Engineering Research]. 2010, no. 10, pp. 52—56.
  11. Dobrovol'skiy S.A., Potapov A.D., Kashperyuk P.I. Nekotorye podkhody k postroeniyu modeli zagryazneniya vozdushnoy sredy avtotransportnymi vybrosami [Some Approaches to Building a Model of Air Pollution by Road Transport Emissions]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4, pp.155—158.
  12. Timofeev S.S., Perminova D.V. Otsenka neuchtennoy ekologicheskoy nagruzki sistemy nefteproduktoobespecheniya na atmosferu goroda Irkutska i Irkutskoy oblasti [Assessment of unaccounted environmental load of the system of oil products supply to the atmosphere of the city of Irkutsk and the Irkutsk on public]. Vestnik Irkutskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [Proceedings of the Irkutsk State Technical University]. 2011, no. 3, vol. 50, pð. 25—29.
  13. Chernyavskaya T.A. Mesto geoinformatsionnoy sistemy v informatsionnom prostranstve neftegazodobyvayushchey kompanii [Place of GIS in the Information Space of an Oil and Gas Company]. Zhurnal «ArcReview» [Journal "ArcReview"]. 2011, no. 1(56). Available at: http://www.dataplus.ru. Date of access: 01.02.14.
  14. Alekseev V.V., Kurakina N.I., Orlova N.V., Geoinformatsionnaya sistema monitoringa vodnykh ob"ektov i normirovaniya ekologicheskoy nagruzki [The Geoinformational System of Water Objects Monitoring and the Normalization of the Ecological Load]. Zhurnal «ArcReview» [Journal "ArcReview"]. 2006, no. 1(36). Available at: http://www.dataplus.ru. Date of access: 01.02.14
  15. Alekseev V.V., Kurakina N.I., Zheltov E.V. Sistema modelirovaniya rasprostraneniya zagryaznyayushchikh veshchestv i otsenki ekologicheskoy situatsii na baze GIS [System of Simulating the Spread of Pollutants and Estimation of the Ecological Situation on the Basis of GIS]. Informatsionnye tekhnologii modelirovaniya i upravleniya [Information Technologies of Modeling and Control]. Voronezh, 2005, no. 5(23), pp. 765—769.

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HYDRAULICS. ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY. HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

Water discharging over weir with installed boom

  • Kupriyanov Vladimir Pavlovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Energy Structures (NIIES) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Deputy Director, Center for Hydraulic Investigations, Scientific and Research Institute of Energy Structures (NIIES), 7А Stroitelnyy Proezd, Moscow, 125362, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Tumanov Igor’ Valer’evich - RusHydro engineer, expert, Department of Scientific and Technical Development, RusHydro, 51 Arkhitektora Vlasova st., Moscow, 117393, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 220-227

This paper considers a possibility of booms application at spillway dams in order to reduce gates size and capacity of weight lifting device without changing weir discharge capacity. The prospects of booms application at weir top were proved during hydraulic researches conducted at JSC “NIIES” (Joint Stock Company “Scientific Research Institute of Energy Structures”). Basing on the conducted researches the recommendations of booms application at spillway facilities of Yumaguzinskaya and Upper Krasnogorskaya hydropower schemes, as well as at spillway facilities of Sayano-Shushenskaya and Plyavinskaya hydropower plants have been worked out. The main factor limiting wide application of booms at weirs is lack of feasible data for designing. At first, this data has to conclude methods of defining spillway discharge capacity and elevation of boom installation, which allows to keep the same spillway discharge capacity at rated head. The equations to define optimal elevation of boom installation and weir discharge capacity without its submergence have been analytically obtained for nappe-crested weir with installed boom. At the present time it is needed to conduct methodical experimental studies to define the discharge ratio and vertical compression according to different types of booms.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.220-227

References
  1. Zheleznyakov G.V., Ibad-Zade Yu.A., Ivanov P.L. Nedrigi V.P., editor. Gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzheniya: spravochnik proektirovshchika [Hydraulic Structures. Design Engineer Reference Book]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1983, 544 p.
  2. Serkov V.S., Vorob'ev A.S., Gur'ev A.P., Baychikov L.N. Propusknaya sposobnost' vodosbrosov gidroelektrostantsiy [Hydropower Plants Weirs Discharge Capacity]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1974, 120 p.
  3. Bradley J.N. Discharge Coefficients for Irregular Overfall Spillways. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. Engineering Monograph. March 1952, no. 9, 54 p.
  4. Pikalov F.I. Istechenie cherez shchitovoe otverstie na vodoslive prakticheskogo profilya i cherez zatoplennyy vodosliv takogo zhe profilya [Outfl ow through Panel Aperture at Nappe-crested Weir and over Submerged Nappe-crested Weir]. Gidrotekhnika i melioratsiya [Hydraulic Engineering and Reclamation]. Moscow, 1949, no. 1, pp. 13—19.
  5. Baranov A.E. Yumaguzinskiy gidrouzel na reke Beloy v Respublike [Bashkortostan Umaguzinskaya Hydropower Scheme at the River Belaya in Bashkortostan]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2004, no. 7, pp. 2—7.
  6. Rodionov V.B., Toloshinov A.V. Issledovanie i obosnovanie konstruktsiy beregovogo vodosbrosa Sayano-Shushenskoy GES [Research and Validation of Design of Sayano-Shushenskaya HPP Shore Spillway]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2006, no. 7, pp. 14—22.
  7. Tveritnev V.P., Shakirov R.R. Rezervnyy vodosbros Plyavinskoy GES [Reserve Spillway of Plyavinskaya HPP]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2010, no. 9, pp. 62—67.
  8. Gidravlicheskie raschety vodosbrosnykh gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy: spravochnoe posobie [Hydraulic Computations for Spillways. Reference Book]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1988, 624 p.
  9. Slisskiy S.M. Gidravlicheskie raschety vysokonapornykh gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy [Hydraulic Computations for High-head Hydraulic Engineering Structures]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1986.
  10. Kiselev P.G., editor. Spravochnik po gidravlicheskim raschetam [Reference Book on Hydraulic Computations]. Moscow, «Energiya» Publ., 1974, 313 p.
  11. ICOLD. Spillway for Dams. Bulletin 58. 1987.
  12. U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. Hydraulic Design of Spillways. EM 1110-2-1603. 16 January 1990.
  13. Gradshteyn I.S., Ryzhik I.M. Tablitsy integralov, summ, ryadov i proizvedeniy [Tables of Integrals, Sums, Series and Products]. Moscow, Gosudarstvennoye izdatel’stvovo fiziko-matematicheskoy literatury Publ., 1963, 1108 p.
  14. Bronshteyn I.N., Semendyaev K.A. Spravochnik po matematike [Mathematical Reference Book]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1986, 545 p.

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Applicability of various wave movement theories for calculating hydrobiotechnical constructions in the conditions of relative shoal

  • Pilyaev Sergey Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Hydraulic Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Gubina Nadezhda Andreevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assiciate Professor, Department of Hydraulic Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 228-235

Technological features of cultural reproduction of seafood presuppose the use of hydrobiotechnical constructions. Calculations of the loadings and impacts on sea hydrobiotechnical constructions demand a reasonable choice of a hydromechanical theory of wave movement. In the article the theories of two-dimensional regular linear and nonlinear waves are considered: the theory of small amplitude waves; Stokes' wave theory (the second order of approximation); the theory of final height waves of the first, second and third order of approximation. The dependences for determining speeds and accelerations of liquid particles are given. The comparison results of various theories of regular waves and fields of their application are stated. The authors offer the expressions for engineering calculations of kinematic characteristics of regular waves at a final depth. In recent years, cage culture fishery has received the predominant development in marine aquaculture, because its creation do not require large investments. Calculation of loads and impacts of waves on the shore hydraulic structures under extreme conditions require justified choice of hydro-mechanical theory of wave motions. This article gives a comparison of the various theories of regular waves, both linear and nonlinear and evaluates the applicability of them from the point of view of engineering use and actual conditions. However, the theory of small amplitude waves is widespread both in theoretical studies and engineering application, due to its sufficient simplicity and the fact that the linearity of the theory of small amplitude waves allows using the method of summing elementary solutions in the process of finding potential wave motion. The choice of one or another wave theory in marine facilities calculations of regular waves impact depends on the type of design, ease of using wave theory in calculations, type of the considered impact, applicability of the different wave theories in order to correctly describe the characteristics of wave motion in different wave zones.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.228-235

References
  1. Pilyaev S.I. Osobennosti modelirovaniya volnovykh protsessov na akvatoriyakh portov [Features of Modeling Wave Processes on Water Areas of Ports]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 4, vol. 2, pp. 89—97.
  2. Sretenskiy L.N. Teoriya volnovykh dvizheniy zhidkosti [The Theory of Wave Motions of Fluid]. 2nd edition. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1977.
  3. Krylov Yu.M. Spektral'nye metody issledovaniya i rascheta vetrovykh voln [Spectral Methods of Research and Calculation of Wind Waves]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1966, 256 p.
  4. Kozhevennikov M.P. Gidravlika vetrovykh voln [Hydraulics of Wind Waves]. Moscow, Energiya Publ., 1972, 263 p.
  5. Lappo D.D., Strekalov S.S., Zav'yalov V.N. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya vetrovykh voln na gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzheniya [Loads and Impacts of Wind Waves on Hydraulic Structures]. Leningrad, VNIIG im. B.E. Vedeneeva Publ., 1990, 432 p.
  6. Krylov Yu.M., Strekalov S.S., Tseplukhin V.F. Vetrovye volny i ikh vozdeystvie na sooruzheniya [Wind Waves and their Impact on Structures]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1976.
  7. Aleshkov Yu.Z., Ivanova S.V. Difraktsiya voln dvumya vertikal'nymi stenkami [Waves Diffraction by Two Vertical Walls]. Voprosy teorii i rascheta vetrovykh voln i ikh vozdeystviy na gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzheniya: trudy koordinatsionnogo soveshchaniya po gidrotekhnike [Questions of the Theory and Calculation of Wind Waves and their Impacts on Hydraulic Engineering Structures]. Leningrad, Energiya Publ., 1973, no. 84.
  8. Stokes G.G. On the Theory of Oscillatory Waves. Mathematical and Physical Papers. Cambridge, 1880, vol. 1, pp. 197—229. DOI: 10.1017/CBO9780511702242.013.
  9. Michell J.H. The Highest Waves in Water. Phil. Mag. Ser. 5. 1993, vol. 36, pp. 430—437.
  10. Longuet-Higgins M.S., Cockelet E.D. The Deformation of Steep Surface Waves on Water. I. A Numerical Method of Computation. Proceedings of the Royal Society. London, 1976, vol. A342, pp. 157—174. DOI: 10.1098/rspa.1976.0092.

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ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES

Features of innovative development of a construction complex in the conditions of national economy modernization

  • Alekseeva Ta'tyana Romanovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Сandidate of Economic Sciences, Associate Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 236-246

Today, one of the major tasks facing Russia is modernization of the national economy. The construction complex is one of the most important sectors of the national economy and it also needs innovative and technological rearmament. Transition of the construction complex to an innovative way of development is a difficult process. In the article the features of innovative development of a construction complex in Russia are considered. Innovative activity assumes the existence of certain types of resources, which in total are required for the solution of specific production objectives and reflect readiness of the construction organizations, the enterprises of building industry, design, research and other organizations within a construction complex, to their decision. The set of these resources represents the innovative potential of a construction complex. Innovative potential of a construction complex is presented by a set of components: fixed assets, construction materials, architectural and planning decisions, construction technologies, manpower, investment resources, organizational and economic mechanisms, administrative technologies. In the process of scientific research we carried out an assessment of innovative potential of a construction complex concerning the offered components. According to the results the problems of innovative development of a construction complex are revealed and the factors stimulating its transition to new technological mode are proved.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.236-246

References
  1. Asaul A.N., Batrak A.V. Korporativnye struktury v regional'nom investitsionnom komplekse [Corporative Structures in Regional Investment Complex]. Moscow, ASV Publ.; Saint Petersburg, SPbGASU Publ., 2001, 168 p.
  2. Innovatsionnye stroitel'nye materialy i tekhnologii: ikh vliyanie na razvitie gradostroitel'stva i gorodskoy sredy. Mirovoy opyt, rossiyskiy vzglyad [Innovative Construction Materials and Technologies: their Infl uence on the Development of Town Planning and Urban Environment. World experience, Russian View]. Doklad NIU VShE, Institut menedzhmenta innovatsiy [Report of Higher School of Economics, Institute of Innovational Management]. Moscow, 2013. Available at: http://imi.hse.ru. Date of access: 10.09.2013.
  3. Koshelev V.A. Osobennosti innovatsionno-investitsionnoy deyatel'nosti v stroitel'noy otrasli [Features of Innovative and Investment Activity in Construction Branch]. Ekonomika i upravlenie [Economy and Management]. 2009, no.5, pp. 191—194.
  4. Shlyakhto I.V. Otsenka innovatsionnogo potentsiala promyshlennogo predpriyatiya [Assessment of the Innovative Capacity of an Industrial Enterprise]. Vestnik Bryanskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta [Proceedings of Bryansk State Technical University]. 2006, no. 1, pp. 109—115.
  5. Yas'kova N.Yu., Kamenetskiy M.I. Krizis otechestvennoy modeli upravleniya stroitel'stvom i rynkom nedvizhimosti [Crisis of the Domestic Model of Management of the Construction and Real Estate Market]. Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economy in the Construction]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 3—13.
  6. Yas'kova N.Yu. Innovatsionnye metamorfozy investitsionnykh tsiklov [Innovative Metamorphoses of Investment Cycles]. Ekonomika stroitel'stva [Economy in the Construction]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 49—59.
  7. Yas'kova N.Yu. Tendentsii razvitiya stroitel'nykh korporatsiy v novykh usloviyakh [Development Tendencies of Construction Corporations in New Conditions]. Nauchnoe obozrenie [Scientific Review]. 2013, no. 5, pp. 174—177.
  8. Chetverik N. Chto nam stoit dom postroit', ili Nuzhna li innovatsionnost' proektno-smetnoy dokumentatsii [It is as Easy as Pie to Build Castles, or whether Innovation of Design and Budget Documentation Is Necessary]. Smetno-dogovornaya rabota v stroitel'stve [Estimated-contract Work in Construction]. 2013, no. 11, pp. 56—60.
  9. Glaz'ev S.Yu. Mirovoy ekonomicheskiy krizis kak protsess zameshcheniya dominiruyushchikh tekhnologicheskikh ukladov [World Economic Crisis as a Process of Replacing Dominating Technological Modes]. Available at: http://www.glazev.ru. Date of access: 10.05.2013.
  10. Lipsey R.G., Carlaw K.I., Bekar C.T. Economic Transformations — General Purpose Technologies and Long-Term Economic Growth. Oxford University Press, 2005, 618 p.
  11. Filosofova T.G. Effektivnost' ispol'zovaniya lizinga v skhemakh modernizatsii [Leasing Efficiency in Schemes of the Russian Economy Modernization]. Lizing. Tekhnologii biznesa [Leasing. Technologies of Business]. 2011, no. 9, pp. 6—21.
  12. Syrtsova O.N. Lizing kak instrument modernizatsii ekonomiki Rossii [Leasing as a Tool to Modernize the Russian Economy]. Lizing. Tekhnologii biznesa [Leasing. Technologies of Business]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 14—29.
  13. Putin V.V. Soveshchanie po razvitiyu maloetazhnogo stroitel'stva ot 22 iyulya 2011 g. [Meeting on Low-height Construction Development from 22 July, 2011]. Putin. Itogi [Putin. Results]. Available at: http://www.putin-itogi.ru. Date of access: 12.12.2013.

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Management of cluster structures in construction

  • Subbotin Artem Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Technology, Organization and Management in Construction Industry, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Architectural and Structural Design, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sborshchikov Sergey Borisovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor, acting chair, Department of Technology, Organization and Management in the Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lazareva Natal’ya Valerianovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Technology, Organization and Management in Construction Industry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 247-253

Construction as a branch of material production is characterized by complication of the tasks being solved. At the present moment the construction branch endures the stage of activity, in which there is a necessity of changing the organizational forms and methods of construction process management. One of the key methods construction management is the construction cluster. Cluster means a group of interrelated companies and brunches, concentrated on one territory and benefiting from being closely situated and close cooperation. Construction cluster as a model of presenting operational structure has differential specific features, determined by the fact that it possess wider functional and purpose-oriented decomposing. The authors offer the mathematical description of the system model of management, which proves the efficiency of cluster model in construction management. Calculations and formulas of using manpower and material resources and necessary investments are also presented as part of cluster model of management implementation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.247-253

References
  1. Sborshchikov S.B., Subbotin A.S. O vozmozhnosti ispol'zovaniya v stroitel'stve klasternoy modeli organizatsii [On the Possibility to Use the Cluster Model of Management in Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 5, pp. 286—290.
  2. Porter M. Competitive Advantage. Russian Translation. Moscow, Alpina Business Books Publ., 2005, 654 p.
  3. Subbotin A.S., Sborshchikov S.B. Klastery, tekhnologicheskie platformy, evrokody. Perspektivy ikh ispol'zovaniya v stroitel'stve [Clusters, Technological Platforms, Eurocodes. Prospects of their Use in Construction]. Tekhnologiya i organizatsiya stroitel'nogo proizvodstva [Technology and Organization of Construction Production]. 2011, no. 5, pp. 24—26.
  4. Sborshchikov S.B. Teoreticheskie zakonomernosti i osobennosti organizatsii vozdeystviy na investitsionno-stroitel'nuyu deyatel'nost' [Theoretical Patterns and Peculiarities of Influence Organization on Investment and Construction Activity]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 2, pp. 183—187.
  5. Sallet J., Paisley E. Innovation Clusters Create Competitive Communities. Huff Post Social News. September 21, 2009. Available at: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jonathan-sallet/innovation-clusters-creat_b_293603.html
  6. Granovetter M. The Success of the Innovative Cluster is Based on Openness, Flexibility and Freedom. The New Times (in Russian). 2010, April 6.
  7. Sborshchikov S.B. Sistemotekhnicheskoe opisanie problemy razgranicheniya planirovaniya i tekushchey proizvodstvennoy deyatel'nosti v stroitel'nykh organizatsiyakh [System Description of the Differentiation Problem of Planning and the Current Production Activity in the Construction Companies]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 215—220.
  8. Shen W., Hao Q., Mak H., Neelamkavil J., Xie H., Dickinson J., Thomas R., Pardasani A., Xue H. Systems integration and collaboration in architecture, engineering, construction, and facilities management : A review. Advanced Engineering Informatics. 2010, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 196—207. DOI: 10.1016/j.aei.2009.09.001.
  9. Georges A., Romme L., Gerard Endenburg. Design: Construction Principles and Design Rules in the Case of Circular Design. Organization Science. 2006, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 287—297. DOI: 10.1287/orsc.1050.0169.
  10. Subbotin A.S., Sborshchikov S.B. Organizatsionnye aspekty formirovaniya i funktsionirovaniya gosudarstvenno-chastnogo partnerstva i perspektivy ikh ispol'zovaniya v stroitel'stve [Organizational Aspects of Formation and Operation of the Public Private Partnership and Prospects for its Implementation in the Construction Industry]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 267—271.
  11. Varnavskiy V.G. Partnerstvo gosudarstva i chastnogo sektora: formy, proekty, riski [Partnership of the State and Private Sector: Forms, Projects, Risks]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2005, p. 28, 36.

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INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Overview of software products for the terrain analysis in the tasks of design automation of wind-power stations

  • Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Rector, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Information Systems, Technology and Automation in Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 929-52-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sukneva Luiza Valer'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, assistant, Department of Information Systems, Technology and Automation in Civil Engineering, leading engineer of the analytical department, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kirschke Heiko - Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Department of Computer Science in Civil Engineering, Bauhaus-Universitat Weimar, 7 Coudraystrabe, Weimar, 99423, Germany; +49 (0) 36 43; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 254-261

The lack of ground and constantly growing price for energy sources are the reason for using alternative energy. The rules of the world community for environmental protection is the motivation for using renewable energy sources. It is necessary to automate the processes of the design technology for the alternative energy structures and their operation, as well as data gathering and analisys on all the existing objects. There is also the need to automise these objects' management. The topic of this article is connected to the analysis of terrain for designing windpower stations. The regional wind maps are valuable tools for the wind farm developer for searching site, but they are not accurate enough to justify the financing of the development. For the majority of prospective wind farms, the developer must undertake a wind resource measurement and use analyzing program. This should provide a robust prediction of the expected energy production over its lifetime. The authors note that a prediction of the energy production of a wind farm is possible using such methods as the wind atlas methodology within WAsP and show the main instruments.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.3.254-261

References
  1. Mortensen N.G., Landber I., Troen I., Petersen E.L. Wind Atlas Analysis and Application Program (WAsP). User's Guide Risoe-1-666 (EN) (v.2). Roskilde, Denmark, Risoe National Laboratory, 1993.
  2. Volkov A. General Information Models of Intelligent Building Control Systems. Proceedings of the International Conference on Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. Nottingham, UK, Nottingham University Press, 2010, Paper 43, p. 8.
  3. Volkov A.A., Sedov A.V., Chelyshkov P.D., Sukneva L.V. Geograficheskaya informatsionnaya sistema (atlas) al'ternativnykh istochnikov energii [Atlas: Geographic Information System of Alternative Sources of Energy]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no.1, pp. 213—217.
  4. Shvetsov D. Automation in the Service of Alternative Energy — a Promising Alliance. System Integration, 2011, pp. 48—53.
  5. Ignatova E.V. Reshenie zadach na osnove informatsionnoy modeli zdaniya [Problem Solving on the Basis of Information Model of Buildings]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 9, pp. 241—246.
  6. Volkov A.A. Gomeostat stroitel'nykh ob"ektov. Chast' 3. Gomeostaticheskoe upravlenie [Homeostat of Construction Projects. Part 3. Homeostatic Management]. Stroitel'nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st century]. 2003, no. 2, pp. 34—35.
  7. Volkov A.A., Vaynshteyn M.S., Vagapov R.F. Raschety konstruktsiy zdaniy na progressiruyushchee obrushenie v usloviyakh chrezvychaynykh situatsiy. Obshchie osnovaniya i optimizatsiya proekta [Design Calculations for the Progressive Collapse of Buildings in Emergency Situations. Common Grounds and Project Optimization]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 1, pp. 388—392.
  8. Skiba A.A., Ginzburg A.V. Analiz riska v investitsionno-stroitel’nom proekte [Risk Analysis for Investment Projects in the Construction Industry]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 12, pp. 276—281.
  9. Ginzburg A. Computer Modeling in Organizational and Technological Design. Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Construction Applications of Virtual Reality 2011. Weimar, Germany, Bauhaus-Universit?t, 2011, pp. 29—30.
  10. Ginzburg A. Organizational and Technological Reliability of Construction Companies. Computing in Civil and Building Engineering. Proceedings of The International Conference. Nottingham, The University of Nottingham, 2010, pp. 275—276.

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