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Pages 7-17

Soviet architecture between 1917-1932 gave us the examples of genuine artistic and engineering design chef-d’oeuvres. The rationalism and constructivism were two main inseparable groups of modernist Soviet architecture. In 1922 leaders of rationalism - Nikolay Ladovskiy, Vladimir Krinskiy and Arthur Loleit founded ASNOVA (Association of New Architects). In 1925 Moisei Ginzburg, Alexander Vesnin, Viktor Vesnin and Ivan Leonidov founded OSA (Association of Contemporary Architects). Both of these organizations created well-known architecture of Soviet avant-garde. Russian civil engineers and architects maintained close comprehensive relations with their western colleagues. “Iron Curtain” became nonviolated border twenty years later. For the whole period of time since October (until 1932), Communist party demanded the collaboration between Soviet, European and American architects. Russian constructivists and Le Corbusier had very close and intensive relations between each other. OSA maintained regular contacts with Bauhaus (especially with Walther Gropius and Hannes Meyer). Their common principles and patterns enriched the architecture of the 20th century round the world. The Constructivist Narkomfin Communal House (Moisei Ginzburg and Ignati Milinis, 1930) from 1931 enhances the dynamism of the building’s innovative construction and utopian idealism. While Ginzburg had great success in the mid-1920s, he, along with the experimental architecture of the period, had fallen out of favor by the mid-1930s. Unlike the other examples of the lost vanguard, Narkomfin House isn’t ossified in both form and function. However, here the clean lines of the avant-garde are buried and muddled beneath the everyday needs of human inhabitants and the neglect of time. Despite of the foresaid, it remains an enduring symbol of this first epoch of Soviet history.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.7-17

- Khan-Magomedov S.O. Ratsionalizm — “formalizm” [The Rationalism — “Formalism”]. Moscow, 2007, 496 p.
- Khan-Magomedov S.O. Suprematizm i arkhitektura (problemi formoobrazovaniya) [Suprematism and Architecture (the Problems of Shaping)]. Moscow, 2007, 520 p.
- Khan-Magomedov S.O. Ivan Leonidov [Ivan Leonidov]. Moscow, 2009, 368 p.
- Khan-Magomedov S.O. Moisey G?nzburg. Moscow, 2007, 136 p.
- Khan-Magomedov S.O. Aleksandr Vesnin i konstruktivizm [Alexander Vesnin and the Constructivism]. Moscow, 2007, 412 p.
- Kosenkova Y.L. Opyt formirovaniya pravovoy osnovy sovetskogo gradostroitel’stva. 1920—1930-e gg. [The Experience of the Legal Basis of Soviet Civil Engineering Formation. 1920—1930s]. Gradostroitel’noe iskusstvo. Novye materialy i issledovaniya [Town Planning Art. New Materials and Researches]. Moscow, 2010, pp. 335—351.
- Kosenkova Y.L. Rayonnaya planirovka v SSSR. Opyt 1920—1930-kh godov [Regional Planning in the USSR. The Experience of 1920—1930s.]. Arhitekturnoe nasledstvo [Architectural Heritage]. Moscow, 2011, pp. 353—372.
- Molokova T.A., Frolov V.P. Pamyatniki kul’tury Moskvy: iz proshlogo v budushchee [Moscow Cultural Monuments: from the Past to the Future]. Moscow, 2010, 168 p.
- Gin?s Garrido. Moisei G?nzburg. Escritos 1923—1930. Madrid: El Croquis editorial, 2007
- John W. Maerhofer. Rethinking the Vanguard: Aesthetic and Political Positions in the Modernist Debate, 1917—1962. Cambridge Scholars Publ., 2009, 215 p.
- Klaus von Beyme. Das Zeitalter der Avantgarden: Kunst und Gesellschaft 1905—1955. C.H. Beck, 2005, 995 p
- Ikonnikov A.V. Utopicheskoe myshlenie i arkhitektura [Utopian Thinking and Architecture]. Moscow, 2004, 333 p.
- Han-Magomedov S.O. M.Ya. Ginzburg. Zodchie Moskvi [Moscow Architects]. Moscow, 1988, pp. 218, 220.
- KPSS v rezolyutsiyakh i resheniyah s’ezdov, konferentsiy i plenumov TsK. Ch. I : 1898—1925 [CPSU in Resolutions and Decisions of Congresses, Conferences and CC Plenums. Part I: 1898—1925]. Moscow. Gospolitizdat Publ., 1953, 426 p.
- XVI konferentsiya VKP(b) [XVI Conference of All-Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik's)]. Stenograficheskiy otchet [Stenographic report]. Moscow, 1962, pp. 14—15.
- Aleshchenko N.M. Moskva v planah razvitiya i rekonstruktsii. 1918— 1985 [Moscow in the Development and Reconstruction Plans. 1918—1985]. Moscow, 2009, 50 p.

Pages 18-27

For more than 20 years the author with his colleagues conducts engineering researches, design of restoration and reconstruction of various architectural monuments. Full cycles of works from engineering investigations to implementation of the own projects are executed on three objects: 1) architectural monument of the 19th century, the church in the museum preserve Abramtsevo (Moscow region), during 2005-2006; 2) a monument of Orthodox church history, a unique soil construction which is called "The Holy Ditch" in the village Diveevo (Nizhny Novgorod region) since 1997 to the present; 3) Church of Our Lady of Kazan also in Diveevo village during 1997-2002. For churches engineering researches are executed, calculations of the bases are made, ways of strengthening the bases are chosen, architectural projects of restoration are created. The church is restored by students under supervision of the experts from the university. The church in Diveevo was partially destroyed during the Soviet period. During restoration high-rise parts of the church were constructed. The works were performed by working restorers under control of the author of article in 2002-2004. Participation of students, masters, graduate students in restoration works had great educational value, gave to young people experience and knowledge. Students studied under professional restorers. Generalization is given in summary. D.S. Likhachyov's theory and our own experience are used. The principle of reconstructing barbarously destroyed engineering constructions, buildings and architectural complexes is formulated. It corresponds to the realities of the 21st century, new technological capabilities and requirements of modern society. Briefly: the reconstructed structure, in our opinion, has to face not only the past, but also the future. It is not always necessary to create the exact copy of the lost construction. Recreating the destroyed construction, it is necessary to apply new materials to increase the reliability and eliminate constructive imperfection of ancient constructions together with preserving old forms. Buildings and constructions have to be under construction anew mainly for performance of former functions, but the buildings have to meet modern requirements on the equipment and internal planning, modern technical norms. The project of the lost building needs to be made taking into account the change of environment. These provisions were successfully incarnated in the process of construction of St. Ditch in Diveev and they are also illustrated on the examples of the reconstruction of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior in Moscow and Frauenkiche in Dresden.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.18-27

- Paushkin G.A., Cherkasova L.I., Kryzhanovskiy A.L., Alekseev G.V. Problemy nadezhnosti osnovaniy i fundamentov khramovykh zdaniy na ostrove Anzer [Problems of Reliability of Bases and Foundations of Temple Buildings on the Island Anzer]. Problemy obespecheniya ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti stroitel'stva: 4 Denisovskie chteniya, sbornik [Proceedings of the 4th Denisov Readings: Problems of Ensuring Ecological Safety of Construction]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2008, pp. 126—134.
- Arts and Crafts. Von Morris bis Mackintosh — Reformbewegung zwischen Kunstgewerbe und Sozialutopie. Darmstadt, 1995, 152 S.
- Kunstlerkolonien in Europa im Zeichnen der Ebene und des Himmels. Ausstellungskatalog des Germanischen Nationalmuseums. Nurenberg, 2002, 124 S.
- Chernyshev S.N., Shcherbina E.V. Svyataya Bogorodichnaya Kanavka: prirodnye usloviya i tekhnicheskie resheniya po vossozdaniyu [St. Ditch: Environmental and Technical Solutions for Reconstruction]. Prirodnye usloviya stroitel'stva i sokhraneniya khramov Pravoslavnoy Rusi: sbornik trudov 2-go Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo simpoziuma [Proceeding of the 2-nd International Scientific and Practical Symposium "Environmental Conditions of Construction and Preservation of the Temples of Orthodox Russia]. Sergiev Posad, the Moscow Patriarchate Publ., 2005, pp. 247—253.
- Tserkov' Kazanskoy ikony Bozhiey Materi v Diveeve [Church of Our Lady of Kazan in Diveevo]. Moscow, Yabloko Publ., 2004, pp. 99—106.
- Kornilov A.M., Cherkasova L.I., Chernyshev S.N. Prognoz osadok fundamentov pravoslavnykh khramov pri ikh restavratsii s uchetom istorii nagruzheniya osnovaniya i osobennostey konstruktsii fundamentov na primere tserkvi Kazanskoy ikony Bozhiey Materi Sv.-Troitskogo Serafimo-Diveevskogo monastyrya [Forecast of Foundation Settlement of Orthodox Temples at their Restoration Taking into Account the History of the Basis Loading and Features of the Bases Design on the Example of Church of Our Lady of Kazan of St. Troitsky Serafimo-Diveevsky monastery]. Akademicheskie chteniya N.A.Tsytovicha: 2-e Denisovskie chteniya [Proceeding of the N.A.Tsytovich's academic readings: 2-nd Denisov readings]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2003, pp. 80—84.
- Darchiya V.I., Pashkevich S.A., Pulyaev I.S., Pustovgar A.P., Chernyshev S.N. Vliyanie usloviy osveshchennosti otkosov na ekspluatatsionnye svoystva geosinteticheskikh setok na osnove poliamida-6 / [Influence of Ambient Light on Slopes on the Performance Properties of Geosynthetic Grids Based on Polyamide-6]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 12, pp. 101—108.
- Chernyshev S.N., Timofeev V.Yu. Merzlotnye i gibridnye inzhenerno-geologicheskie protsessy v glinistykh gruntakh sooruzheniy Svyatoy Bogorodichnoy kanavki [Frost and Hybrid Engineering Geological Processes in Clay Soil of the Constructions of the St. Ditch]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 68—72.
- Tazina N.G., Darchiya V.I. Sozdanie gazonnykh travostoev na ochen' krutykh sklonakh sil'noy zatenennosti v Diveeve [Creation the Lawn Herbages on Very Cool Slopes of Strong Opacity in Diveevo]. Resursosberegayushchie tekhnologii v lugovom kormoproizvodstve: Materialy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, posvyashchennoy 100-letiyu kafedry lugovodstva. Sbornik [Resource-saving Technologies in a Meadow Forage Production. St. Materials of the International Scientific and Practical Conference Devoted to the 100 Anniversary of the Chair of Grassland Culture]. SPbGAU Publ., 2013, pp. 240—245.
- Batsukh N., Chernyshtv S.N., Surmaagav M., Tkachev V.N. Influence of Engineering-Geological Conditions in the Mongolian Architecture. The Engineering Geology of Ancient Works, Monuments and Historical Sites, Proceedings of International Symposium. IAEG, Athens, 1988, pp. 223—228.
- Likhachev D.S. Ekologiya kul'tury [Ecology of the Culture]. Moscow, 1979, no. 7, pp. 173—179.
- Chernyshev S.N. Ekologiya kul'tury — chast' ucheniya o noosfere, ideynoe osnovanie vossozdaniya zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Culture in Ecology — a Part of the Noosphere, the Ideological Base in Reconstruction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 12, pp. 123—130.
- Volker Stoll, Carsten Leibenart. Geotechnische und Hydrogeologische Arbeiten fur den Wiederaufbau der Frauenkirche Dresden und deren Umfeld. Prirodnye usloviya stroitel'stva i sokhraneniya khramov pravoslavnoy Rusi: sbornik tezisov 5-go Mezhdunarodnogo nauchno-prakticheskogo simpoziuma [Proceeding of the 5th International Scientific and Practical Symposium "Environmental Conditions of Construction and Preservation of the Temples of Orthodox Russia]. N. Novgorod, 2013, pp. 41—49.

Pages 28-33

An equation commonly used to describe solute transport in aquifers is called an advection-dispersion equation. It has been observed that in case of diffusion processes, where the diffusion takes place in a nonhomogeneous medium, the traditional Fick’s law is not satisfied and the classical advection-diffusion may not be adequate without detailed, decimeter-scale, information of the connectivity of high and low hydraulic conductivity sediments. The fractional advection-dispersion equation is presented as a useful approach for the description of transport dynamics in complex systems, which are governed by anomalous diffusion and non-exponential relaxation patterns. Fractional advection-dispersion equations are nonlocal, they describe transport affected by hydraulic conditions at a distance. Space-fractional advection-dispersion arise when velocity variations are heavy tailed and describe particle motion that accounts for variation in the flow field over the entire system. Time-fractional advection-dispersion equations arise as a result of power law particle residence time distributions and describe particle motion with memory in time. Due to vast range of applications of the fractional advection-dispersion equation, we have done a lot to find numerical solution and fundamental solution for this equation. Some authors have discussed the numerical approximation for the fractional advection-dispersion equation. The research on the analytical solution of boundary value problem for space-fractional advection-dispersion equation is relatively new and still at an early stage of development.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.28-33

- Benson D.A., Wheatcraft S.W., Meerschaert M.M. Application of a Fractional Advection-Dispersion Equation. Water Resources Research. 2000, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 1403—1412. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1029/2000WR900031.
- Malamud M.M., Oridoroga L.L. On Some Questions of the Spectral Theory of Ordinary Differential Equations of Fractional Order. Dopov. NAN Ukr. 1998. No. 9. Pp. 39—47.
- Nakhushev A.M. Drobnoe ischislenie I ego primenenie [Fractional Calculation and its Application]. Moscow, 2003, 272 p.
- Bechilova A.R. O skhodimosti raznostnykh skhem dlya uravneniya diffuzii drobnogo poryadka [On the Convergence of Difference Schemes for Fractional Diffusion Equation of Order]. Nelineynye kraevye zadachi matematicheskoy fiziki i ikh prilozhenie [Nonlinear Boundary Value Problems of Mathematical Physics and Their Application]. Kiev, 1996, pp. 42—43.
- Nakhusheva V.A. Differentsial'nye uravneniya matematicheskikh modeley nelokal'nykh protsessov [Differential Equations of Mathematical Models of Non-Local Processes]. Moscow, 2006, 174 p.
- Khasambiev M.V. Ob odnoy kraevoy zadache dlya mnogomernogo drobnogo differentsial'nogo uravneniya advektsii-diffuzii [A Boundary Value Problem for a Multidimensional Fractional Differential Advection-Diffusion Equation]. Nelokal'nye kraevye zadachi i rodstvennye problemy sovremennogo analiza [Nonlocal Boundary Value Problems and Relevant Problems of Modern Analysis]. Terskol, 2013, pp. 79—85.
- Pskhu A.V. Kraevye zadachi dlya differentsial'nykh uravneniy s chastnymi proizvodnymi drobnogo i kontinual'nogo poryadka [Boundary Value Problems for Differential Equations with Fractional and Continuous Derivatives]. Nalchik, 2005, 186 p.
- Samarskiy A.A. Teoriya raznostnykh skhem [The Theory of Difference Schemes]. Moscow. Nauka Publ., 1983, 616 p.
- Aleroev T.S. Kraevye zadachi dlya differentsial'nykh uravneniy drobnogo poryadka [Boundary Value Problems for Differential Fraction Equations]. Doklady Adygskoy (Cherkesskoy) Mezhdunarodnoy akademii nauk [Reports of Circassian International Academy of Sciences]. 2013, no. 1, pp. 9—14.
- Pshu A.V. Uravneniya v chastnykh proizvodnykh drobnogo poryadka [Equations of Quotient Fractional Derived Numbers]. Ìoscow. Nauka Publ., 2005. 200 p.

Pages 34-40

In our work we study a classic pursuit problem in which two material points - a Pursuer and a Pursued - move in a plane at constant velocities. The velocity vector of the Pursued does not change its direction and the velocity vector of the Pursuer turns and always aims at the Pursued. If the Pursuer moves at a higher speed, it will overtake the Pursued for any initial angle between velocity vectors. For example, a crane system simultaneously producing three movements: rotation, extension/retraction and luffing, may seize the cargo moving in a straight line while the crane is standing motionless. In the coordinate system of the Pursuer, the path length of the Pursued is given by an integral, depending on two parameters: the ratio of the initial velocities of two points and the initial angle between them. The theorem on the asymptotic integral expansion is formulated and proved considering the speed of the Pursuer is much greater than the speed of the Pursued. The first two nonzero terms of the asymptotic expansion provide fast convergence to the exact value of the integral because of the absence of the first- and the third-order asymptotic elements. The third nonzero element of the fifth order allows to determine the difference of path lengths corresponding to the adjacent initial angles between the velocities of the points.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.34-40

- Nahin Paul J. Chases and Escapes: The Mathematics of Pursuit and Evasion. Princeton University Press, 2007, 270 pp.
- Mungan C.E. A Classic Chase Problem Solved from a Physics Perspective. European Journal of Physics. 2005, vol. 26, pp. 985—990.
- Simoson A.J. Pursuit Curves for the Man in the Moone. The College Mathematics Journal. Washington, 2007, vol. 38, no. 5, pp. 330—338.
- Rikhsiev B.B. Differentsial'nye igry s prostym dvizheniem [Differential Games with Simple Motion]. Tashkent, Fan Publ., 1989, 232 p.
- Bernhart A. Curves of Pursuit. Scripta Mathematica. 1954, vol. 20, pp. 125—141.
- Krasovskiy N.N. Igrovye zadachi o vstreche dvizheniy [Game Problems on the Meeting of Movements], Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1970, 420 p.
- Azamov A.A., Kuchkarov A.Sh., Samatov B.O. O svyazi mezhdu zadachami presledovaniya, upravlyaemosti i ustoychivosti v tselom v lineynykh sistemakh s raznotipnymi ogranicheniyami [The Relation between the Chase, Controllability and Overall Stability Problems in Linear Systems with Heterogeneous Constraints]. Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika [Applied Mathematics and Mechanics]. 2007, vol. 71, no. 2, pp. 259—263.
- Barton J.C., Eliezer C.J. On Pursuit Curves. The Journal of the Australian Mathematical Society. Ser. B41, 2000, pp. 358—371.
- Kuzmina L.I., Osipov Yu.V. Raschet dliny traektorii dlya zadachi presledovanya [Path Length Calculation in the Pursuit Problem]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 12, pp. 20—26.
- Silagadze Z.K., Chashchina O.I. Zadacha presledovaniya zaytsa volkom kak uprazhnenie elementarnoy kinematiki [The Dog-and-rabbit Purcuit Problem as an Exercise in Introductory Kinematics]. Vestnik NGU, Seriya Fizika [Bulletin of Novosibirsk State University, Issue Physics]. 2010, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 111—115.
- Silagadze Z.K., Tarantsev G.I. Comment on ‘Note on the Dog-and-rabbit Chase Problem in Introductory Kinematics’. European Journal of Physics. 2010, vol. 31, pp. 37—38.
- Kuzmina L.I., Osipov Yu.V. Calculation of the Pursuit Curve Length. Journal for Computational Civil and Structural Engineering. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2013, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 31—39.
- Kuzmina L.I., Osipov Yu.V. Asimptotika dliny traektorii v zadache presledovaniya [Path Length Asymptotics in the Pursuit Problem]. Voprosy prikladnoy matematiki i vychislitel'noy mekhaniki [Problems of Applied Mathematics and Computational Mechanics]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2013, vol. 16, pp. 238—249.
- Maslov V.P. Asimptoticheskie metody i teoriya vozmushcheniy [Asymptotic Methods and Perturbation Theory]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1988, 310 p.
- Olver F. Introduction to Asymptotics and Special Functions. New York, Academic Press, 1974, 375 p.

Pages 41-50

The article deals with water-air regeneration of immobilized sludge on aerotank-bioreactor brush loading. The researches of inert loading regeneration with water-air method were performed on a physical model of bioreactor representing a planar vertical cross section of the aeration tank volume-bioreactor. Water-air regeneration torch was provided through the ejection nozzles located under brush loading. The dependence of air flow inducing from the nozzles of the specific water flow delivered by the pump in the water circuit with a fixed number of nozzles from one to six is extreme. Increasing the number of nozzles led to an increase in specific water consumption and, accordingly, to an increase in water-air regeneration torch inducing. The authors obtained mathematical equations describing their interdependence with high degree of accuracy. They also determined the efficiency of inert loading regeneration depending on the number of working nozzles. Changing the number of nozzles with up to six units lead to increase of regeneration efficiency from 80 to 95 %. The resulting dependence allows us to calculate the number of nozzles on the projected volume of the aeration tank-bioreactor from the following relationship: one nozzle on the volume of water consumption equal to 0.04 m

^{3} with a fairly high efficiency air-water regeneration reaching 85 %.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.41-50

- Zhmur N.S. Tekhnologicheskie I biokhimicheskie protsessy ochistki stochnykh vod na sooruzheniyakh s aerotenkami [Technological and Biochemical Processes of Waste Water Treatment on Treatment Plants with Aerotanks]. Moscow, 2003, 512 p.
- Kulikov N.I, Raimanov A.Y., Omel'chenko N.P., Chernyshov V.N. Teoreticheskie osnovy ochistki vody [Theoretical Foundations of Water Cleaning]. Makeevka, 2009, 298 p.
- Hentse M., Armoes P., La-Cour-Jansen J., Arvan E. Ochistka stochnykh vod [Sewage Treatment]. Moscow, 2004, 480 p.
- Chua H.C., Arnot T.C., Howell J.A. Controlling Fouling in Membrane Bioreactors Operated with a Variable Throughput. Desalination. 2002, vol. 149, no. 1—3, pð. 225—229. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0011-9164(02)00764-6.
- Springer Andrew. Loading for the Immobilization of Microorganisms in the Biological Cleaning of Sewage Systems. Water and Waste Treat. 2007, vol. 50, no. 2, pð. 22—23.
- Qiyong Yang, Jihua Chen, Feng Zhang. Kontrol' zagryazneniya membrany v pogruzhnykh membrannykh bioreaktorakh s poristoy plavayushchey zagruzkoy [Membrane Fouling Control in a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor with Porous, Flexible Suspended Carriers]. Voda i ekologiya [Water and Ecology]. 2008, no. 1, pp. 33—47.
- Litti Yu.V., Nekrasov V.K., Kulikov N.I. Obnaruzhenie anaerobnykh protsessov i mikroorganizmov v immobilizovannom aktivnom ile stantsii ochistki stochnykh vod s intensivnoy aeratsiey [Detection of Anaerobic Processes and Microorganisms in the Immobilized Activated Sludge Wastewater Treatment Plants with Intensive Aeration]. Mikrobiologiya [Microbiology]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 25—28.
- Globa L.I., Gvozdyak P.I., Zagornaya N.B., Nikovskaya G.N., Fedorik S.V., Yablonskaya L.I. Ochistka prirodnoy vody gidrobiontami, zakreplennymi na voloknistykh nasadkakh [Cleaning of Natural Water Hydrobionts Nozzles Attached to the Fibrous]. Khimiya i tekhnologiya vody [Chemistry and Technology of Water]. 1992, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 63—67.
- Udo Wiesmann, In Su Choi, Eva-Maria Dombrowski. Fundamentals of Biological Wastewater Treatment. Weinheim, 2007, 255 p.
- Omel'chenko N.P., Kovalenko L.I. Voloknistye nasadki dlya system ochistki vody [Fiber Nozzles for Water Cleaning Systems]. Problemy ekologii [Environmental Problems]. Donetsk, 2011, no. 1—2, pp. 12—17.
- Mahro Bernd. Denitrification Processes in Wastewater Treatment. KA — Abwasser, Abfall. 2006, 53, no. 9, pp. 916—919.
- Osadchiy V.F., Yaremenko L.V. Tsirkulyatsionnyy aerotenk s inertnym napolnitelem [Circulation Aerotank With an Inert Filler]. Sbornik dokladov Mezhdunarodnogo kongressa «EKVATEK-2006», Moskva, 30 maya—2 iyunya [Collection of Reports of the International Congress "EKVATEK -2006", Moscow, May 30 — June 2]. Moscow, 2006, vol. 2, pp. 754—755.
- Slovtsov A.A. Sovershenstvovanie protsessov biologicheskoy ochistki stochnykh vod s pomoshch’yu prikreplennykh biotsenozov [Improving Processes of Biological Cleaning of Wastewaters Using Attached Biocenosis]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. Moscow, 2008, no. 3, ðp. 80—85.
- Kulikov N.I, Kulikova Å.N., Fåsånêî L.N., Êràsàvêin G.Â. Patent 229858 RU, MÊP6Ñ02 F1/24, Â01 D1/14. Flîtîustànîvêà dlyia îchistki proizvodstvennykh stochnykh vod [Flotation Plant for Industrial Wastewater]. No. 2005122802/15. App. 18.07.05. Publ. 27.05.07. Priority 18.07.05.
- Kul'kov V.N., Solopanov E.Yu., Zelenin A.M. Vliyanie gazovoy sostavlyayushchey na effektivnost' vodo-vozdushnoy regeneratsii ershovoy zagruzki v bioreaktore [Gas Component Influence on Water-Air Regeneration of Brush Loading in Bioreactor]. Vestnik IrGTU [Proceedings of Irkutsk State Technological University]. Irkutsk, 2012, no. 11, ðp. 112—118.
- Sosna V.M., Zelenin A.M., Solopanov E.Y. Regeneratsiya immobilizovannogo ila nakhodyashchegosya na ershovoy zagruzke v aerotank [Regeneration of Immobilized Sludge Located on Brush Loading in Aerotank]. Sbornik trudov 15 Vserossiyskoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii Neryungri [Materials of the 15th All-Russian Research-to-Practice Conference in Nerungri]. Nerungri, 2014, ðp. 53—56.

Pages 51-63

Many Russian and foreign scientists studied in their works bearing capacity of reinforced concrete elements. The principal difference of the presented approaches from the traditional ones is that they lack the necessity of artificial sizing as improbable for simultaneous getting preset limit values of corresponding parameters. In our paper we evaluated the bending moment, giving rise to limit stress strain behavior of corroded reinforced concrete beams with corroded concrete and tensile reinforcement. In order to reduce and simplify calculations we consider single reinforcement and ignore tensile reinforcement resistance, and in order to emphasize the idea of the approach we assume noncorrosiveness. The results of concrete stress strain state analysis are more reliable.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.51-63

- Guzeev E.A., Mutin A.A., Basova L.N. Deformativnost' i treshchinostoykost' szhatykh armirovannykh elementov pri dlitel'nom nagruzhenii i deystvii zhidkikh sred [Deformability and Crack Resistance of Compressed Reinforced Elements with Long-Term Loading in Fluids]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1984, 34 p.
- Komokhov P.P., Latynov V.I., Latynova M.V. Dolgovechnost' betona i zhelezobetona [Longevity of Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. Ufa, Belaya reka Publ., 1998, 216 p.
- Bondarenko V.M. Nekotorye fundamental'nye voprosy razvitiya teorii zhelezobetona [Some Fundamental Questions of Reinforced Concrete Theory Development]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika inzhenernykh konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics of Engineering Constructions and Buildings]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 20—34.
- Bondarenko V.M., Larionov E.A., Bashkatova M.E. Otsenka prochnosti izgibaemogo zhelezobetonnogo elementa [Evaluation of Bending Reinforced Element Strength] Izvestiya OrelGTU [News of Orel State Technological University]. 2007, no. 2 (14), pp. 25—28.
- Bondarenko V.M., Larionov E.A. Printsip nalozheniya deformatsiy pri strukturnykh povrezhdeniyakh elementov konstruktsiy [Deformation Superposition Frequency in Structural Damages of Construction Elements]. Stroitel'naya mekhanika inzhenernykh konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics of Engineering Structures and Buildings]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 16—22.
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Pages 64-74

Finite element method shows the influence of the joining area and the relative value of linearly distributed mass along the angular coordinate and concentrated mass on natural oscillations and forms of a closed, circular cylindrical shell. We defined the ranges of concentrated and linearly distributed mass, added to a shell. The variation of the concentrated mass contact area markedly affects the lower frequency of the "shell-mass" system, in this connection, reducing the area of the shell leads to a marked decrease of the lowest split natural frequencies. The greatest of split natural frequencies decreases markedly with the increasing of contact area. More complex (mixed) oscillation modes of the "shell-mass" are detected. Dependence of the geometric characteristics of the shell with a concentrated mass of the lower split natural frequencies lower tone of oscillations, thus, revealing the dependence of frequencies on the length of the sheath. Linear contact area variation of the added mass and the circular coordinate has little effect on the oscillation frequency of the "shell-mass" system.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.64-74

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Pages 75-84

The authors modified classical dummy-unit load method by adding elastic pliable foundation in the computation scheme. System attributes (internal force and foundation settlements) were obtained in symbolic form. Sensitivity functions were computed as direct system attributes differential with respect to a specific parameter. The developed method analyzes the structures’ properties with pliable foundation with sensitivity functions on the entire set of parameters. Using the above method, we observed the properties of the three-bay single-storey flat frame, computed sensitivity coefficients of a relative difference foundation settlements and the maximum bending moment of design frame parameters. Structural analysis without considering pliable base corresponds to a model with incompressible foundation. Practically such grounds are rare. Pliable base leads to displacement of the foundations, which in turn changes the stress-strain state of structures. Calculation of foundation settlements as freestanding unrelated elements also leads to errors. In general, settlement of any foundation leads to additional forces in the elements of the entire system, and hence to additional settlement of the remaining foundations. This issue is especially important for frame structures with freestanding foundations, such as joint foundation settlements caused by the stiffness of the structural elements of the frame. Thus, the analysis of foundation and frame elements collaboration based on sensitivity functions helps to assess the impact of system parameters on its properties. Purposeful reduction of the design parameters of the frame elements reduced the relative differential foundation settlements from 0.00213 to 0.00197 and the maximum bending moment from 781.2 kN∙m to 738.6 kN∙m.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.75-84

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Pages 85-92

High thermal resistance of heat insulating materials in real conditions is due to the presence of isolated gas cavities, usually air, in the material content. In order to create a cellular glass-ceramic material based on dispersed glass with high consumer characteristics and acceptable cost it’s necessary to change sulfate powder technology of making foam glass and replace the use of specialty glass to waste glass at low temperatures of glass forming. The use of waste glass as a raw material solves an important environmental problem. High level of vapor permeability of foam glass would extend the use of this material in fencing constructions. Heat treating of dispersed glass composite material in the matrix of hydrate sodium polysilicates leads to the formation of porous structured glass-ceramic with high heat insulating parameters. Engineering proposal allows using waste glass as a raw material instead of specialty glass.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.85-92

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Pages 93-100

Hollow filling by brick mortar may take place in engineering structures with hollow tiles, which leads to thermal properties worsening of a construction. One of solutions to the problem of increasing energy efficiency of enveloping structures is the development of heat insulation material based on cenospheres with increased strength and decreased thermal conductivity in case of operational watering. Homogeneous construction systems based on cellular concrete and porous ceramics meet the structural requirements and also provide required thermal performance. In order to improve operational characteristics of enclosing structures it is possible to apply ceramic materials with effective high porous filler. Manufacturing technology of materials based on high porous filler and clay does not require significant capital expenditures to upgrade existing facilities and it’s similar to technology of ceramic wall materials.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.93-100

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Pages 101-109

The authors present an analysis of effective methods of trenchless renovation of worn-out pipelines for water supply and wastewater disposal systems by means of prior destruction and dragging the new polymer pipes in the free space. The analysis of the devices for the destruction of the pipeline by trenchless methods, which include the pneumatic hammers, the wideners, petal cutters of various designs, is given. The article describes the conditions for application of different types of devices for destruction of pipelines, in particular, the range of destructible diameters and ROP. A fundamental condition for the effective work on the destruction of old pipes and dragging polymer and other pipes is the correct selection of conical reamers (their length and material, the angle of approach, the presence and number of cutting blades of a certain form, blades, etc.). Depending on the type of pipe (the strength of the wall) can be used to smooth the lead-in part of extenders or equipped with cutting lengthwise or roller blades. Tips-chopping knives, regardless of their design differences act like a can opener, slitting line into two or more parts and then pressing them into the surrounding soil and ensuring the free passage of the new extender conical pipes. The average speed of movement with destructive tip is about 80 m/h. A speed reduction is observed only when passing through the tip of the screw connections of the pipes. The work on restoration of old pipe sections shall be conducted in accordance with technological regulations, including preparations, which include inspection, skipping rope, winch procleaning, etc.), the main (construction) and final (dismantling) work that are associated with all stages of the process of the destructing the old and dragging a new pipeline. Particular attention is paid to foreign experience of trenchless renovation for steel pipes with couplings roller blades. The authors present the characteristics of renovation, approaches to the destruction of the old pipeline, in particular, the tests to assess the effectiveness of cutting pipe cutting devices. The technical process indicators are offered.

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Pages 110-132

Russia as well as the majority of the countries of the world is a highly urbanized country (according to expert opinion 70 % of the country population are citizens). The situation is worsening by the fact that in Russia, as well as in the majority of European countries, USA and Canada, great territories not occupied with agriculture are almost fully littered with industrial and consumer waste - including from solid municipal waste to highly toxic and radioactive. Generally about 9 bln tones of waste are accumulated in Russia, which includes 1.5 bln tones of dangerous waste. Basing on the analysis of more than 100 waste disposal objects in Samara region the authors showed that within its boundaries 17 landfills are situated, which after deactivation are potentially suitable as donors of recultivation materials: secondary mineral soils and soil substitutes. Moreover the separate remediated territories of can serve as sets for constructing waste neutralization complexes. The ideas presented in this work were used for estimating the state and justifying the methods of landfill recultivation in Zhigulevsk (Samara region).

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.110-132

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- Smetanin V.I. Rekul'tivatsiya i obustroystvo narushennykh zemel' [Recultivation and Development of Disordered Areas]. Moscow, Kolos Publ., 2000, 96 p.
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Pages 133-146

Hydraulic engineering constructions or dams are necessary constructive elements for river development. In severe climatic conditions (deep-frozen soil, low temperatures, high amplitudes of temperature fluctuations) the most expedient type of water retaining constructions are soil dams. In our paper we have examined economic conditions of the region with severe climate, available water resources and their development. We made the conclusions concerning preference for building reservoirs on the territory of Siberia. A two-century period, beginning with the first soil dams in the end of the 18th century, was considered for the building analysis. Our attention has been mainly focused on structures, engineering decisions and causes of accidents, which took place in operating cycle period. The results showed the importance of investigation of filtration and temperature regimes, as well as their collaboration in hydro technical structures design and operation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.133-146

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Pages 147-155

The article is a further research of a circular-longitudinal flow created in a cylindrical pipe by a continuous swirler called Couette vortex, which the author started to study in his previous works. The key question is how Couette modified vortex is transformed along the channel (pipe). The author regards variation of azimuthal velocities (

*u*) and the Heeger-Baer’s swirl number (

*Sn*) in turbulent irregular circular-longitudinal flow, which is described by the model of modified Couette vortex along the cylindrical channel. It is confirmed that the model of the modified Couette vortex and free-forced Burgers - Batchelor vortex show almost similar results in calculations and both vortex models can be equally used in engineering practice in calculations and the analysis of circulating and longitudinal flow operating modes (vortex flows).

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.147-155

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Pages 156-165

At the present stage the particular significance is gained by operational solutions of the problems of engaging in economic turnover of free land as a fundamental investment resource for socio-economic development of country and particular regions. The lack of obvious progress and positive dynamics of the main socio-economic indicators characterizing the growth tendency of living standard of the population and economy predetermines an essential demand in measures for effective use of land potential as a whole and in particular regions. One of the possible options for progressive social and economic development is the need for integration into the active circulation of land as an investment resource, to ensure the continued effective functioning and development facilities as well as the search for new approaches to the formation of the real estate market. With the development of land it makes sense to combine the three concepts: "development", "territory" and "quality". Thus, the qualitative development of the territory is a natural transition of land plots, which are in state, municipal, private or other forms of ownership to more perfect forms providing the ability to meet modern requirements of the market. It is expedient to apply the mechanism of combination of administrative and market ways of regulation of the specified processes to realize public policy objectives of efficient use of land fund. The mechanism for combining the efforts of the state, social and financial sectors of economy will allow to resolve most effectively the issues of ensuring the quality offered by natural and legal entities of the land plots, creating a network of infrastructures by forces of public sector, investor or through the public-private partnership, as well as enhancing the investment attractiveness of the territory. Due to the implementation of these tasks, involvement of land plots in economic circulation is accelerated and intensity of the processes of functioning of the land market increases. It provides the impulse to the development of the industrial complex, the solution of socially significant problems of housing and increase of life quality indicators of the population.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.156-165

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Pages 166-173

Construction as a branch of material production is among the industries most dangerous in the field of health protection and safety of works. The major features, which characterize the construction industry, are: high-altitude work, temporary nature of works, working with heavy cargo and irregular working hours. Large volumes and unique design of construction facilities, machines and equipment determine the risk of dangerous and harmful production factors. Neglect of safety rules and technological regulations, lack of supervision lead to accidents, injuries, loss of professional work capacity, chronic diseases and, as a consequence, the reduce of economic efficiency of the organizations of construction industry. Today specialists in the field of labour protection should solve the issues on improvement of technologies, increase of reliability of technical systems (equipment, machines, mechanisms, etc.), safety of life activity of workers, etc. A significant place in this complex of questions take solutions on protection of labours, environment protection, prevention and elimination of the consequences of emergency situations. The solution to these problems consists in providing the high quality elaborating projects of manufacture of works, including technological maps, projects of construction organization, which is achieved through the creation and effective functioning of the management system of occupational health and safety of labour. Particularly evident advantages of establishing occupational health and safety management system are: improvement of working conditions through establishing of management system of production risks; reduction of injuries, accidents, deaths in workplace; expansion of the market through the acquisition of competitive advantages due to the presence of the certificate on conformity to the international requirements OHSAS 18001 or ILO-OSH; achievement of positive economic effect due to reduction of costs associated with the occurrence of risk cases (occupational diseases, injuries, etc.).

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.166-173

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Pages 174-183

This article discusses the methods and models based on the principles of logistics of construction, connected with sustainable (balanced and optimal) development of construction investment and construction activity. Based on the performance taking place in the sphere of investment of the main and auxiliary construction processes, logistics, a new approach to dealing with the notion of a homeostatic state is proposed - the notion of dynamic optimum. With this approach, the objective of sustainable development investment and construction activities and its subsystems is to sustain its optimal trajectory. This definition implies the optimum identification and verification of industry and corporate level. The authors propose the variety of links between subsystems of construction investment, as well as between its areas of growth, which are only part of overall sustainable development providing optimal development of the individual subsystems. In order to determine the trajectory of sustainable development it is necessary to accurately delineate using the methods of logistics space border of construction investment, which can be reached at set time intervals. Knowing these boundaries is of particular importance for the development of long-term forecasts, operational and production plans, and for the effective management of subsystems.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.174-183

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Pages 184-191

The problem of calculation of an optimal route is important for companies, including civil engineering companies, wishing to reduce transportation costs of cargoes delivery. The existing regional distribution network of automobile roads is characterized, as a rule, by an extensive network of roads of varying quality, traffic capacity, large distances between consignors and consignees, small warehouse areas, disabled vehicle fleet. In this way companies seek to increased profits by means of solving complex problems such as: reducing the costs of transportation and storage of cargoes, reducing the number of vehicles fleet, using optimal vehicles schedule. Note that in this paper, the term optimal is not used in the strict mathematical sense (optimal - which can’t be improved), but as an established business application in a term describing the effectiveness and efficiency of the process of cost reduction. Common formulation of cargoes delivery optimization problem from consignor to consignee by motor transport is offered. Mathematical models and methods of cargoes delivery on an extensive network of roads are provided. The method consists in gradual solving of three problems: the problem of dividing the region into zones detour in one trip, the traveling salesman problem and the problem of forming a daily job for each unit of vehicle. The software for solving this problem is developed. The software is based on the complex of developed algorithms and standard software tools. The software permits: to calculate the optimal (in terms of transport costs and time costs) routes, schedules and delivery schemes of cargoes from consignor to consignee; to perform the optimal choice of consignor for each consignee by means of calculation of the minimum total cost of the storage and cost of its delivery; to ensure optimal filling of order in time and to ensure a full loading of cargo motor vehicles. Some results of software implementation are described.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2014.7.184-191

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