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Vestnik MGSU 2013/11

DOI : 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11

Articles count - 33

Pages - 267

GENERAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION-RELATED SCIENCES AND OPERATIONS. UNIFICATION AND STANDARDIZATION IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

The compative analysys of reinforcement steeluse in reinforced concrete structures in Russia and abroad

  • Madatyan Sergey Ashotovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Reinforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 129337, г. Москва, Ярославское шоссе, д. 26; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 7-18

Reinforced concrete is uninterruptedly developing progressive type of building materials. One of the most important advantages of reinforced concrete is the possibility of using it with reinforcing steel or composite materials of increased and high strength.As a result occurs substantial permanent growth in production, increase in strength and other service characteristics of steel rolling used for reinforcing concrete.Production and application of the modern types of reinforcement in our country started not long ago, much later, than in the USA and European countries. Until 1950 deformed reinforcement was not produced and used in our country; the production of hot-rolling reinforcement of the A400 (A-III) class started only in 1956.But already in 1960 the application of this reinforcement was 1.0 million tons a year, and in 1970 — 3.4 million tons a year.Up to the year 2012, the production and application of the deformed reinforcement of the classes A-400, A-500C and A-600C of all kinds exceeded 8.0 million tons. In order to ensure economic efficiency and competitive ability of national construction, the process of increasing the strength and workability of domestic reinforcing bar is continuously taking place. The results of this process in respect of the common untensioned reinforcement of reinforced concrete structures are discussed in the present article.We suggest to consider the mechanical and service characteristics of deformed reinforcement, which is manufactured according to the standards of our country GOST P 52544, classes A500C and B500C, GOST 5781, class A400, and Technical specifications 14-1-5596—2010, class Ан600С, grade 20Г2СФБA.For the comparative analysis we use the standard data for similar reinforcement established by EN 10080-2005 and Eurocode 2, as well as by standards ÖNORM B-420 of Austria, BC 4449/2005 of Great Britain, DIN 488 of Germany, A706M of the USA and G3142 of Japan.The standards of the above-mentioned countries slightly differ from the standardsEN 10080 and Eurocode 2, and from the Russian standards.We consider the statistical data of the real properties of hot-rolling, coldolling and thermo mechanically strengthened deformed reinforcement manufactured and certified according to GOST R 52544 and GOST 5781, produced in Russia, Byelorussia, Moldavia, Latvia, Poland, Turkey and Egypt.The fundamental difference of modern European standards from Russian standards and the standards of other countries considered in this article is that the requirements of EN 10080 and Eurocode 2 are unified for all reinforcement with the yield point of 400 to600 H/mm2 regardless of its production method.At the same time it is stated, that the actual properties of reinforcement of all groups according to EN 10080, differ essentially from those specified by this Standard and they better correspond to the Russian, Austrian and German standards.The Standard EN 10080 in the version of the year 2005 is inconvenient, because it does not determine technical classes. As a result, many European countries use their own, but not the European standards.Conclusion.The comparative analysis of our national and foreign standards of deformed rolled steel used for reinforcing concrete demonstrates that the physical and mechanical properties of the Russian and European reinforcing steel are almost the same, but for the following facts:Standard requirements established according to GOST 5781, GOST 10884 andGOST R 52544 are a bit higher than the standards of EN 10080;Reinforcement of the classes A400, A500 B500C and A600C, manufactured according to the Russian standards, can be used without recounting instead of reinforcement of the same strength classes according to EN 10080 and to the standards of other countries all over the world.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.7-18

References
  1. Svod pravil SP 63.13330—2012. Betonnye i zhelezobetonnye konstruktsii. Osnovnye polozheniya [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete Structures. Fundamental Principles]. Aktualizirovannaya redaktsiya SNiP 52-01—2003 [Revised Edition of Building Requirements 52-01—2003]. Moscow, NIIZhB Publ., 2012, 153 p.
  2. GOST R 52544—2006. Prokat armaturnyy svarivaemyy periodicheskogo profilya klassov A500S i V500S dlya armirovaniya zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy. Tekhnicheskie usloviya [All-Union Standard R 52544—2006. Deformed Weld Reinforcing Bar of the Classes A500S and V500S for Reinforcing of Concrete Structures. Technical Specifications]. Moscow, Standartinform Publ., 2006, 20 p.
  3. Eurocode 2. Design of Concrete Structures — Part 1-1 General Rules and Rules for Buildings. EN 1992-1-1. December 2004, 225 p.
  4. Almazov V.O. Proektirovanie zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy po evronormam [Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures According to European Requirements]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 216 p.
  5. Riskind B.Ya. Prochnost' szhatykh zhelezobetonnykh stoek s termicheski uprochnennoy armaturoy [Strength of Compressed Reinforced Concrete Columns with Thermally Strengthened Reinforcement]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1972, no. 11, p. 31—33.
  6. Chistyakov E.A., Mulin N.M., Khait I.G. Vysokoprochnaya armatura v kolonnakh [High-tensile Reinforcement in Columns]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1979, no. 8, pp. 20—21.
  7. Madatyan S.A. Tekhnologiya natyazheniya armatury i nesushchaya sposobnost' zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [The Technology of Steel Tensioning and Load-bearing Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1980, 196 p.
  8. DIN 1045. Beton und Stahlbeton. Berlin. 1988, 84 p.
  9. EN 10080. Weldable reinforcing steel — General. May 2005, 75 p.
  10. ?NORM 4200. Teil 7. Stahlbetontragwerke. Verst?rkung f?r Beton. OIB-691-002/04, 25 p.
  11. BS 4449:2005. Steel for the Reinforcement of Concrete – Weldable reinforcing Steel – Bar, Coil and Decoiled Product – Specification. 2005, 36 p.
  12. Madatyan S.A. Armatura zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [Reinforcement of Concrete Structures]. Moscow, Voentekhlit Publ., 2000, 236 p.

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ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

Anatomy of architectural criticism: professional problems

  • Tkachev Valentin Nikitovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Architecture, Professor, Department of Design of Buildings and Town Planning, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 19-25

Professional criticism decides controversial issues within the specialty, its edge focuses on the strengths and weaknesses of the project, on the professional qualities of the authors and on accordance of the project concept with social tasks. Professional criticism fine-tunes urban development plans, stops the destruction of open spaces in the city, condemns imitation and ambition, identifies tolerant modes of coexistence of the old and new.It is noted that a number of discussion problems eventually worked themselves out. The author touches upon an issue of problem points of higher architectural education.Administrative criticism is aimed at solving the disputable issues by the establishment of the positions contingency, but not their mutual negation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.19-25

References
  1. Mastera sovetskoy arkhitektury ob arkhitekture [Adepts of Soviet Architecture about the Architecture]. T. 1. M. Iskusstvo Publ., 1975, 544 p.
  2. Gidion. Z. Prostranstvo, vremya, arkhitektura [Space, Time, Architecture]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1984, 455 p.
  3. Le Corbusier. La charte d'Athene, avec un Discours Liminaize de Jean Giraudoux. Edition Plon, Paris, 1943, 60 p.
  4. Samokhina T.N. Iz istorii sozdaniya Soyuza sovetskikh arkhitektorov. K 75-letiyu tvorcheskogo soyuza zodchikh [From the Creation History of the Union of Soviet Architects. Dedicated to the 75th Anniversary of the Creative Union of Architects]. Moscow, SMA, NIITAG, RAASN Publ., 2007, 192 p.
  5. Bruno Taut. Die neue Baukunst in Europa und Amerika. Stuttgart, J. Hoffmann Verlag, 1979, 226 p.
  6. Khan-Magomedov S.O. Krivoarbatskiy pereulok 10 [Krivoarbatskiy Lane10]. Moscow, Moskovskiy rabochiy, 1984, 61 p.
  7. Stepanov V.K. Spetsializirovannye uchebno-lechebnye tsentry [Specialized Educational and Medical Institutions]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1987, 182 p.
  8. Maloyan G.A. K problemam planirovki i zastroyki zon suburbanizatsionnogo rasseleniya v gorodskikh aglomeratsiyakh [On the Problems of Planning and Development of Suburban Settlement in Urban Agglomerations]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo universiteta. Seriya «Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura» [Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 31(50), pp. 142—147
  9. Maloyan G.A. Moskva. Strategiya detsentralizatsii («stenokardiya» megapolisa nachinaetsya v rasselenii) [Moscow. Decentralization Strategy («Breast-pang» of Metropolis begins in the Process of Resettlement)]. ACADEMIA Publ., 2013, no. 2, 76—79 p.
  10. Koshkin O. Gorod kak simvol [City as a Symbol]. Dialog iskusstv [Dialogue of Arts]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 8—9.

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DESIGNING AND DETAILING OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. MECHANICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

The finite element method analysis of reinforced concrete structures with account for the real descriptionof the active physical processes

  • Berlinov Mikhail Vasil'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Reconstruction and Repair of Housing and Utility Objects, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Makarenkov Egor Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Reconstruction and Repair of Housing and Utility Objects, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU); This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 26-33

It is well known, that buildings and their bearing structures are subject to ageing, including corrosion, deterioration, etc. When faults in bearing structure are detected, disposal-at-failure maintenance should be made. But before that, it is necessary to assess the rate of deterioration.The author suggests to use finite element method for calculation of the safety margin of reinforced concrete bearing structures, because the finite element method is widely used in engineering practice of structural design. In the process of engineering inspection of reinforced concrete structures all defects of the inspected structure should be clearly specified. The article suggests to create the FEM-Model of the inspected structure in view of the fact that this structure is defected. In order to achieve this effect, the stiffness matrix of some finite elements should be changed and the FEM-Model must be created of volumetric finite elements (the article speaks about eight-node parallelepiped elements).At first the FEM-Model will be created of eight-node parallelepiped elements with standard descriptions for the reinforced concrete; then finite elements in damage area must be changed. On the basis of integral estimation of the mode of deformation, deformation ratio will be calculated, which is essential for the description assignment of the changes in stiffness matrix. The formulation of the deformation ratio includes all the possible defects of structure through indexes, which must be analytically calculated depending on the concrete defect.The method described in the article is useful in the process of engineering inspection of the reinforced concrete structures. Using this method can sufficiently specify the safety margin of a defected structure and forecast the future operational integrity of this structure under the acting load.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.26-33

References
  1. Karpenko N.I. Obshchie modeli mekhaniki zhelezobetona [General Models of the Reinforced Concretes Mechanics]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1996, 416 p.
  2. Karpenko N.I. Teoriya deformirovaniya zhelezobetona s treshchinami [The Theory of Deformation of the Reinforced Concrete with Cracks]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1976, 205 p.
  3. Murashev V.I. Treshchinostoykost', zhestkost' i prochnost' zhelezobetona [Crack Strength, Stiffness and Strength of the Reinforced Concrete]. Moscow, Mashstroy-izdat Publ., 1958, 268 p.
  4. Klovanich S.F., Bezushko D.I. Metod konechnykh elementov v nelineynykh raschetakh prostranstvennykh zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy [The Finite Element Method for Nonlinear Analysis of Three-dimensional Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Odessa, OMNU Publ., 2009.
  5. Klovanich S.F., Balan T.A. Variant teorii plastichnosti zhelezobetona s uchetom treshchinoobrazovaniya [The Variant of the PlasticityTheory of the Reinforced Concrete Considering Crack Formation]. Priblizhennye i chislennye metody resheniya kraevykh zadach. Matematicheskie issledovaniya [Approximate and Numerical Methods of the Boundary Problems Solution. Mathematical Analysis]. Kishinev, ShTIINTsA Publ., 1988, no. 101, pp. 10—18.
  6. Singiresu S. Rao. The Finite Element Method in Engineering. Fourth edition. Elsevier Science & Technology Books, Miami, 2004.
  7. Filip C. Filippou. Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures under Monotonic Loads. Structural Engineering, Mechanics and Materials. Department of Civil Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Report No. UCB/SEMM-90/14, 1990.
  8. Larry J. Segerlind. Applied Finite Element Analysis. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, 1937.
  9. Bondarenko V.M., Bondarenko S.V. Inzhenernye metody nelineynoy teorii zhelezobetona [Engineering Methods of the Reinforced Concretes Nonlinear Theory]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1982, 287 p.
  10. Prokopovich I.E., Ulitskiy I.I. O teoriyakh polzuchesti betonov [On the Theories of Concrete Production]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura [News of the Institutions of Higher Education. Building and Architecture].1963, no. 10, pp. 13—34.

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Usingsteel beams with corrugated web in hydraulic structures

  • Bal'zannikov Mikhail Ivanovich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Environmental Protection and Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Rector, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kholopov Igor’ Serafimovich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Steel and Timber Structures; +7(846)332-09-36, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Solov'ev Aleksey Vital'evich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Assistant Professor, Department of Steel and Timber Structures, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SGASU), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya St., Samara, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lukin Aleksey Olegovich - Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE) assistant lecturer, Department of Metal and Timber Structures; +7 (846) 332-14-65, Samara State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (SSUACE), 194 Molodogvardeyskaya st., Samara, 443001, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 34-41

The article is devoted to exploring the use of beams with corrugated web in the construction of hydraulic structures. Two groups of metal structures of hydraulic structures are considered, depending on their operating conditions:structures not related to water retention;construction designed for water retention.Operating conditions of the first group of structures are similar with the structures of industrial buildings. Hence, it is possible to use the beams with a corrugated web but with a larger web thickness. In the constructions of the second group the operating conditions significantly differ from the first group. These structures are constantly in water or in humid state and therefore additional measures are required to ensure reliability.Two positive factors contribute to the introduction of corrugated web beams in the construction of flat gates:the lack of concentrated loads which strongly affects the bearing capacity of beams;general stability of the beams is ensured by the continuous supported compression flange.At the first stage of the study the girder of the flat gate was designed of beams with corrugated web. Design of beams with corrugated web was carried by the Eurocode 3. The mass comparison of beams with corrugated web with the previously found crosssection with a flat solid web showed the savings of up to 5.2 %. By varying the parameters of the corrugations savings can increase to 8—10 %.The studies showed that the introduction of corrugated web beams in the construction of hydraulic structures is appropriate. Some tasks require additional research.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.34-41

References
  1. Pasternak H., Kubieniec G. Plate Girders with Corrugated Webs. Journal of Civil Engineering and Management. 2010, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 166—171.
  2. Kholopov I.S., Bal'zannikov M.I., Alpatov V.Ju. Primenenie reshetchatykh prostranstvennykh metallicheskikh konstruktsiy v pokrytiyakh mashinnykh zalov GES [The Use of Spatial Grid Metal Structures in the Roofs of HPP Turbine Rooms]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroite?nogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroite?stvo i arkhitektura [Bulletin of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Series: Civil Engineering and Architecture]. 2012, no. 28 (47), pp. 225—232.
  3. Stal'nye konstruktsii v gidrotekhnicheskom stroitel'stve [Steel Structures in Hydraulic Engineering]. Morskoy biznes Severo-Zapada [Marine Business of the North-West]. 2005, no. 2. Available at: http://www.mbsz.ru/02/47726.php. Date of access: 28.07.2013.
  4. Kozinets G.L. Otsenka prochnosti i dolgovechnosti korrozionno-iznoshennykh metallokonstruktsiy gidrotekhnicheskikh zatvorov [Estimation of the Strength and Durability of Corrosion-worn Metal Structures of Hydraulic Gates]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic engineering]. 2007, no. 1, pp. 35—39.
  5. Azhermachev S.G., Semenov P.S. O primenenii balok s gofrirovannymi stenkami v palubnykh konstruktsiyakh morskikh platform [On the Application of Beams with Corrugated Web in the Deck Construction of Offshore Platforms]. Stroitel'stvo i tekhnogennaya bezopasnost' [Construction and Technogenic Safety]. 2005, no. 10, pp. 13—16.
  6. Fedorishchev Yu.V. Antikorrozionnaya zashchita gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy: kompleksnye resheniya ot kompanii «Amvit» [Corrosion Protection of Hydraulic Structures: Integrated Solutions from the Company "Amvit"]. Gidrotekhnika [Hydrotechnics]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 80—81.
  7. Jotun — mirovoy lider v proizvodstve zashchitnykh pokrytiy [Jotun — the World Leader in the Production of Protective Coatings]. Gidrotekhnika [Hydrotechnics]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 80—81.
  8. Abbas H.H., Sause R., Driver R.G. Behavior of Corrugated Web I-Girders under In-Plane Loads. Journal of Engineering Mechanics. 2006, vol. 132, no. 8, pp. 806—814.
  9. Zubkov V.A., Lukin A.O. Eksperimental’nye issledovaniya vliyaniya tekhnologicheskikh i konstruktsionnykh parametrov na nesushchuyu sposobnost’ metallicheskikh balok s gofrirovannoy stenkoy [Experimental Research into the Influence Produced by Process-related and Structural Parameters on the Bearing Capacity of Metal Beams with Corrugated Webs]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 2, pp. 37—46.
  10. K?vesdi B., Dunai L. Determination of the patch loading resistance of girders with corrugated webs using nonlinear finite element analysis. Computers and Structures. 2011, vol. 89, no. 21—22, pp. 2010—2019.

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Estimation of seismic resistanceof an industrial building: probabilistic approach

  • Zolina Tat’yana Vladimirova - Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, vice-rector, Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AICI), 18 Tatishchev str., 414056, Astrakhan, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich - State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU") Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 42-50

This article represents the results of the research of general approaches and methods of risk evaluation for further exploitation of industrial buildings under seismic loads. Algorithms, developed or adopted by the authors of the article are designed for evaluating strength and stability of an industrial building, considered as a three-dimensional two-mass system, where the calculation points are located at the nodes of intersection of columns and brake structures of frames and the longitudinal axis of coating.Solving the problem of integral reliability and durability of buildings and structures as well as well-balanced design and strength under extreme conditions means to perform quantitative assessment of risk and to minimize it. Most existing analysis and risk evaluation methods are qualitative and estimate the probability of an emergency situation.Algorithm, offered by the authors of this article, includes assessment of seismic vulnerability risk of a construction in case of an earthquake of certain intensity. Problems, arising due to the complexity of probabilistic calculations, are solved by using automated control systems.Using classic methods of statistic dynamics and reliability theory, the authors offer a probability calculation, including the following:• Cop has aland quarter phase spectraldensity components of seismic movements;• entrance and exit spectrums;• dispersion of generalized coordinatesfor each natural frequency of a building;• waveform factor matrix;• effective oscillation period of a con-struction under seismic load;• failure frequencies at significancevalue;• total dispersion for all waveforms;• conventional, external and full seismicrisk.The given method of evaluating resistance of buildings and constructions to seismic loads is a probabilistic method and can be used as a basis for algorithms to automatize corresponding calculations during engineering design and exploitation of buildings and constructions.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.42-50

References
  1. Lychev A.S. Veroyatnostnye metody rascheta stroitel’nykh elementov i sistem [Probabilistic Methods for Calculating Construction Components and Systems]. Moscow, Assotsiatsiya stroitelnyih vuzov Publ., 1995, 143 p.
  2. Esteva L., Rosenblueth E. Espectros de Tembloles a Distancians Moderadas y Grandes. Bol. Soc. Mex. Ing. Sism., 1964, no. 2(1), pp. 1—18.
  3. Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti v stroitel’nom proektirovanii: monografiya [The Theory of Reliability in Construction Design: monograph]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1998, p. 304.
  4. Tichy M. On the reliability measure. Structural Safety. 1988, vol. 5, pp. 227—235.
  5. Tamrazyan A.G. Otsenka riska i nadezhnosti konstruktsiy i klyuchevykh elementov — neobkhodimoe uslovie bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Risk and Reliability Assessment of Structures and Key Elements as a Necessary Factor for the Safety of Buildings and Structures]. Vestnik TsNIISK [Proceedings of Central Research Institute of Construction Structures Named after V.A. Kucherenko]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 160—171.
  6. Zolina T.V. Veroyatnostnyy raschet odnoetazhnogo promyshlennogo zdaniya, oborudovannogo mostovym kranom, s uchetom prostranstvennoy raboty ego karkasa [The Probabilistic Calculation of One Storey Industrial Building Equipped with a Bridge Crane, Taking into Account the Spatial Work of its Carcass]. Vestnik VolgGASU. Seriya Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of Volgograd State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Construction and Architecture Series]. 2012, no. 28 (47), pp. 7—13.
  7. Pshenichkina V.A., Belousov A.S., Kuleshova A.N., Churakov A.A. Nadezhnost’ zdaniy kak prostranstvennykh sostavnykh sistem pri seysmicheskikh vozdeystviyakh [Reliability of buildings as spatial composite systems under seismic effects]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2010, 224 p.
  8. Barshteyn M.F. Prilozhenie veroyatnostnykh metodov k raschetu sooruzheniy na seysmicheskie vozdeystviya [The Application of Probabilistic Methods to the Analysis of Structures for Seismic Effects]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Calculation of Structures]. 1960, no. 2, pp. 6—14.
  9. Tamrazyan A.G. Raschet elementov konstruktsiy pri zadannoy nadezhnosti i normal’nom raspredelenii nagruzki i nesushchey sposobnosti [Calculation of Structural Elements at a Given Reliability and the Normal Load Distribution and Bearing Capacity]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 10, pp. 109—115.
  10. Zolina T.V., Sadchikov P.N. Avtomatizirovannaya sistema rascheta promyshlennogo zdaniya na kranovye i seysmicheskie nagruzki [The Automated System of Calculation of an Industrial Building on the Crane and Seismic Loads]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 14—16.

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Features of monolithic beam floor operation under load

  • Malakhova Anna Nikolaevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Architectural and Structural Design, Department of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 50-57

The article deals with a monolithic floor in the form of a solid slab with intercolumn beams arranged in two directions, with cell dimensions 5,7×8,0 m. The article presents a constructive solution: floor slab having a thickness (h) 200 mm is based on contour beam cross-section with the dimensions of 300×500 (b×h) mm. The reinforcement of structural elements of a slab is shown.The results of simplified floor slab calculation in the elastic stage and by limit equilibrium method are presented. The simplification of the floor calculation due to the separate calculation of beams (the main supporting structure of the floor) and slabs, supported by a system of beams, is offered. It is considered that slabs are firmly fastened on four sides with no displacement of supports.Also the results of computer calculation of monolithic beam floors are presented, which take into account the operation of structural elements of the floor. In the process of computer calculation of monolithic beam floor the slab was modeled by plate members and floor beams — by axial elements.The author gives a comparative analysis of the results of simplified calculations and computer calculations of a monolithic beam floor made on the basis of the final stress distribution in the slab. Special features of a monolithic beam slab under the load depend on the parameters of stiffness of contour floor beams.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.50-57

References
  1. Tamrazyan A.G. O vliyanii snizheniya zhestkosti zhelezobetonnykh plit perekrytiy na nesushchuyu sposobnost' pri dlitel'nom deystvii nagruzki [On the Influence of Reducing the Stiffness of Reinforced Concrete Floor Slabs on their Bearing Capacity under Long-term Load]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 7, pp. 30—32.
  2. Yarov V.A., Koyankin A.A., Skripal'shchikov K.V. Eksperimental'nye issledovaniya uchastka monolitnogo perekrytiya mnogoetazhnogo zdaniya [Experimental Investigations of a Section of the Monolithic Floor of a Multi-storey Building]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 3, pp.150—153.
  3. Potapov Yu.B., Vasil'ev A.V., Fedorov I.V., Vasil'ev V.P. Zhelezobetonnye perekrytiya s plitoy, opertoy po konturu [Reinforced Concrete Floors with a Slab Supported on a Contour]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 40—41.
  4. Russo G., Pauletta M.. Seismic Behavior of Exterior Beam-Column Connections with Plain Bars and Effects of Upgrade. ACI Structural Journal. 2012, March, vol. 109, no. 2, pp. 225—233.
  5. Lips S., Ruiz M.F., Muttoni A.. Experimental Investigation on Punching Strength and Deformation Capacity of Shear-Reinforced Slabs. ACI Structural Journal. 2012, November, vol. 109, no.6, pp. 889—900.
  6. Torsten Welsch, Markus Held. Zur Geschichte der Stahlbetonflachdecke. Beton- und Stahlbetonbau. 2012, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 106—115.

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Realization of a discrete-braced calculation model in flat finite elements

  • Mamin Aleksandr Nikolaevich - Public stock company «Central Scientific-Research and Experimental-Design Institute of Industrial Buildings and Structures» Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department IBC № 1, Public stock company «Central Scientific-Research and Experimental-Design Institute of Industrial Buildings and Structures», 46|/2, Dmitrovskoe shosse, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kodysh Emil' Naumovich - Public stock company «Central Scientific-Research and Experimental-Design Institute of Industrial Buildings and Structures» Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chief Designer, Department IBC №1, Public stock company «Central Scientific-Research and Experimental-Design Institute of Industrial Buildings and Structures», 46|/2, Dmitrovskoe shosse, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Reutsu Aleksandr Viktorovich - Public stock company «Central Scientific-Research and Experimental-Design Institute of Industrial Buildings and Structures» Department IBC № 1, Public stock company «Central Scientific-Research and Experimental-Design Institute of Industrial Buildings and Structures», 46|/2, Dmitrovskoe shosse, Moscow, 127238, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 58-69

In the article the finite elements were developed that allow to take into consideration the design features of structures and the specific deformation of reinforced concrete without complicating the design scheme. The results of flat structures calculation under different types of loading are presented.The flat finite elements, which are used today in most widespread software systems for the calculation of the majority of buildings and structures, have significant drawbacks due to the peculiarities of the finite element method computational model. The two major drawbacks are: first, stiffness characteristics are specified as for rectangular cross-section and, second, constant stiffness characteristics over the entire area of finite elements is presupposed.These drawbacks are particularly evident in the process of calculating reinforced concrete structures and they significantly complicate the support systems design of multi-storey buildings. The simplifications used by the calculators are dangerous, as it is practically impossible to evaluate the resulting inaccuracies.The calculation model of the finite element method can be represented as a collection of nodes connected in one system with the help of finite elements, which conditionally replace the corresponding parts of a structure.Elasticity theory problems are solved with the help of finite elements of the shells and spatial finite elements. Here the accuracy of the results increases with the increase in breakdown frequency, and one of the main criteria for evaluating the effectiveness of discrete models is their convergence: the worse is the convergence — the higher breakdown frequency is needed to achieve the required accuracy of homogeneous structures calculations.In order to consider the factors affecting the calculations accuracy without increasing the complexity of making the design scheme, it is advisable to arrange a more detailed structure discretization on the stage of developing computational model. This concept is implemented in the discrete-braced computational model, which supposes replacement of the structure sections by the discreet braces combined in nodal points. The main advantages of discrete-braced model are determined by the possibility of multilevel discretization of a structure, achieved in terms of geometrical dimensions and in terms of the direction of digital communication, components of the stressstrain state, stiffness characteristics of digital communications, variable along the longitudinal axis and changing layer by layer in cross section.The basic diagram of the discrete-braced model is: the calculated structure is conditionally replaced by a set of nodes located at the layout grid lines crossing and linked in pairs by the discrete braces, which limit the mutual displacement of the nodal points for all the considered degrees of freedom.The stiffness characteristics of braces are set independently for each brace and each type of deformation on the basis of geometrical and deformational characteristics of the construction sections replaced by braces.In order to determine these sections, conventional boundary lines are traced on the structure, that are located between the grid lines. It is believed that these lines demarcate the structure sections that influence the stiffness parameters of the neighboring connections of one direction. Thus each out-of-node structure point belongs simultaneously to two sections. Stress-strain state of the structure, stiffness characteristics of the braces along the X and Y axes are defined independently of one another. The distributed internal forces arising in front sections of the braces are brought to concentrated generalized forces transmitted through the nodes between the braces in both directions.In the general case, each node of the obtained flat system has six degrees of freedom — three linear and three angular. Generalized displacements inside connections are described by linear functions. Each connection resists six types of deformations — tension and compression, shear in plane of the structure, shear out of the plane, torsion, rotation (bending in plane) and bending out of the plane. In the process of braces deformation, the efforts relevant to deformations appear in them: axial force , two shear forces, torque and two bending moments, and the stress-strain states during deformation of braces in plane and out of plane of the structure are independent from one another.It is offered to determine stress-strain state of the obtained discrete braced-noded system using the method of shifts by means of composing and solving the system of 6n linear algebraic equations (n — the number of nodes ).The accuracy and convergence of the calculation results for discrete-braced model of structural homogeneous isotropic elements is not inferior, and in some cases exceeds the accuracy and convergence of the finite element method results. The use of discretebraced model provides additional opportunities, in particular for non-linear calculations of reinforced concrete structures, which can significantly simplify the numerical schemes used, and thus significantly reduce the calculation complexity.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.58-69

References
  1. R.E. Miller. Reduction of the Error in Eccentric Beam Modeling. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering. 1980, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 575—582.
  2. Chupin V.V. Razrabotka metodov, algoritmov, rascheta plastin, obolochek i mekhanicheskikh sistem, primenyaemykh v stroitel'stve i mashinostroenii [Development of Methods, Algorithms, Calculation of Slabs, Shells and Mechanical Systems Used in Construction and Mechanical Engineering]. Sbornik referatov nauchno-issledovatel'skikh i opytno-konstruktorskikh rabot. Seriya 16: 30. Mekhanika [Collection of Scientific, Research and Development Works. Series 16: 30. Mechanics]. 2007, no. 5, p. 146.
  3. Mamin A.N. Primenenie metoda peremeshcheniy dlya rascheta zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy zdaniy po diskretno-svyazevoy raschetnoy modeli [Using Shifting Method for Calculating Reinforced Concrete Building Structures with the Help of Discrete-Braced Calculation Model]. Sovershenstvovanie arkhitekturno-stroitel'nykh resheniy predpriyatiy, zdaniy i sooruzheniy: sbornik nauchnykh trudov TsNIIpromzdaniy [Development of Architectural and Construction Decisions of Enterprises, Buildings and Structures: Collection of Scientific Works of the Central Scientific and Research Institute of Industrial Buildings]. Moscow, 2006, pp. 78—82.
  4. Kodysh Je.N., Mamin A.N., Dolgova T.B. Raschetnaya model' dlya proektirovaniya nesushchnykh sistem i elementov [Calculation Model for Designing Bearing Systems and Elements]. Zhilishhnoe stroitel'stvo [House Construction]. 2003, no.11, pp. 9—15.
  5. Shan Tang, Adrian M. Kopacz, Stephanie Chan O’Keeffe, Gregory B. Olson, Wing Kam Liu. Concurrent Multiresolution Finite Element: Formulation and Algorithmic Aspects. Computational Mechanics. 2013, vol. 52, no. 6, pp. 1265-1279.
  6. Popov O.N., Radchenko A.V. Nelineynye zadachi rascheta pologikh obolochek i plastin s razryvnymi parametrami [Non-linear Tasks of Shallow Shells and Slabs Calculation with Diffuse Parameters]. Mekhanika kompozitsionnykh materialov i konstruktsiy [Mechanics of Composite Materials and Structures]. 2004, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 545—565.
  7. Kiselev A.P., Gureeva N.A., Kiseleva R.Z. Raschet mnogosloynykh obolochek vrashcheniya i plastin s ispol'zovaniem ob"emnykh konechnykh elementov [Calculation of Multi-layer Rotational Shells and Slabs Using Solid Finite Elements]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Stroitel'stvo [News of Institutions of Higher Education. Construction]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 106—112.
  8. Spacone E., El-Tawil S. Nonlinear Analysis of Steel–concrete Composite Structures: State of the Art. Journal of Structural Engineering. 2004, no. 130 (2), pp. 159—168.
  9. Kodysh E.N., Mamin A.N. Primenenie metoda diskretnykh svyazey dlya rascheta zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy mnogoetazhnykh zdaniy [Using Discrete Braced Method for Reinforced Concrete Structures Calculation of Multi-storeyed Buildings]. Naukovo-tekhnichni problemi suchasnogo zalizobetonu: sbornik nauchykh trudov [Scientific and Technical Problems of Modern Reinforced Concrete: Collection of Scientific Works]. Kiev, NDIBK Publ., 2005, pp. 159—164.
  10. Verifikatsionnyy otchet po programmnomu kompleksu MicroFe [Verificational Report on the Software MicroFe]. Moscow, RAASN Publ., 2009, 327 p.
  11. Alessandro Zona, Gianluca Ranzi. Finite Element Models for Nonlinear Analysis of Steel–concrete Composite Beams with Partial Interaction in Combined Bending and Shear. Finite Elements in Analysis and Design. 2011, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 98—118.
  12. H. Panayirci, H. Pradlwarter, G. Schu?ller. Efficient Stochastic Finite Element Analysis Using Guyan Reduction. Software. 2010, no. 41 (412), pp. 1277—1286.
  13. Manakhov P.V., Fedoseev O.B. Ob al'ternativnom metode vychisleniya nakoplennoy plasticheskoy deformatsii v zadachakh plastichnosti s ispol'zovaniem MKE [On the Alternative Method of Calculating Cumulative Plastic Flow in the Plasticity Tasks Using FEM]. Izvestiya vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy. Mashinostroenie [News of Institutions of Higher Education. Construction]. 2007, no. 7, pp. 16—22.
  14. Chen S., Shi X. Shear Bond Failure in Composite Slabs — a Detailed Experimental Study. Steel and Composite Structures. 2011, vol. 11, no.3, pp. 233—250.
  15. Eldib M., Maaly H., Beshay A., Tolba M. Modelling and Analysis of Two-way Composite Slabs. Journal of Constructional Steel Research. 2009, vol. 65, no.5, pp. 1236—1248.

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On the description of vertical transport in project documentation

  • Polovtsev Igor' Nikolaevich - Saint-Petersburg State University (SPbGU) , Saint-Petersburg State University (SPbGU), 7/9 Universitetskaya naberezhnaya, Saint-Petersburg, 199034, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 70-75

The article analyzes the current edition of the Regulations on Project Documentation Composition and Requirements to the Content. This document approved by the Government of the Russian Federation describes the obligatory content of building construction projects.Project documentation is examined by construction experts and approved by a customer after development. This special expertise confirms the correctness of the designer’s calculations and the safety of the future building. It is prohibited to change the approved project during construction.One of important elements of modern buildings is different mechanical facilities for transportation of people and cargo. In public and residential buildings, those are elevators and escalators. In plants, such mechanisms are various cranes and cableways. In construction projects, lifting equipment has a generalized name of «vertical transport».Federal legislation of Russia considers such machines as dangerous production facilities. That is proved by the Federal Law «On Industrial Safety of Dangerous Production Facilities». A special government agency — the Federal Service for Ecological, Technological and Nuclear Supervision — monitors such dangerous production facilities.The existing rules of project documentation development do not require specifying vertical transport facilities separately. For this reason, distinct elements of such mechanisms are described in various sections of the project. Attaching points are specified in«Structural Concepts» Section. Electric power issues are described in “Power Supply System” Section. Control system is described in «Communication Networks» Section. Design rules do not require establishment of a single section, which would describe all the elements of transportation facilities. This complicates the examination of lifting equipment as a separate object. In addition, there are difficulties in operation of lifting equipment.Upon analyzing the rules of project documentation development, the author concludes that there is a need to improve the rules. He offers to create a new subsection as a part of project documentation sections. It should be called «Vertical Transport». This section shall cover all mechanical facilities used to transport people and cargo within buildings and between them.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.70-75

References
  1. O sostave razdelov proektnoy dokumentatsii i trebovaniyakh k ikh soderzhaniyu. Postanovlenie Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii ot 16 fevralya 2008 goda ¹ 87 [On the Composition of Project Documentation Sections and Requirements to their Content. Regulation of the Government of the Russian Federation from 16.02.2008 # 87]. Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Collected Legislation of the Russian Federation]. 2008, no. 8, art. 744.
  2. Instruktsiya o poryadke razrabotki, soglasovaniya, utverzhdeniya i sostave proektnoy dokumentatsii na stroitel'stvo predpriyatiy, zdaniy i sooruzheniy. SNiP 11-01—95. Postanovlenie Gosstroya RF ot 30 iyunya 1995 goda ¹ 18-64 [Instructions on Development and Approval Procedure, the Composition of Project Documentation for the Enterprise, Buildings and Structures Construction. Construction Norms and Regulations 11-01—95. Regulations of Russian State Committee for Construction from 30.06.1995 # 18-64. Available at the informational resource «ConsultantPlus». Date of access: 18.02.2013.
  3. Tekhnicheskiy reglament o bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy. Federal'nyy zakon ot 30 dekabrya 2009 goda ¹ 384-FZ [Technical Regulations on Building and Structure Security. Federal Law from 30.12.2009 # 384-FZ]. Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Collected Legislation of the Russian Federation]. 2010, no. 1, art. 5.
  4. O promyshlennoy bezopasnosti opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektov. Federal'nyy zakon ot 21 iyulya 1997 goda ¹116-FZ [On the Industrial Security of Hazardous Objects. Federal Law from 21.07.1997 # 116-FZ]. Sobranie zakonodatel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Collected Legislation of the Russian Federation]. 1997, no. 30, art. 3588.
  5. O prinyatii tekhnicheskogo reglamenta Tamozhennogo soyuza «Bezopasnost' liftov». TR TS 011/2011. Reshenie Komissii Tamozhennogo soyuza ot 18 oktyabrya 2011 goda ¹ 824 [On Approving the Technical Regulations of the Custom Union "Security of Elevators". TR TS 011/2011. Commission Decision of the Custom Union from 18.10.2011 # 824]. Official Website of Custom Union Commission. Available at: http://www.tsouz.ru/. Available at the informational resource «ConsultantPlus». Date of access: 18.02.2013.
  6. Ob utverzhdenii Polozheniya po provedeniyu ekspertizy promyshlennoy bezopasnosti opasnykh proizvodstvennykh ob"ektov, na kotorykh ispol'zuyutsya pod"emnye sooruzheniya. RD 10-528—03. Postanovlenie Gosgortekhnadzora Ros. Federatsii ot 04 marta 2003 goda ¹ 5 [On Approving the Regulations on Expert Examination of Industrial Security of Hazardous Objects, where Lifting Devices are used]. Byulleten' normativnykh aktov federal'nykh organov ispolnitel'noy vlasti [Bulletin of Federal Agency Regulations]. 2003. no. 23.

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Rational usage of structural systems of multi-storey buildings

  • Senin Nikolay Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Director of the Institute of Construction and Architecture, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 76-83

The article focuses on the classification of structural systems of multi-storey buildings based on four main (or primary) systems fundamentally different by the type of vertical load-bearing structures. Also a rational application of various structural systems of multi-storey buildings has been proposed as a result of the analysis of earlier performed studies and real-world experience of designing. The usage of combined structural systems that consist of various combinations of primary systems is examined.15 types of structural systems can be detached from the variety of primary and combined systems.The growing number of storeys of multi-storey buildings together with the growth of urban population and increasing availability of housing, as well as limited and cramped urban area, was justified. 10 of the most widely used structural systems were analyzed with a brief analysis of their features to ensure the tridimensional rigidity.The vertical distribution of functions in multifunctional buildings, as well the forecast for the percentage distribution of functions in high-rise buildings were also presented in the article. These guidelines can be used by designers on trial design stage for choosing the most rational structural system of multi-storey buildings of different heights.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.76-83

References
  1. Shcherbakova E. Seychas v gorodskikh poseleniyakh prozhivaet 51 % naseleniya mira, a v sel'skikh 49 % [Nowadays 51 % of the world's population live in urban areas and 49 % live in rural settlements]. DemoskopWeekly. 2012, no. 507—508. Available at: http://kapital-rus.ru/index.php/articles/article/610. Date of access: 15.04.2013.
  2. Shcherbakova E. Gorodskoe naselenie Rossii na nachalo 2010 goda — 103,8 mln chelovek, ili 73,1 % ot obshchego chisla rossiyan [Urban population of Russia in the beginning of 2010 is 103,8 million people, or 73,1 % of total number of Russians]. DemoskopWeekly. 2010, no. 407—408. Available at: http:///www.demoskop.ru/weekly/2012/0507. Date of access: 10.04.2013.
  3. Gusev A.B. Dostupnost' zhil'ya v Rossii i za rubezhom [Availability of Housing in Russia and Abroad]. Kapital strany: federal'noe internet-izdanie [Country Capital: Federal Internet Edition]. 2008. Available at: http://www.kapital-rus.ru. Date of access: 08.09.2013.
  4. Maklakova T.G. Vysotnye zdaniya [High-rise Buildings]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2006, 156 p.
  5. Vud E., Holister N. Nachalo epokhi meganeboskrebov [The Beginning of Highskrapers Era]. Vysotnye zdaniya [High-rise Buildings]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 52—57.
  6. Xu Peifu, Fu Xiuyeyi, Wang Cuikun, Xiao Congzhen; editor Xu Peifu. Proektirovanie sovremennykh vysotnykh zdaniy [Design of Modern High-rise Buildings]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2008, 467 p.
  7. Drozdov P., Lishak V. Prostranstvennaya zhestkost' i ustoychivost' mnogoetazhnykh zdaniy razlichnykh konstruktivnykh sistem [Spatial Rigidity and Stability of Multy-storey Buildings of Various Constructive Systems]. Tr. III Mezhdunar. simpoziuma S-41 MSS i Ob"edinennogo komiteta po vysotnym zdaniyam. Publikatsiya ¹ 43 [Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium S-41 MSS and Public Committee for High-rise Buildings. Issue 43]. Moscow, TsNIIEP zhilishcha Publ., 1976, pp. 20—25.
  8. Khan F. The Future of High Rise Structures. Progressive Architecture. 1972, no. 10, pp. 78—91.
  9. Kozak Yu. Konstruktsii vysotnykh zdaniy [The Structures of High-rise Buildings]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 307 p.
  10. Ali M.M., Moon K.S. Structural Developments in Tall Buildings: Current Trends and Future Prospects. Architectural Science Review, 2007, vol. 50, no. 3, pp. 205—223.
  11. Peyman A.N. Vysotnye soty. Novaya innovatsionnaya konstruktivnaya sistema dlya vysotnykh zdaniy [High-rise Honeycombs. New Innovative Constructive System for High-rise Buildings]. Vysotnye zdaniya [High-rise Buildings]. 2012, no. 6, pp. 80—85.
  12. Zhang Weibin. Proektirovanie mnogoetazhnykh i vysotnykh zhelezobetonnykh sooruzheniy [Design of Multistoried and High-rise Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010, 597 p.

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Rational distribution of slab stiffness along the height of building with account for shear deformation

  • Tamrazyan Ashot Georgievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, full member, Russian Engineering Academy, head of the directorate, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Filimonova Ekaterina Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Re- inforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 84-90

Currently, great attention is paid to the choice of optimal and rational design and construction solutions for individual structures and buildings in general. In the process of design not only constructive solution of an element is important, but also its location in the design scheme of the building. It is known that the correct consideration of the elements interaction in the design scheme contributes significantly to the rigidity and strength of multi-storey buildings.Slabs are involved in bending and shear and act like keys between the vertical elements. In order to reduce shear deformations and enhance overall stability of the building it is possible to increase the size of the keys, that means, to increase the height of a slab. In is necessary to determine the area that has the most significant impact on the rigidity and stability of the frame.For deciding that issue a computer model of 25-storey building was built. Settlement scheme was used to estimate the strength, deformability and stability of the frame.Basing on the models stability assessment it is suggested that the most efficient design solution is the floor slabs strengthening in the middle tier of the building by 0.4-0.5 heights of the building.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.84-90

References
  1. Sahab M.G., Ashour A.F., Toropov V.V. Cost Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Flat Slab Buildings. Engineering Structures. 2005, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 313—322.
  2. Wust J., Wagner W. Systematic Prediction of Yield-Line Configurations for Arbitrary Polygonal Plates. Karlsruhe: Baustatik, 2007, 24 p.
  3. Malkov V.P., Kisilev V.G., Sergeev S.A. Optimizatsiya po masse prostranstvennykh ramnykh konstruktsiy s var'iruemymi tolshchinami poperechnykh secheniy s uchetom ogranicheniy po ustalostnoy dolgovechnosti [Optimization of Three Dimensional Frame Structures with the Variable Cross Section Thicknesses in Respect of their Mass Considering Restrictions of Fatigue Life]. Prikladnaya mekhanika i tekhnologiya mashinostroeniya: sbornik nauchnykh trudov [Applied Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering: Collection of Scientific Works]. Nizhniy Novgorod, 1997, pp. 77—97.
  4. Salamakhin P.M. Kontseptsiya avtomatizatsii proektirovaniya i optimizatsii konstruktsiy mostov [The Concept of Design Automation and Optimization of Bridge Construction]. Nauka i tekhnika v dorozhnoy otrasli [Science and Techniques in Road Sector]. 2005, no. 2(33), pp. 11—14.
  5. Serpik I.N., Mironenko I.V. Optimizatsiya zhelezobetonnykh ram s uchetom mnogovariantnosti nagruzheniya [Optimization of Reinforced Concrete Frames with Account for Multivariability of Loadings]. Stroitel'stvo i rekonstruktsiya [Construction and Reconstruction]. 2012, no. 1, pp. 33—39.
  6. Tamrazyan A.G., Filimonova E.A. Metod poiska rezerva nesushchey sposobnosti zhelezobetonnykh plit [Searching Method for Reserve of Load-bearing Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Slabs]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 3, pp. 23—25.
  7. Klyueva N.V., Vetrova O.A. K otsenke zhivuchesti zhelezobetonnykh ramno-sterzhnevykh konstruktivnykh sistem pri vnezapnykh zaproektnykh vozdeystviyakh [Assesment of the Life of Reinforced Concrete Frame Construction Systems in Case of Unexpected Impacts beyond Design]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2006, no. 11, pp. 56—57.
  8. Kovalevich O.M. K voprosu o vybore optimal'nykh zatrat na upravlenie riskom pri chrezvychaynykh situatsiyakh [On the Problem of Choosing Economic Costs for Risk Managment in Case of Emergency Situations]. Problemy bezopasnosti pri chrezvychaynykh situatsiyakh [Security Issues in Emergency Situations]. 2001, no. 2, pp. 27—41.
  9. Gorodetskiy A.S., Evzerov I.D. Komp'yuternye modeli konstruktsiy [Computer Models of Structures]. Kiev, Fakt Publ., 2005, 344 p.
  10. Simbirkin V.N. Proektirovanie zhelezobetonnykh karkasov mnogoetazhnykh zdaniy s pomoshch'yu PK STAR ES [Designing Reinforced Concrete Frameworks for Multi-storey Buildings Using Software STAR ES]. Informatsionnyy vestnik Mosoblgosekspertizy [Informational Proceedings of Moscow Regional State Expertise]. 2005, no. 3(10), pp. 42—28.

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Thermotechnical analysis of the structuresby using numerical methods

  • Tusnina Olga Alexandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Metal and Timber Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 91-99

In the paper the features of a structural thermotechnical analysis with the use of numerical methods are considered. Characteristics of heat transfer processes can be obtained using experimental or theoretical analysis. A theoretical investigation works with mathematical model, not with real physical phenomenon. The mathematical model for heat transfer processes consists of a set of differential equations. If the methods of classical mathematics are used for solving these equations, many phenomena of practical interest will be predicted. That’s why in order to solve these problems it is advisable to apply numerical methods. In this paper an algorithm of numerical calculation of threedimensional temperature fields is considered.The numerical algorithm for solving the differential equation of steady three-dimensional thermal conductivity is represented. Discretization of this equation was performed by control-volume method. A solution of a set of discretized equations can be obtained by using a convenient combination of the direct method TDMA (Tri-diagonal matrix algorithm) for one-dimensional situation and the Gauss-Seidel method. The described approach allows us taking into consideration thermal inhomogeneity, such as thermal bridges, and the features of the geometry of the structure. The computing program TEPL was developed on the basis of the described algorithms. As a result of the calculation made by TEPL three-dimensional temperature field was obtained. On the basis of this field thermal resistance and temperature distribution in the structure were calculated.The examples of using the program for solving real practical problems are shown in the paper. Roofing consisted of sandwich panels supported by purlins with the use of screws in one case and rivets as fasteners in the other. The main difference between these two structures is that screws are installed through the insulation layer of a panel and violate its integrity, while rivets are connected to the lowest sheet of a panel and purlin flange and do not make any changes in insulation. The results of the numerical analysis in TEPL show that screws are thermal bridges and must be taken into account in the process of calculating thermal resistance of roofs.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.91-99

References
  1. Krivoshein A.D., Fedorov S.V. K voprosu o raschete privedennogo soprotivleniya teploperedache ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy [On the Question of Calculating Reduced Thermal Resistance of Building Envelopes]. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal [Magazine of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 8, pp. 21—27.
  2. Tusnin A.R. Proektirovanie sten s okonnymi proemami [A Design of Walls with Window Openings]. Stroitel'stvo i nedvizhimost' [Construction and Real Estate]. 1997, no. 12, p. 7.
  3. Tusnin A.R., Tusnina V.M. Soprotivlenie teploperedache sten s okonnymi proemami [Thermal Resistance of Walls with Window Openings]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no.1, vol. 2, pp. 123—129.
  4. Gorshkov A.S. Energoeffektivnost' v stroitel'stve: voprosy normirovaniya i mery po snizheniyu energopotrebleniya zdaniy [Energy Efficiency in Construction: Issues of Regulation and Measures to Reduce the Energy Consumption of Buildings]. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal [Magazine of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 9—13.
  5. Kraynov D.V., Safin I.Sh., Lyubimtsev A.S. Raschet dopolnitel'nykh teplopoter' cherez teploprovodnye vklyucheniya ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy (na primere uzla okonnogo otkosa) [Calculation of Additional Conductive Heat Loss through the Building Envelope Inclusions (on the Example of a Window Unit Slope)]. Inzhenerno-stroitel'nyy zhurnal [Magazine of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 6, pp. 17—22.
  6. Ben Larbi A. Statistical Modelling of Heat Transfer for Thermal Bridges of Buildings. Energy and Buildings. 2005, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 945—951.
  7. Karabulut K., Buyruk E., Fertelli A. Numerical Investigation of Heat Transfer for Thermal Bridges Taking into Consideration Location of Thermal Insulation with Different Geometries. Strojarstvo. 2009, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 431—439.
  8. Svoboda Z. The Analysis of the Convective-Conductive Heat Transfer in the Building Constructions. Proceedings of the 6th Int. IBPSA Conference Building Simulation, Kyoto. 1999, vol. 1, pp. 329—335.
  9. Ait-Taleb T., Abdelbaki A., Zrikem Z. Coupled Heat Transfers through Buildings Roofs Formed by Hollow Concrete Blocks. International Scientific Journal for Alternative Energy and Ecology. 2008, no. 6 (62), pp. 30—34.
  10. Gladkiy S.L., Yasnitskiy L.N. Reshenie trekhmernykh zadach teploprovodnosti metodom fiktivnykh kanonicheskikh oblastey [The Solution of Three-dimensional Heat Conduction Problems Using Fictitious Canonical Regions Method]. Vestnik Permskogo universiteta. Matematika. Mekhanika. Informatika [Proceedings of Perm Univercity. Mathematics. Mechanics. Computer Sciences]. 2011, vol. 1(5), pp. 41—45.
  11. Belostotskiy A.M., Shcherbina S.V. Sravnitel'nye raschetnye issledovaniya energoeffektivnosti sushchestvuyushchikh i vnov' razrabotannykh materialov i konstruktsiy na osnove konechnoelementnogo modelirovaniya dvumernogo i trekhmernykh zadach teploprovodnosti [Comparative Study of the Energy Efficiency of Available and Newly Developed Materials and Structures Based on the Finite-element Resolution of 2d and 3d Problems of Heat Conductivity]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 3, pp. 212—219.
  12. Patankar S. Chislennye metody resheniya zadach teploobmena i dinamiki zhidkosti [Numerical Methods of Solving the Problems of Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1984, 150 p.

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Elastic potentialfor rubber-cord ply

  • Sheshenin Sergey Vladimirovich - Moscow State University (MSU) Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Department of Composite Mechanics, Moscow State University (MSU), 1 Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation; +7 (495) 939-43-43; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zakalyukina Irina Mikhaylovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Assosiate Professor, Department of Theoretical Mechanics and Aerodynamics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 183-24-01; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Skoptsov Kirill Aleksandrovich - Lomonosov Moscow State University (MGU) postgraduate student, Department of Composite Mechanics, Faculty of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University (MGU), 1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 100-106

The idea of large elastic strain simulation for rubber-cord materials is based on the usage of elastic potential for anisotropic media. The article provides a method of formulating the elastic potential for rubber-cord ply. The rubber-cord ply can be considered as transversally-isotropic. So the question about the number of independent invariants arises. Also it is necessary to determine the type of these invariants.In case of isotropic media, invariants are functions of strain components and are invariant in regard of any orthogonal coordinate system transformation. In case of transversally-isotropic material, the group of transformations is different. Indeed, the constitutive law should look the same in any coordinate system that is obtained by some transformations from the specific coordinate system related to material structure. One of its axes is directed in cord direction and two others lie in the orthogonal plane. These transformations are any rotations around the first axis and reflections in the orthogonal coordinate plane. Right-hand side of the constitutive equation must depend only on invariables that are invariant in regard to any such transformations. Therefore, if right-hand side depends on Cauchy-Green strain components, then it must depend on its invariants of the type described.It is known that there are maximum five algebraically independent invariants in caseof transversal isotropy. Of course, the set of independent invariants can be chosen different ways and all such sets can be derived algebraically from each other. In some way the choice of the invariants set is just a question of convenience. One of the sets is suggested in this paper. It seems convenient to choose some invariants same as in isotropic case just because the group of transversally-isotropic transformations belongs to the group of isotropic transformations. Then these three invariants are added by two other invariants specific for transversal isotropy.After that the potential is formulated. Then numerical method for the potential material parameters determination is suggested. The method exploits the solutions of socalled local problems formulated in the rubber-cord periodical cell.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.100-106

References
  1. Akasaka T. Structural Mechanics of Radial Tires. Rubber Chemistry and Technology. 1981, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 461—492.
  2. Ridha R.A., Clark S.K. Tire Stress and Deformation. Mechanics of Pneumatic Tires. Washington D.C., 1981, pp. 475—540.
  3. Sheshenin S.V., Margaryan S.A. Tire 3D Numerical Simulation. Int. J. Comput. Civil and Struct. Eng. 2005, no. 1, pp. 33—42.
  4. Sheshenin S.V. Trekhmernoe modelirovanie shiny [3D Tire Simulation]. Izvestiya RAN Publ. Mehanika tverdogo tela [Mechanics of Rigid Body], 2007, no. 3, pp. 13—21.
  5. England A.H. Finite Elastic Deformations of a Tyre Modelled as an Ideal Fibre-Reinforced Shell. Journal of Elasticity. 1999, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 43—71.
  6. Petrikova I., Marvalova B., Prasil L. Modelling of Mechanical Properties of Cord-rubber Composites. Proceedings of the 48th International Scientific Conference on Experimental Analysis. 2010, pp. 325—332.
  7. Chernykh K.F. Nelineynaya teoriya uprugosti [Non-Linear Theory of Elasticity]. Leningrad, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1986.
  8. Bonet J., Wood R.D. Nonlinear Continuum Mechanics for Finite Element Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.
  9. Sheshenin S.V., Demidovich P.N., Chistyakov P.V., Bakhmet'ev S.G. Opredelyayushchee sootnoshenie rezinokorda pri trekhmernom napryazhennom sostoyanii [Rubber-Cord Constitutive Law in 3D Stress State]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universitetata. Seriya 1. Matematika. Mekhanika [Moscow University Bulletin. Series 1. Mathematics. Mechanics]. 2010, no. 3, pp. 33—35.
  10. Sheshenin S.V., Savenkova M.I. Osrednenie nelineynykh zadach v mekhanike kompozitov [Homogenization for Non-Linear Boundary Problems in Mechanics]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universitetata. Seriya 1. Matematika. Mekhanika [Moscow University Bulletin. Series 1. Mathematics. Mechanics]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 58—61.

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BEDDINGS AND FOUNDATIONS, SUBTERRANEAN STRUCTURES. SOIL MECHANICS

Experience of classifying soil masses in permafrost zone within the general classification of soil masses for civil engineering

  • Chernyshev Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 107-113

In this article we propose a classification for the masses of rock and soil, located in the bases of the buildings in permafrost zone. Classifications are made for masses consisting entirely of rock and soil with negative temperature, as well as for masses, including thawed soils and rocks. Updated in 2011 the Russian All-Union State Standard«Soil», which came into force in 2013, includes a classification of frozen soils, which are distinguished in a separate class. This is one of the differences of our inter-state standard, issued by the Eurasian Council for standardization, Metrology and certification, from the international English-language normative document (ISO). It is caused by the fact that on the territory of the European Union there is no permafrost soil, and only soils and rocks are discussed. In contrast, on the territory of Russia permafrost soil is widely distributed, in particular in the areas of extraction of exported raw materials. Permafrost is causing a significant, ongoing difficulties of construction and operation of buildings.The classification of soils in the Russian All-Union State Standard «Soil» and here is based on the type of physical and physico-chemical bonds between the particles in a soil. In frozen soils there are specific unstable bonds, due to the presence of ice. This fact calls for distinguishing the frozen soils into a separate class. In permafrost zone along with frozen soils that include ice, there are waterless soils and rocks with negative temperature. The list of soils in the permafrost zone, would be incomplete without:1) ice-soil (more than 90 % of ice), 2) chilled soil of the temperature below 0 °C, 3) soil with positive temperature. Cooled plastic or loose soils with negative temperatures lie in cryolithozone where there are soluble minerals or saline groundwater. Soils with positive temperature lie everywhere under permafrost at different depths, in summer they also arise over permafrost. In some places they occur in cryolithozone.In the classification of soils we will adhere to the principles set out in the first article of the series. In respect of the classes, we divide soils by the type of the bonds in them. Firstly, we single out frozen soils with the bonds created by ice, and, secondly, conditionally waterless soils with negative temperature, where there is no ice and bonds are physical and physico-chemical. For brevity, the second class of frozen masses is convenient to call the special soil of permafrost zone. At the level of subclasses we specify the classification by the same types of bonds in soils. In each of these two classes we detach subclasses: 1) rock mass, 2) disperse mass and 3) «skadi». Among the frozen soils there are specific fourth subclass — ice soils. The classification in respect of the types is made for masses consisting entirely of soils with negative temperatures, as well as for masses including thawed soils. The author offers justification and discussion of the proposed classifications.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.107-113

References
  1. Ershov E.D. Obshchaya geokriologiya [General Geocryology]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 2002, 682 ð.
  2. Pozin V.A., Korolev A.A., Naumov M.S. Ledovyy kompleks tsentral'noy Yakutii kak opytnyy poligon zheleznodorozhnogo stroitel'stva v ekstremal'nykh geoekologicheskikh usloviyakh [Ice Complex of Central Yakutia as Testing Ground of Railway Construction in Extreme Geoecological Conditions]. Inzhenernye izyskaniya [Engineering Investigations]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 12—18.
  3. Chernyshev S.N. Printsipy klassifikatsii gruntovykh massivov [Principles of Classification of Soil Masses for Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 9, pp. 41—46.
  4. Chernyshev S.N. Podkhod k klassifikatsii dispersnykh i skadi gruntovykh massivov dlya stroitel'stva [Approach to the Classification of Disperse Soil Masses for Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 10, pp. 94—101.
  5. Brown J., Ferrians O.J., Heginbottom J.A., Melnikov E.S. Circum-arctic Map of Permafrost and Ground ice Conditions, Scale 1:10 000 000. Interior-geolodgical Survey, Reston, Virdginia, 1997.
  6. Galanin A.A., Motorov O.V. Dinamika teplovogo polya promerzayushchikh otvalov mestorozhdeniya Kubaka (Kolymskoe nagor'e) [The Dynamics of the Thermal Field of the Freezing Dumps Kubaka (Kolyma Highlands)]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 2013, no. 2, p. 46—56.
  7. Skapintsev A.E. Tipizatsiya inzhenerno-geokriologicheskikh usloviy i sozdanie inzhenerno-geokriologicheskikh kart uchastka proektiruemoy truboprovodnoy sistemy na territorii Vankorskogo mestorozhdeniya [Typification of Engineering Permafrost Conditions and Creation of Engineering and Permafrost Maps of the Projected Pipeline System Area in the Vankor]. Inzhenernye izyskaniya [Engineering Investigations]. 2013, no. 6, pp. 46—55.

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ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND EXAMINATION OF BUILDINGS. SPECIAL-PURPOSE CONSTRUCTION

Dynamic characteristics investigations of nuclear power plants containment shells using physicaland mathematical models and real projects

  • Andreeva Peraskovya Ivanovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shоsse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zavalishin Sergey Iosifovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Senior Research Worker, Head, Research Institute of Experimental Mechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shоsse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shablinskiy Georgiy Eduardovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Senior Research Worker, Research Institute of Experimental Mechanics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shоsse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 114-122

The article reveals comparative results of experimental model studies of the dynamical characteristics of containment shells used for their calculation and construction as well as actual calculation of dynamic characteristics and the results of actual full-scale investigations executed after 40 years of their operation. This comparison of present-day calculations and full-scale researches showed their agreement with the previous investigations performed on physical models of containment shells.The dynamic analysis of the facilities on the base of physical models were widely used in the 70's of the 20th century, when the computers were still in the initial level of development. The results of these model studies were used to justify the strength of critical structures, including nuclear power plants (NPPs), some of which have already worked for over 40 years. The current investigation gives the opportunity to compare the results of the previous model studies with the present calculations of NPP protective containments (shells) and the field studies results. The field investigations were carried out on the reactor containment of VVER-1000 reactor for the 1st unit of Kalinin NPP.1. Model studies of the dynamic characteristics on the physical model base. In order to provide dynamic model studies in the laboratory it is necessary to solve the following problems: 1) to fulfill certain similarity conditions, which provide unambiguous recalculation of the results to the full-scale structures; 2) to determine the scale of the model and its production material, which is related to the structure and characteristics of the vibration-testing machine (shaker), the transitional fixing devices for the model, special vibrators for dynamic loads, etc. The particular attention should be paid to the registration, processing and analysis of dynamic parameters, taking into account quality changes, which have recently occurred in the measurement technique. The model studies were carried out on a series of geometrically similar models of the protective containments fabricated under special technology of gypsum (1:100 scale) and plexiglas (1:200 scale). The models were mounted on a specially designed shaker. Harmonic oscillations with continuous frequency scanning were set up to the testers and resonant vibration frequency was recorded. Then the shell vibration mode was defined at these frequencies using small-sized mobile vibrometer. The frequencies of natural oscillations were recounted for correlation on similarity conditions.2. The study (investigation) of the dynamic characteristics of the protective containment on the base of mathematical model. The model is built in ANSYS calculation software complex and is structurally similar to the physical model, but without built elements and elastic foundation (i.e, the adopted conditions are similar to the physical model). The problem is solved in three-dimensional setting, all elements are made of three-dimensional elements (of solid type). The comparison of the experiment results on physical models and field studies is given in the Table.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.114-122

References
  1. Jeong S.-H., Mwafy A.M., Elnashai A.S. Probabilistic Seismic Performance Assessment of Code-compliant Multi-story RC Buildings. Engineering Structures. 2012, vol. 34, pp. 527—537.
  2. Fardis M. N. Seismic Design Assessment and Retrofitting of Concrete Buildings. 2009, pp. 25—33.
  3. Kirillov A.P., Krylov V.V., Sargsyan A.E. Vzaimodeystvie fundamentov sooruzheniy elektrostantsiy s osnovaniem pri dinamicheskikh nagruzkakh [Interaction of Power Plant Foundations with the Base under Dynamic Loads]. Moscow, Energoatomizdat Publ., 1984, 125 p.
  4. Kirillov A.P., Sargsyan A. E. Dinamika i seysmostoykost' AES s uchetom podatlivosti osnovaniya [Dynamics and Earthquake Resistanse of Nuclear Power Plants with Account for the Foundation Yielding]. Moscow, Informenergo Publ., 1988, p. 86.
  5. Chernov Yu.T. Prikladnyye metody dinamiki sooruzheniy [Applied Methods of Structural Dynamics]. Moscow, ASV Publ. 2001, p. 282.
  6. Shablinsky G., Zoubkov D., Isaikin A. Frequency Response Analysis of NPP Containment with WWER – 1000 Type Reactor. 18th International Conference on Structural Mechanics in Reactor Technology (SMIRT 18). Beijing, China, 2005, pp. 83—88.
  7. Liel A.B., Haselton C.B., Deierlein G.G., Baker J. W. Incorporating Modeling Uncertainties in the Assessment of Seismic Collapse Risk of Buildings. Structural Safety. 2009, vol. 31, no. 2, p. 134.

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Complex survey of the bridge over the structures of hydroelectric facility Ivankovo near Dubna(dam 21, power station 191)

  • Mikhaylova Larisa Ivanovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Leading engineer, laboratory of Inspection and Reconstruction of Buildings and Structures, Department of Testing of Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kunin Yuriy Saulovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Testing of Structures; +7 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 1331, 1150., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kotov Vyacheslav Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Director, Laboratory of Examination and Testing of Structures at Department of Testing of Structures; +7 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 1331, 1150., Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 123-131

The article describes the results of a comprehensive survey of the bridge structure in Dubna. The survey was performed to determine the load capacity and maintainability of the bridge structures for the period prior to the repair, as well as to collect the information necessary to update the draft decision and the right strategy of major repairs. The growing needs of the city Dubna, which several times increased the operational loading of the bridge structures, and no major repairs since the construction, led to the need of restricting the traffic capacity of the only transportation artery. By the time of the survey in November 2011, contraflow over the bridge and the restricted traffic of more than 8 t was organized, which resulted in tense atmosphere in the city.The authors studied the historical data and design features of the supporting structures of the bridge. Particular attention was paid to the state of load-bearing structures of the bridge and their deformability. The strength characteristics were studied. The authors analyzed the results of calculations in order to determine the carrying capacity of the bridge structures with the test loads. It turned out that the carrying capacity of the bridge is sufficient for load accommodation. However, in accordance with the regulations, the bridge does not meet modern requirements for the travel width. It was recommended to maintain contraflow and to provide operational loads of the class H-10 (i.e. platoons with GVW of 10 t and the presence of a single vehicle in a platoon with GVW of 13 t) until the major repairs. After major repairs with restoration of bearings, waterproofing, water disposal system, replacing the bed, repair of the protective layer, it will be possible for single vehicles weighing up to 25 t to pass over the bridge.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.123-131

References
  1. Istoriya i issledovaniya [History and Investigations]. Moskva — Volga [Moscow — Volga river]. Available at: http://moskva-volga.ru. Date of access: 29.04.2013.
  2. Mitropol'skiy N.M. Metodologiya proektirovaniya mostov [The Methodology of Designing Bridges]. Moscow, 1958, 292 p.
  3. Kunin Yu.S., Kotov V.I., Mikhaylova L.I. Obsledovanie avtodorozhnogo mosta cherez plotinu ¹ 21 i Ivan'kovskuyu GES ¹191 po adresu Moskovskaya oblast', g. Dubna: nauchno-tekhnicheskoe zaklyuchenie [Complex Survey of the Road Bridge over the Dam ¹ 21 and Hydropower Unit of Ivankovo at Address Moscow Region, Dubna city: Scientific and Technological Opinions]. Moscow, 2011, p. 7.
  4. Bryus L. (Frantsiya) Treshchinoobrazovanie v zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiyakh [Cracking in Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Materialy mezhdunarodnogo soveshchaniya po raschetu stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [Works of International Conference on Calculating Building Structures]. Moscow, Gosstoyizdat Publ., 1961, p. 53.
  5. Fizdel' I.A. Defekty v konstruktsiyakh, sooruzheniyakh i metody ikh ustraneniya [Defects in Constructions, Structures and Methods of their Correction]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1987, 196 p.
  6. Sakhnovskiy K.V. Zhelezobetonnye konstruktsii [Reinforced Concrete Structures]. Moscow, 1951, 839 p.
  7. Evgrafov K.G. Primenenie metoda rascheta konstruktsiy mostov po predel'nym sostoyaniyam [Application of the Method of Limit States in Bridge Design]. Materialy mezhdunarodnogo soveshchaniya po raschetu stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [Works of the International Conference on Building Structures Calculation]. Moscow, Gosstoyizdat Publ., 1961, p. 153.
  8. Vasil'ev B.F., Bogatkin I.L., Zalesov A.S., Pan'shin L.L. Raschet zhelezobetonnykh konstruktsiy po prochnosti, deformatsiyam, obrazovaniyu i raskrytiyu treshchin [Calculation of Reinforced Concrete Structures in Respect of their Strength, Deformation and Crack Formation]. Moscow, Izdatelstvo Literatury po Stroitel'stvu Publ., 1965, 416 p.
  9. Grassniñk A., Gr?n E., Fiks V., Holzapfel V., Roter H. Preduprezhdenie defektov v stroitel'stve. Zashchita materialov i konstruktsiy [Prevention of Defects in Construction. Protection of Materials and Structures]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989, 216 p.
  10. Vasil'ev A.P., Balovnev V.I., Korsunskiy M.B. and others, editor Vasil'eva A.P. Remont i soderzhanie avtomobil'nykh dorog: spravochnik inzhenera-dorozhnika [Repair and Maintenance of Roads: the Handbook of Highway Engineer]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1989, 287 p.

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TECHNOLOGY OF CONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES. MECHANISMS AND EQUIPMENT

Drilling in heat resistant cast stainless steel DIN 1.4848 for turbocharger housings

  • Heiler Roland - Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW-Berlin) Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW-Berlin), Treskowallee 810318, Berlin, Germany; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zeilmann Rodrigo Panosso - Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS) Doctor of Engineering, Professor, Universidade de Caxias do Sul (UCS), Rua Francisco Getúlio Vargas, 1130, 95070-560, Caxias do Sul, RS, Brazil.
  • Estel Göran - Hochschule fürTechnik und Wirtschaft (HTW-Berlin) Master of Engineering, Hochschule fürTechnik und Wirtschaft (HTW-Berlin), Treskowallee 810318, Berlin, Germany; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kauer Thomas - Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW-Berlin) Bachelor of Science, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW-Berlin), Treskowallee 810318, Berlin, Germany.
  • Köller Moritz - Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW-Berlin) Bachelor of Science, Hochschule für Technik und Wirtschaft (HTW-Berlin), Treskowallee 810318, Berlin, Germany.

Pages 132-140

Modern turbochargers are important components to reduce the gasoline consumption on actual and future engines. The reduction of the cubic capacity (downsizing) of an engine with a simultaneous increasing power, reduced gasoline consumption and asignificant decrease of COoutput is only possible by using modern turbocharger tech-nology and fuel injection systems. The temperature in the housings will reach ca. 1050°C and it is necessary to use austenitic cast steel like 1.4848 for the housings. Drilling and threading are quite difficult technologies in this material.The experiment conducted by the authors showed, that for the machining of heat resistant cast stainless steel 1.4848 totally different drill designs are recommended from the precision tool manufactures. For a reduced or smaller axial force, cutting torque and a slower increase of the tool wear with an indication of longer tool life the following geometries does have positive aspects: a concave or straight cutting edge with a small cutting edge radius provides decrease in process parameters and a longer tool life. A reduction of the helix angle in combination with a straight nearly sharp cutting edge (small radius) provides also good results. Convex main cutting edges and high cutting edge radii or strong facets delivers higher forces and cutting torques in combination with a stronger corner edge wear. For a stabilization of the cutting corner edge, this part of the drill should be slightly rounded or produced with a small facet. A small land of the drill in combination with a step grinding gives advantages in comparison to wider lands with a continuous transition, due to reduced friction and a lower tendency of cold welding or build up edge.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.132-140

References
  1. Albrecht B. Abgasturbolader von Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems. Pressemitteilung der Bosch Mahle Turbo Systems. Frankfurt a.M., September 2009.
  2. Junker H.-K. Die zweistufige Aufladung wird Mainstream. Interview, ATZ online. 2008.
  3. Miklin A. Entwicklung einer Fertigungstechnologie f?r d?nnwandigen Stahlguss. Dissertation TU Freiberg. 2010.
  4. Zentrale f?r Gussverwendung-ZGV, Hrsg. Feingie?en, Herstellung, Eigenschaften, Anwendungen. Konstruieren + Gie?en. D?sseldorf, Deutscher Gie?ereiverband, 2008, no. 33, H. 1.
  5. Staneff H., Strieber B., Weber R., Zimmer H. Hei?e L?sung — Edelstahl f?r Lader. Gie?erei-Praxis, 2007, no. 6, pp. 246.
  6. Schmier M. Randzonenver?nderungen beim Bohren und ihre Auswirkungen auf Folgebearbeitungsverfahren. Dissertation Universit?t Kassel, 2004.
  7. Bargel H.-J., Schulze G. and others. Werkstoffkunde. Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, 2005, no. 9.

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RESEARCH OF BUILDING MATERIALS

Influence of high-molecular chitosan on the process of cement composite hydration

  • Darchiya Valentina Ivanovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Junior research worker, Research Institute of Construction Materials and Technologies, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Nikiforova Tamara Pavlovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Deputy Chair, Department of General Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Eremin Aleksey Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Junior Research Scientist, Scientific and Research Institute of Construction Materials and Technologies, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 141-148

Natural biopolymer chitosan has a unique structure and functional diversity. Biocidal and antistatic properties of chitosan are mainly determined by the aminogroup in the structure of the molecule. Therefore, high molecular chitosan (HMC) was chosen for the introduction into the cement composition. It has high degree of deacetylation (98 %) and a molecular weight of 200 kDa, which allows having a maximum number of amino groups in the polymer, as well as being introduced as a powder into a dry mortar.With the help of differential thermal analysis it was found out that HMC does not react with the mortar.By means of isothermic calorimetry we studied the effect of HMC on the heat of hydration process of Portland cement. Introduction of the additive HMC of the concentration 0.2—2 % of the Portland cement weight does not affect the kinetics of the hydration reaction. A slight decrease in the intensity of the main exothermic peak seems to be caused by the decrease of the portland cement proportion in the modified samples after introducing HMC additive in a dosage of 0,2—2 % by weight.By IR spectroscopy possible interaction of HMC with Portland cement hydration products has been investigated. For this purpose the investigated samples aged 7 days of hardening of Portland cement and Portland cement modified by HMC and including HMC of 1 % and 2 % by weight. Comparing the IR spectres of the samples modified by HMC and transmission spectrum of the reference sample we can conclude, that the introduction of HMC does not cause the formation of new chemical bonds with the hydration products.By the methods of thermal analysis, infrared spectroscopy, isothermic calorimetry and X-ray analysis it was found out that the introduction of HMC in the experimental conditions does not affect the speed and intensity of Portland cement hydration. It was discovered that the introduction of HMC in a cement composition does not change the amount and type of Portland cement hydration products. HMC does not react with Portland cement hydration products.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.141-148

References
  1. Ana Pastor de Abram, editor. Quitina y quitosano: obtencion, caracterizacion y aplicaciones. Translated into Russian by K.M. Mikhlina, E.V. Zhukova, E.S. Krylova. Rossiyskoe khitinovoe obshchestvo Publ., 2010, 284 p.
  2. Lim S.H., Hudson S.M. Review of Chitosan and its Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents and their Uses as Textile Chemicals. Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part C. Polymer, 2003, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 223—269.
  3. Bierbaum G., Sahl H.G. Autolytic System of Staphylococcus Simulans 22: Influence of Cationic Peptides on Activity of N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine Amidase. J.Bacteriol. 1987, vol. 169(12), pp. 5452—5458.
  4. Didenko L.M., Gerasimenko D.V., Konstantinova N.D., Silkina T.A., Avdienko I.D., Bannikova G.E., Varlamov V.P. Ultrastructural Study of Chitosan Effects on Klebsiella and Staphylococci. Bull. Exp. Biol. Med. 2005, vol. 140 (3), pp. 356—360.
  5. Raafat D., Bargen K., Haas A., Sahl H.G. Insight into the Mode of Action of Chitosan as an Antibacterial Compound. Appl. Env. Microbiol. 2008, vol. 74, no. 12, pp. 3764—3773.
  6. Boychenko V. S. Anomalii elektricheskogo polya i zdorov'e lyudey [Anomalies of Electric Field and the Health of People]. Mediko-ekologicheskaya bezopasnost', reabilitatsiya i sotsial'naya zashchita naseleniya: XIV Mezhdunarodnyy forum (Khorvatiya, 6—13 sentyabrya 2003 g.): tezisy, doklady [Medico-ecological Safety, Rehabilitation and Social Protection of the Population; 14th International Forum (Croatia, September 06—13, 2003). Theses and Reports]. Moscow, 2003, pp. 76—80.
  7. Grigor'ev Yu.G., Stepanov V.S., Grigor'ev O.A., Merkulov A.V. Elektromagnitnaya bezopasnost' cheloveka. Spravochno-informatsionnoe izdanie [Electromagnetic Safety of a Person. Reference Edition]. Rossiyskiy natsional'nyy komitet po zashchite ot neioniziruyushchego izlucheniya [Russian National Committee on Protection against Nonionizing Radiation]. 1999.
  8. Dmitriev A.N. Prirodnye elektromagnitnye protsessy na Zemle [Natural Electromagnetic Processes of the Earth]. Gorno-Altaysk, RIO «Univers-Print», GAGU Publ., 1996, 80 p.

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Raising the biostability of wood by modifying its surface by boron-nitrogen compounds

  • Stepina Irina Vasil'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of General Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kotlyarova Irina Aleksandrovna - Bryansk State Technical University (BGTU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Bryansk State Technical University (BGTU), 7, Bul'var 50-letiya Oktyabrya, Bryansk, 241035, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sidorov Vyacheslav Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor, Professor, Department of General Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Myasoedov Evgeniy Mikhaylovich - Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of General and Analytical Chemistry, Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI); Professor, Department of General Chemistry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Moscow State University of Mechanical Engineering (MAMI); Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 38 Bol’shaya Semenovskaya str., Moscow, 107023, Russian Federation; 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 149-154

The author studies the biological stability of pine wood samples modified by immersion for 3 hours in 10 %, 30 % and 50 % aqueous solutions of monoand diethanolamine (N → B) threehydrousborat (composition 1 and 2, respectively). After drying to constant weight, the surface of the samples according to the all-Union State Standard 9.048 was infested with a suspention with a concentration of 1—2 million / ml of fungic spores. The samples were placed into an open petri dish in a desiccator and maintained under conditions optimal for the growth of mycelium.During the experiment, the following results were obtained. Unmodified wood samples were covered with mushrooms at the 80—85 % of the surface. A rapid development of all kinds of test cultures and sporulation of the fungus was observed. The samples of wood, modified by the 10 % aqueous solutions of compounds 1 and 2, revealed heavy mycelium growth of mold and wood-destroying fungi. The development stage of fungi according to the All-Union State Standard 9.048—89 corresponds to 3 points. Wood samples, modified by 30 % aqueous solutions, are more fungus-resistant, their score is2 points. The modification by 50 % aqueous solutions of compounds 1 and 2 provides the wood with 100 % biological stability in regard to the mold and wood-destroying fungi.Climatic tests were carried out in the heat and moisture chamber G-4 according to All-Union State Standard 9.308—85 (Method 6) and 9.054—75 (method 1). Test results showed that due to such properties as weather resistance and fungal resistance, the protective action durability of the developed compositions makes up 5 years for 10 % solutions of compounds 1 and 2, up to 10 years for the 30 % solutions and for 50 % solutions — not less than 20 years. Thus, 50 % aqueous solutions of compositions 1 and 2 (Ksilostat and Ksilostat +) are the most effective for wood modification, which could provide the modified sample with 100 % biological stability for at least 20 years as a result of surface treatment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.149-154

References
  1. Shupe T.S., Lebow S.T., Ring D. Causes and control of wood decay, degradation and stain. Res. & Ext. Pub, no. 2703, Zachary, LA, Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, 2008, 27 p.
  2. Mzhachikh E.I., Sukhareva L.A., Yakovlev V.V. Biokorroziya i fiziko-khimicheskie puti povysheniya dolgovechnosti pokrytiya [Biocorrosion and Physico-chemical Ways to Improve the Coating Durability]. Praktika protivokorrozionnoy zashchity [Experience of Anticorrosve Protection]. 2006, no. 1, pp. 55—58.
  3. Pokrovskaya E.N., Koval'chuk Yu.L. Khimiko-mikologicheskie issledovaniya i uluchshenie ekologii vnutri zdaniy [Chemical Analysis, Mycological Examination and Improvement of the Indoor Ecology]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 8, pp. 181—188.
  4. Lugauskas A., Yaskelyavichyus B. Mikologicheskoe sostoyanie zhilykh pomeshcheniy Bil'nyusa [Mycological State of the Accomodations in Bilnyusa]. Mikologiya i fitopatologiya [Mycology and Phytophathology]. 2009, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 207—215.
  5. Dashko R.E., Kotyukov P.V. Issledovanie bioagressivnosti podzemnoy sredy Sankt-Peterburga po otnosheniyu k konstruktsionnym materialam transportnykh tonneley i fundamentov [The Study on the Bioagressiveness of the Underground Environment in St. Petersburg in Relation to Construction Materials of Transport Tunnels and Basements]. Zapiski Gornogo Instituta [Proceedings of the Mining Academy]. 2007, vol. 172, pp. 217—220.
  6. Kukoleva D.A., Akhmetshin A.S., Stroganov I.V., Stroganov V.F. Biopovrezhdenie polimernykh kompozitsionnykh stroitel'nykh materialov [Biodeterioration of Polymer Composite Building Materials]. Izvestiya Kazanskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel'nogo universiteta [Proceedings of Kazan State University of Architecture and Engineering]. 2009, no. 2 (12), pp. 257—262.
  7. Lebow S.T. Wood Preservation. Wood Handbook: Wood as an Engineering Material. Gen. Tech. Rep. FPL–GTR–190. Madison, WI, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Forest Products Laboratory, 2010, chapter 15.
  8. Lebow S., Lebow P., Halverson S. Penetration of boron from topically applied borate solutions. Forest Products Journal. 2010, 60(1), pp. 13—22.
  9. Kotlyarova I.A., Koteneva I.V., Sidorov V.I. Modifikatsiya tsellyulozy monoetanolamin(N?B)trigidroksiboratom [Modification of Cellulose by Monoethanolamine(N?B) threehydrousborat]. Khimicheskaya promyshlennost' segodnya [Chemical Industry Today]. 2011, no. 12, pp. 26—30.
  10. Koteneva I.V., Sidorov V.I., Kotlyarov I.A. Analiz modifitsirovannoy tsellyulozy metodom IK-spektroskopii [Analysis of the Modified Cellulose by the Infrared Spectroscopy]. Khimiya rastitel'nogo syr'ya [Chemistry of Plant Materials]. 2011, no.1, pp. 21—24.

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SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

Service temperatures of stone and three-layered fence walls

  • Valuyskikh Victor Petrovich - Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolai Stoletov (VLSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Member, Russian Academy of Transport (RAT), head, Department of Strength of Materials, Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolai Stoletov (VLSU), 87, Gor'kogo St., Vladimir, 600000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Strizhova Svetlana Viktorovna - Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolai Stoletov (VLSU) architect, applicant, Department of Strength of Materials, Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolai Stoletov (VLSU), 87, Gor'kogo St., Vladimir, 600000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lisenkov Kirill Vladimirovich - Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolai Stoletov (VLSU) postgraduate student, Department of Strength of Materials, Vladimir State University named after Alexander and Nikolai Stoletov (VLSU), 87, Gor'kogo St., Vladimir, 600000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 155-160

In the article service temperatures of fence walls, designed according to Sanitary Norms and Requirements SNIP II-3—79 and SNiP 23-02—2003 are considered. In recent years the service temperatures of fence wall materials and front bricks in off-season period changed fundamentally. The control over physical and mechanical characteristics of wall materials significantly weakened. The surveys show that already after 4–6 years of buildings operation more than 34 % of three-layered walls are in urgent need of major repairs. This author estimates the reasons for the destruction of the face work of buildings and structures made of ceramic hollow bricks, as well as the period of unsafe operation of three-layered walls brickwork. Thermal performance of different structures containing fence walls are considered. In stone walls the "dew point" moves in the outer thin layer of fence walls. In three-layered walls dew point moves along the entire wall thickness. When using ceramic hollow bricks, additional condition of deterioration of the wall is the occurrence of stress concentrations. One of the reasons for ceramic hollow bricks destruction is an irrational structure of voids. Improving physical and mechanical characteristics of hollow bricks, in particular, thermal resistance and frost resistance, can be achieved by using voids of hyper-parametric cross-sectional shape, rational size and position. We believe, that in order to increase the durability of three-layered fence walls strict control over the physical and mechanical characteristics of wall materials is needed, the same as significant severization of the requirements to frost-resistance of bricks. We offer many ideas, which will reduce the time and cost of buildings and structures construction.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.155-160

References
  1. Valuyskikh V.P. Effektivnye ekonomicheskaya strategiya, stenovye materialy i tekhnologii zhilishchnogo stroitel'stva [Effective Economic Strategy, Wall Materials and Housing Technologies]. Innovatsii v stroitel'stve i arkhitekture [Innovations in Construction and Architecture]. Vladimir, Vladimir State University, Tranzit-IKS Publ., 2012, pp. 170—197.
  2. Valuyskikh V.P., Strizhova S.V., Palkin P.A. Konstruktsii ograzhdayushchikh i nesushchikh sten v maloetazhnom stroitel'stve [Construction of Fence and Bearing Walls in Low-rise Buildings]. Stroitel'naya industriya: vchera, segodnya, zavtra: III Vserossiyskaya nauchno-prakticheskaya konferentsiya: sbornik statey [Construction Industry: Yesterday, Today, Tomorrow. 3rd All-Russian Scientific-Practical Conference: Collection of Works]. Penza, RIO PGSKhA Publ., 2012, pp. 27—31.
  3. Fokin K.F. Stroitel'naya teplotekhnika ograzhdayushchikh chastey zdaniy [Building Heat Engineering of the Enclosing Parts of Buildings]. Moscow, AVOK-PRESS Publ., 2006, 136 p.
  4. Allcut E.A. General Discussion on Heat Transfer. London, 1951, 91 p.
  5. Tye R.P. Thermal Conductivity. London–N.Y., Academic Press, 1969, vol. 1, 441 p.
  6. Umnyakova N.M. Dolgovechnost' trekhsloynykh sten s oblitsovkoy iz kirpicha s vysokim urovnem teplovoy zashchity [Durability of Three-layered Walls with Brick Facing that Provides High Thermal Protection]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no. 1, pp 94—100.
  7. Valuyskikh V.P., Gribanov A.S., Evdokimov A.P., Lisenkov K.V. Giperparametricheskie tsilindricheskie makropustoty v stenovykh materialakh [Hyper-parametric Cylindrical Macrovoids in Wall Materials]. Innovatsii v stroitel'stve i arkhitekture [Innovations in Construction and Architecture]. Vladimir, Vladimir State University, 2012, pp. 137—140.
  8. Valuyskikh V.P., Lisenkov K.V. RU Patent 118 993 U1, MPK E04C 1/00. Silikatnye pustotnye kirpichi. Zayavka ¹ 30.03.2012; opubl. 10.08.2012, Byul. ¹22 [RF Patent 118 993 U1, MPK E04C 1/00. Silicate hollow bricks. Application no. 30.03.2012, published 10.08.2012, Bulletin no. 22]. 2 p.
  9. Malakhova A.N., Balakshin A.S. Primenenie stenovykh melkikh blokov iz yacheistykh betonov v nesushchikh stenakh zdaniy sredney etazhnosti [Using Small Cellular Concrete Blocks to Make Bearing Walls of Mid-rise Buildings]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2013, no.1, pp. 87—93.

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Geoecological safety assessment of water bodies within Ufa city

  • Krasnogorskaya Nataliya Nikolaevna - Ufa State Aviation Technical University (UGATU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Industrial Safety and Ecology, Ufa State Aviation Technical University (UGATU), 12 K. Marks str., Ufa, 450000, Republic of Bashkortostan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Elizar'ev Aleksey Nikolaevich - Ufa State Aviation Technical University (UGATU) Candidate of Geographical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Industrial Safety and Ecology, Ufa State Aviation Technical University (UGATU), 12 K. Marks str., Ufa, 450000, Republic of Bashkortostan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khaertdinova Elina Sagitovna - Ufa State Aviation Technical University (UGATU) ostgraduate student, Department of Industrial Safety and Ecology, Ufa State Aviation Technical University (UGATU), 12 K. Marks str., Ufa, 450000, Republic of Bashkortostan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 161-166

Prompt growth of urbanized territories has a negative impact on water bodies. Rivers and lakes frequently receive sewage, which has a negative effect on the quality of water, activity of hydrobionts, water vegetation, adjacent territory and coastal zones. In this regard, water bodies affected by human, represent a source of geoecological danger to the population. The authors propose geoecological thread criteria of urban water bodies, namely: A — change in hydrochemistry of water bodies under the influence of anthropogenic factors (uncontrolled runoff, wastewater discharge, unorganized landfills of municipal waste, recreation load); B — thermal pollution of a water body due to the discharge of heated water from power plants; C — break of water body forming element (soil dam) with the subsequent flooding of downstream areas.The city of Ufa is an example of urbanized territory characterized by intensive industrial and transport development, population growth. The natural hydrographic network within Ufa territory is generally about 20 small rivers and 90 water bodies of natural or artificial origin. In order to identify the most vulnerable and dangerous water bodies for the Ufa population, the authors conducted an assessment of their compliance with the proposed criteria of geoecological thread (A, B, C). The authors proposed to merge water bodies of Ufa into the groups according to the degree of geoecological thread: I. А ; II. А+C or B+C ; III. А + B + C . It was established that the greatest geoecological thread for the population of Ufa is constituted by such water bodies as Teploe and Dolgoe.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.161-166

References
  1. Rao Y. Hanumantha, Ravindhranath K. Thermal and Heavy Metal Ions Pollution Assessment in Nearby Water Bodies of Vijayawada Thermal Power Station. Asian Journal of Chemistry. 2013, no. 25, ðð. 1547—1554.
  2. Colin S. Reynolds, Stephen C. Maberly, Julie E. Parker, Mitzi M. De Ville. Forty Years of Monitoring Water Quality in Grasmere (English Lake District): Separating the Effects of Enrichment by Treated Sewage and Hydraulic Flushing on Phytoplankton Ecology. Freshwater Biology. 2012, vol. 57, no. 2, ðð. 384—399.
  3. Sachi Nakashima, Yoshihiro Yamada, Kuninao Tada. Characterization of the Water Quality of Dam Lakes on Shikoku Island, Japan. Limnology. 2007, vol. 8, no. 1, ðð. 1—22.
  4. Tahir Ali Akbar, Quazi K. Hassan, Gopal Achari. A Methodology for Clustering Lakes in Alberta on the basis of Water Quality Parameters. Clean — Soil, Air, Water. 2011, vol. 39, no. 10, ðð. 916—924.
  5. McEnroe N.A., Buttle J.M., Marsalek J., Pick F.R., Xenopoulos M.A., Frost P.C. Thermal and Chemical Stratification of Urban Ponds: Are they ‘Completely Mixed Reactors’? Urban Ecosystems. 2013, vol. 16, no. 2, ðð. 327—339.
  6. Zibrov G.V., Umyvakin V.M., Ivanov D.A., Matviets D.A., Minaeva N.A. Kvalimetricheskiy analiz geoekologicheskoy opasnosti territoriy s intensivnoy antropogennoy deyatel'nost'yu [Qualimetric Analysis of Geoecological Danger of Territories with Intensive Anthropogenous Activity]. Vestnik voronezhskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: geologiya [Proceedings of Voronezh State University. Geology Series]. 2009, no. 2, pp. 180—186.
  7. Soromotin A.V., Khoteev V.V., Sizov O.S., Piterskikh A.S. Kompleksnoe geoekologicheskoe issledovanie gorodskoy sredy goroda Muravlenko [The Complex Geoecological Studies of the Town Environment in Muravlenko City]. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territory [Ecology of Urban Areas]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 34—40.
  8. Ivanov A.V. Sistema geoekologicheskikh opasnostey v krupnykh gorodakh Nizhnego Povolzh'ya [System of Geoecological Dangers in Large Cities of the Lower Volga Region]. Problemy regional'noy ekologii [Regional Environmental Issues]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 189—192.
  9. Zaikanov V.G., Minakova T.B., Patrenkov M.A. Podkhody k geoekologicheskomu kartografirovaniyu urbanizirovannoy territorii [Approaches to Geoecological Mapping of Urban Areas]. Geoekologiya [Geoecology]. 2010, no. 4, pp. 336—350.
  10. Krasnogorskaya N.N., Elizar'ev A.N., Khaertdinova E.S., Mullayanov R.R. Otsenka ekologicheskogo sostoyaniya lenticheskikh vodnykh ob"ektov v predelakh urbanizirovannykh territoriy [Estimation of the Ecological Condition of Lentic Water Objects within Urbanized Territories]. Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniya: setevoy zhurnal [Modern Problems of Science and Education: Internet Journal]. 2011, no. 6. Available at: http://www.science-education.ru/100-4890. Date of access: 4.06.2013.

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Statistical analysis of the atmosphere transparency evolution in Moscow

  • Prokop'ev Valeriy Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Informatics and Applied Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khlystunov Mikhail Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Mogilyuk Zhanna Gennad'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Applied Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 167-176

The co-authors discuss the statistical analysis results of the atmospheric transparency evolution in Moscow territory within the last 35 years. The analysis shows the statistical increase of the global warming impact on the growing daily average visibility or the atmospheric transparency. The article presents statistical regularities of the risk increase of the atmosphere transparency deviations from its multiyear averages. The article notes the impact of atmospheric transparency on the risk of the increase in the weather anomalies, roof icing, as well as icing of power supply systems and communication, roads, bridges and other transport construction objects. It is also noted that the increase in temperature fluctuations amplitude, humidity, rainfall and other climatic loads leads to accelerated deterioration of building structures. The average increase in the number of atmospheric high transparency realizations increased almost 1.5 times for the last 35 years.If the trend persists for the current urban planning period (e.g., 100 years), the3,37 times increase in the number of days with high transparency is very realistic. The increase in atmosphere transparency will be accompanied by the concomitant rise of temperature, humidity, precipitation and wind speed oscillations.With the increasing duration of windless seasons we should also expect the concomitant growing risks of dry, hot and fire seasons. Such a global climate change process is of great importance for investors, self-regulatory organizations, owners of construction objects, managing and energy companies and insurers. It is also essential for municipal, regional and Federal urban planning companies.This problem in Russia and abroad is significantly intensified by previously unexpected growth of hazardous man-made and natural, climatic, geological and geophysical processes. These factors cause new and, as a result, non-normalized loads and impacts on buildings, structures and geoecological systems of the urbanized territories, which are beyond the project. In addition to the statistical data analysis of the Moscow atmospheric transparency evolution the authors also performed similar research on daily average visibility in different locations and on different continents.Such studies have been conducted by the authors in such cities as New-York, Anchorage, Buenos Aires, Niamey, London, Tokyo, Canberra and other cities of the planet. The analysis of geographical manifestations of atmosphere transparency evolution as a result of global climate change showed that the daily average visibility evolution observed in Moscow is of global nature. These results will be published by the authors in the coming series of articles on the subject.Global warming creates the problems of food security, urban population sustainment and construction adaptation to the new climatic realities in long perspective of urban planning. Solar radiation effect on the structures of buildings are among the most important climatic loads, which are taken into account in the regulations in the process of buildings and structures design.However, the excising regulatory documents contain no data about the evolution of solar irradiation over the building constructions throughout the buildings life cycle as a result of the continuing global warming. This remark also refers to the radiation intensity change as a result of the transparency or daily average visibility evolution.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.167-176

References
  1. Brohan P., Kennedy J.J., Harris I., Tett S.F.B., Jones P.D. Uncertainty Estimates in Regional and Global Observed Temperature Changes: A New Data Set from 1850. Journal of Geophysical Research: Atmospheres. 2006, vol. 111, no. D12.
  2. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report, Fig. 3.2 Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model Projections of Surface Warming.
  3. Telichenko V.I., Khlystunov M.S., Prokop'ev V.I., Mogilyuk Zh.G. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya. Yavlenie kosmogennoy evolyutsii intensivnosti global'nykh variatsiy maksimal'nykh i srednesutochnykh temperatur na urbanizirovannykh territoriyakh [Loadings and Impacts on Buildings and Structures. Cosmogenic Evolution of the Intensity of Global Variations of Maximal and Daily Average Temperatures on Urbanized Territories]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 2, vol. 2, pp. 68—73.
  4. Khlystunov M.S., Poduval'tsev V.V., Prokop'ev V.I., Mogilyuk Zh.G. Spektral'nye zakonomernosti kosmogennoy evolyutsii intensivnosti global'nykh kolebaniy maksimal'nykh i srednesutochnykh temperatur [Spectral Regularities of Cosmogenic Evolution of the Global Fluctuations Intensity of Maximal and Daily Average Temperatures]. Nauka i obrazovanie: elektronnoe nauchno-tekhnicheskoe izdanie [Science and Education: Internet Scientific and Technical Edition]. 2011, no. 12, p. 53.
  5. Khlystunov M.S., Poduval'tsev V.V., Prokop'ev V.I., Mogilyuk Zh.G. Spektral'nye zakonomernosti kosmogennoy evolyutsii intensivnosti global'nykh kolebaniy ezhesutochnogo kolichestva osadkov [Spectral Regularities of Cosmogenic Evolution of the Global Fluctuations Intensity of Everyday Precipitation Amount]. Nauka i obrazovanie: elektronnoe nauchno-tekhnicheskoe izdanie [Science and Education: Internet Scientific and Technical Edition]. 2011, no. 12. Available at: http://technomag.edu.ru/doc//251776.html.
  6. Khlystunov M.S., Poduval'tsev V.V., Prokop'ev V.I., Mogilyuk Zh.G. Spektral'nye zakonomernosti global'nykh aerodinamicheskikh proyavleniy kosmogennykh protsessov [Spectral Regularities of Global Aerodynamic Manifestations of Cosmogenic Processes]. Nauka i obrazovanie: elektronnoe nauchno-tekhnicheskoe izdanie [Science and Education: Internet Scientific and Technical Edition]. 2011, no. 12. Available at: http://technomag.edu.ru/doc//253751.html.
  7. Khlystunov M.S., Poduval'tsev V.V., Prokop'ev V.I., Mogilyuk Zh.G. Global'nye i lokal'nye zakonomernosti evolyutsii intensivnosti klimaticheskikh i geofizicheskikh nagruzok na urbanizirovannykh territoriyakh [Global and Local Regularities of the Climatic and Geophysic Loadings Intensity Evolution on Urbanized Territories]. Ekologiya urbanizirovannykh territoriy [Ecology of Urbanized Territories]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 13—21.
  8. Telichenko V.I., Khlystunov M.S., Prokop'ev V.I., Mogilyuk Zh.G. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya. Yavlenie kosmogennoy evolyutsii intensivnosti global'nykh variatsiy ezhesutochnogo kolichestva osadkov na urbanizirovannykh territoriyakh [Loadings and Impacts on Buildings and Structures. Cosmogenic Evolution of the Intensity of Global Variations of Daily Average Precipitation Amount on Urbanized Territories ]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 47—53.
  9. Telichenko V.I., Khlystunov M.S., Prokop'ev V.I., Mogilyuk Zh.G. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya. Yavlenie kosmogennoy evolyutsii intensivnosti global'nykh kolebaniy srednesutochnoy skorosti vetra na urbanizirovannykh territoriyakh [Loadings and Impacts on Buildings and Structures. Cosmogenic Evolution of the Intensity of Global Variations of Daily Average Wind Speed on Urbanized Territories]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 60—67.

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Features of construction schemes of self-heating sources for largeindustrial complex and logistics centers in urbosystems on ecological principles

  • Rakhnov Oleg Evgen'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Saklakov Igor' Yur'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievic - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 177-187

The urban environment is a combination of man-made objects (buildings, roads, business-centers, engineering systems of heat, water, energy supply, waste disposal, water disposal, transport, food production, etc.) and elements of the natural environment, which together with the socio -economic factors (cultural-domestic servicing, health care, etc.) influence the population. In respect of its expansion and degree of impact, thermal pollution is one of the biggest forms of physical pollution of the environment: with a fairly high degree of certainty the size of fuel, hot water and steam consumption can be counted together with the degree of thermal pollution of the surrounding area. The problem of thermal pollution has two dimensions: global (planetary) and local.From the engineering point of view, fighting thermal pollution is identical to energy efficiency. The higher is the level of energy-saving policy and work, the more intense is the fight against thermal pollution.Modern urbosystems of major cities are composed not only of residential estate, but also of industrial buildings. Large shopping centers are recently becoming widespread in the cities. These centers and industrial buildings have large storage space as an important logistic element. Business development in Russia radically alters the fundamental approaches to the production and consumption of all types of energy. Considering continuous growth of energy prices, critical condition of municipal heating and electrical grids, unreasonably high tariffs for the service of grid companies, which are usually noncompetitive in the market, the power supply problem is becoming more urgent. Sometimes power and heat interruptions may result in big losses. Any owner is interested in reducing the risks. The trend is that modern business is refocused on the maximum autonomy, which supposes its own source of heat supply. During boiler construction, the question about the efficiency of capital investments, operating and energy costs rises. Capital costs are determined by the heat source power. Heat supply of storage and industrial buildings has a number of features, which should be taken into account during designing. Particularly important is the study of the engineering infrastructure of settlements, industrial complexes in actively developing urbosystems. Design of modern heating systems is running on ecological principles – energy efficiency and resource saving. In this case, the operation of an industrial complex requires uninterrupted heat supply with a view to minimizing costs such as the design and operating costs. The main difference with the housing complex is shooting heat consumption in the end of work shift.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.177-187

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Geological environment as a noospheric category

  • Trofimov Viktor Titovich - Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Vice-rector, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU), Rector's office, 1 Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119234, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korolev Vladimir Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, professor, Department of Engineering and Ecological Geology, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov (MGU), Rector's office, 1 Leninskiye Gory, Moscow, 119234, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 188-193

In the paper the term definition "geological environment", given earlier by various researchers, is considered. It is emphasized that geological environment is changing and evolving with the times. This evolution is at the same time quantitative (a gradual increase in geological environment volume due to the increasing anthropogenic impacts on the lithosphere) and qualitative (changes in the geological environment).According to the authors, at the present time different definition should be given to the category "geological environment" in comparison to the previously used by different authors in different disciplines. Namely, the category "geological environment" should be understood not only by "eco-sense" as a habitat (partial) or activity environment (including economic and other activity), but also by the "noospheric sense" — as intelligently organized environment habitat (partial, along with other geospheres of the Earth) and human activity environment.The geological environment is not just "a part of the lithosphere .... etc. ", but also an essential component of the Earth's biosphere and ecosystems at various levels, including global level, ensuring their existence and operation. Therefore, if human activity deteriorates this environment, that leads to the destruction of ecosystems, which are in some way related to the geological environment, and to the environmental crisis, and ultimately — to the degradation of the entire civilization.Hence the alternative is necessary — the implementation of such a reasonable (noospheric, regulated and controlled) human activity, which would not worsen the geological environment, but on the contrary, would lead to its preservation and coexistence with other components of the Earth's biosphere, which excludes environmental crises.On the basis of this noospheric conception a new definition of the term "geological formation" is given: geological environment is the area of the upper lithosphere layers, which in the past, present or future is in collaboration with engineering and economic human activity, qualitatively and quantitatively evolving over time, and which is a component of natural or natural-industrial ecosystems, and the possible element of the geonoogenesis.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.188-193

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  3. Lomtadze V.D. Geologicheskiy slovar' [Geological dictionary]. St. Petersburg, SPb GU Publ., 1999, 360 p.
  4. Sergeev E.M. Inzhenernaya geologiya — nauka o geologicheskoy srede [Engineering Geology — a Science on Geological Environment]. Inzhenernaya geologiya [Engineering Geology]. 1979, no. 1, pp. 3—19.
  5. Mel'nikova K.P., Sergeev E.M., Idei V.I. Vernadskogo o noosfere i dal'neyshee razvitie inzhenernoy geologii [The ideas of Vernadsky about Noosphere and the Further Development of Engineering Geology]. Vestnik MGU. Seriya 4. Geologiya [Proceedings of Moscow State University. Series 4. Geology]. 1963, no. 1, pp. 43—47.
  6. Sergeev E.M. Eshche raz ob inzhenernoy geologii [Once Again on Engineering Geology]. Puti dal'neyshego razvitiya inzhenernoy geologii [The Development Options of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1971, pp. 117-123.
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  10. Korolev V.A. Noogenez i usloviya deystviya zakonov inzhenernoy geologii [Noogenesis and Action Conditions of the Engineering Geology Laws]. Teoreticheskie problemy inzhenernoy geologii: Trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Theoretical Problems of Engineering Geology: Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1999, pp. 147—148.
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  13. Snezhkin B.A. Noogenez — prevrashchenie geologicheskoy sredy v sredu obitaniya cheloveka [Noogenesis — Transformation of Geological Environment into Human Environment]. Teoreticheskie problemy inzhenernoy geologii: trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Theoretical Problems of Engineering Geology. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1999, pp. 149—150.
  14. Snezhkin B.A., Korolev V.A., Trofimov V.T. Noogenez — osoznannoe, pozitivnoe i razumnoe preobrazovanie gruntovykh tolshch [Noogenesis — Conscious, Positive and Rational Transformation of Soil Strata]. Genezis i modeli formirovaniya svoystv gruntov: trudy Mezhdunarodnoy nauchnoy konferentsii [Genesis and Formation Models of the Properties of the Soils. Proceedings of the International Scientific Conference]. Moscow, MGU Publ., 1998, pp. 24—25.

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The role of geomonitoring and efficiencyof engineering measures to ensure further activity of a long near-surface radioactive waste storage

  • Khakhunova Mariya Mikhaylovna - Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of Russian Academу of Sciences (RAN GEOKhI im. V.I. Vernadskogo) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Researcher, Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry of Russian Academу of Sciences (RAN GEOKhI im. V.I. Vernadskogo), 4 Ko- sygina St., Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khakhunov Aleksey Vladimirovich - Bauman State Technical University (MGTU named after N.E. Bauman) student, Department of Robotechnic, Bauman State Technical University (MGTU named after N.E. Bauman), 5 2 Baumanskaya st., Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Samsonov Maksim Dmitrievich - Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry named after V.I. Vernadsky (GEOKhI RAN) Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Senior Research Worker, Radiochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry named after V.I. Vernadsky (GEOKhI RAN), 19 Kosygina st., Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Vinokurov Sergey Evgen'evich - Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry named after V.I. Vernadsky (GEOKhI RAN) Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Senior Research Worker, Radiochemistry Laboratory, Institute of Geochemistry and Analytical Chemistry named after V.I. Vernadsky (GEOKhI RAN), 19 Kosygina st., Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 194-199

The main thread to geoecological safety of the environment is the disposed radioactive waste from the first stage of atomic industry development when even the concept of storage (disposal) of such waste was absent. Substantiation of further safe exploitation of radioactive waste (RW) storage site, because of the absence of an alternative, was carried out on the basis of geomonitoring observation, however the data of these works is not widely covered. Therefore the author of this article tried to summarize the results of decennial research of the development, introduction and improvement of geomonitoring methods at one of RW storage sites taking into account physical-geographical and geological conditions of its disposition. For geomonitoring conduction a net of boreholes was drilled with core sampling including sampling through RW mass as well as below storage facility foundation. Core material and boreholes themselves have become the objects of a lot of scientific researches: geological, hydrogeological, hydrochemical, geophysical, geothermal, radiochemical, physical-chemical and microbiological. Taking into account the migration of radionuclides in the site, engineering and technical arrangements were developed and introduced. Their implementation allows to prolong the validity period of the site.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.194-199

References
  1. Prozorov L.B., Khakhunova M.M. Issledovaniya gidrokhimicheskoy zonal'nosti pri otsenke geoekologicheskoy bezopasnosti khranilishch RAO pripoverkhnostnogo tipa [Research of Hydrochemical Zonality in the Process of Estimating Geological Safety of Radioactive Waste Storages of Near-surface Type]. Radiokhimiya [Radiochemistry]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 375—378.
  2. Prozorov L.B., Khakhunova M.M. Prognozirovanie vertikal'noy migratsii radionuklidov iz khranilishch RAO pripoverkhnostnogo tipa [Predicting Vertical Radionuclide Migration from Radioactive Waste Storages of Near-surface Type]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 1, pp. 267—269.
  3. Dmitriev S.A., Barinov A.S., Batyukhnova O.G., Volkov A.S., Ozhovan M.I., Shcherbatova T.D. Tekhnologicheskie osnovy sistemy upravleniya radioaktivnymi otkhodami [Technological Basis of the Radioactive Waste Management System]. Moscow, GUP MosNPO «Radon» Publ., 2007, pp. 290—330.
  4. Veselov E.I. Ekologicheskaya otsenka sostoyaniya zashchitnykh bar'erov khranilishch pri dolgovremennoy lokalizatsii radioaktivnykh otkhodov [Ecological Estimation of Security Barriers of the Storages State in Case of Long-term Localization of Radioactive Wastes]. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya [Occupational Medicine and Industrial Ecology]. 2009, no. 3, pp. 4—6.
  5. Gorbunova O.A. Vliyanie mikrobiologicheskoy destruktsii tsementnoy matritsy na bezopasnost' dlitel'nogo khraneniya konditsionirovannykh radioaktivnykh otkhodov [The Influence of Microbiological Destruction of Cement Matrix on the Safety of Long-term Conditioned Radwaste Storage]. Fizika i khimiya obrabotki materialov [Physics and Chemistry of Material Processing]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 98—106.
  6. Gorbunova O.A., Barinov A.S. Mikrobiologicheskaya otsenka sostoyaniya tsementnykh kompaundov s radioaktivnymi otkhodami posle dlitel'nogo khraneniya v pripoverkhnostnykh khranilishchakh [Microbiological Estimation of Cement Compounds with Radioactive Waste after Long-Term Storage in Near-Surface Storages]. Radiokhimiya [Radiochemistry]. 2012, vol. 54, no. 2, pp. 182—187.
  7. Barinov A.S., Veselov E.I., Prozorov L.B., Flit V.Yu. Vosstanovlenie germetichnosti «istoricheskikh» khranilishch ["Historical" Storages Integrity Rehabilitation]. Bezopasnost' okruzhayushchey sredy [Environmental Safety]. 2006, no. 2, pp. 38—41.
  8. Veselov E.I., Prozorov L.B. Obosnovanie optimal'noy konstruktsii i tolshchi pokrytiya pripoverkhnostnogo khranilishcha radioaktivnykh otkhodov [Substantiation of Optimal Construction and Coating Thickness of Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Storage]. Meditsina truda i promyshlennaya ekologiya [Occupational Medicine and Industrial Ecology]. 2008, vol. 105, no. 6, pp. 329—334.
  9. Mart'yanov V.V. Formirovanie fil'tratsionnykh poley vblizi razmeshcheniya pripoverkhnostnykh khranilishch radioaktivnykh otkhodov [Filtration Area Formation around Near-Surface Radioactive Waste Storage]. Atomnaya energiya [Nuclear Energy]. 2008, no. 6, pp. 334—338.

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HYDRAULICS. ENGINEERING HYDROLOGY. HYDRAULIC ENGINEERING

Island gravel beach simulation

  • Makarov Nikolay Konstantinovich - Sochi State University (SGU) postgraduate student, Department of Urban Development; +7 (862) 253-12-66., Sochi State University (SGU), 26a Sovetskaya St., Sochi, 354000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 200-209

In recent years the interest in simulation and construction of artificial island recreational complexes is increasing. Such complexes can include artificial beaches. However ensuring stability of such beaches in respect of their access to deep water, represents a complex scientific and technical challenge. Usually it is decided by the method of spatial physical modeling in wave basins which requires essential financial and time expenditures. Therefore the problem of developing mathematical model of the dynamics of island beaches is urgent, the same as its classifications according to physical modeling for one object with further use on other objects.In the article the author offers a mathematical model of wave transformation and dynamics of gravel beaches within artificial island complexes. The model consists of two parts. The first part is modeling of diffraction, refraction, transformation of waves and breakwater areas within island complexes. The second is modeling of dynamic balance profiles of beaches formation, sediment transport and dynamics of the coastline, including coastal protection structures.The results of hydraulic simulation on spatial model are given in the wave basin of gravel beach dynamics in the artificial island on the Southern coast of the Crimea near the cape Fiolent. The mathematical model is cross-checked according to these experiments and is offered for optimization of beach protection constructions while designing island beaches.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.200-209

References
  1. Mal'tsev V.P., Makarov K.N., Nikolaevskiy M.Yu. Razrabotka i issledovanie ostrovnogo plyazhnogo kompleksa [Development and Research of an Island Beach Complex]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel'stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 1993, no. 11, pp. 15—17.
  2. Makarov N.K. Matematicheskaya model' dinamiki galechnykh plyazhey iskusstvennykh ostrovnykh kompleksov [Mathematical Model of Gravel Beaches Dynamics within Artificial Island Complexes]. Gidrotekhnika [Hydrotechnics]. 2012, no. 2(27), pp. 84—87.
  3. Lappo D.D., Strekalov S.S., Zav'yalov V.K. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya vetrovykh voln na gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzheniya [Loadings and Impacts of Wind Waves on Hydraulic Engineering Structures]. Leningrad, VNIIG.
  4. Booij N., Ris R.C., Holthuijsen L.N. A Third-generation Wave Model for Coastal Regions. Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans (1978–2012). 1999, vol. 104, no. C4, pp. 7649—7681.
  5. Ali Mahdavi, Nasser Talebbeydokhti. Modeling of Non-breaking and Breaking Solitary Wave Run-up Using Shock-capturing TVD-WAF Scheme. Journal of Civil Engineering. 2011, vol. 15, no.6, pp. 945—955.
  6. Makarov K.N., Korolev K.I. Budushchee ostrovnykh portov i gavaney [Future of Island Ports and Harbors]. Mir transporta [Transport World]. 2007, no. 4, pp. 100—105.
  7. Makarov K.N., Korolev K.I. Konfiguratsiya ograditel'nykh sooruzheniy ostrovnykh portov na Chernomorskom poberezh'e Kavkaza [Configuration of Protection Structures of Island Ports on the Black Sea Coast of the Caucasus]. Stroitel'stvo v pribrezhnykh kurortnykh regionakh: materialy 5 Mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii, gorod Sochi, 12—17 maya 2008 goda [Construction in Coastal Health Resorts: Materials of the 5th International Scientific and Practical Conference, Sochi, May 12—17, 2008]. 2008, pp. 113—116.
  8. Jamal M.H., Simmonds D.J., Magar V., Pan S. Modelling Infiltration on Gravel Beaches with an XBeach Variant. Proceedings of the International Conference on Coastal Engineering 32, Sediment. 41. Available at: http://journals.tdl.org/ICCE/issue/view/154/showToc.

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URBAN MANAGEMENT

Modern trends in town-planning science in terms of spatial planning

  • Samoylova Nadezhda Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) councellor, Central Office of the Government of the Russian Federation, councellor, Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Building Design and Urban Planning, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26, Yaroslavskoye shosse, Moscow, Russia, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 210-217

In the article the present stages of the urban planning development of the territory in non-classical and post-neoclassical science are discussed. The author carries out the judgment on the evolution of one of the directions of urban planning activity — the spatial planning. Three aspects of urban planning science (knowledge system, professional activity, social institute) are considered. The Author makes an attempt to define the role and position of town-planning science in a complex of interdependent and interacting branches of science.Sociocultural conditions of spatial planning development in the USSR are stated. Distinctive characteristics of the Russian urban planning process (economic, sociological and legal) are specified. The author offers the terminological comparison of definitions used in science in the sphere of urban planning development of the territories. The ambiguity of interpretation of the Russian term «town planning» and English term «spatial planning» and «regional planning» is specified.It is offered to consider spatial planning as complex scientific knowledge which operates the tools of synergetics. The theoretical formation model of the spatial environment of a settlement is taken for a basis. This model was developed by the Doctor of Architecture, professor Yu.V. Alekseev as a system of 4 organized objects: I —space of a closed construction (buildings and structures), II — space of an open construction, the organized urban planning space (spatial planning), III – the earth; IV — space of above ground territories; together with the differentiated functional processes, functions and factors.The purpose of the scientific research conducted by the author is to receive new knowledge in order to improve the theoretical model as a universal development project of settlements in the given territory, applicable in any concrete situation, allowing to solve all the problems by available means in the best way.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.210-217

References
  1. Baturin Yu.M. Modelirovanie kak vspomogatel'nyy instrument istorii i tekhniki [Modeling as an Auxiliary Tool of History and Techniques]. Vestnik Rossiyskoy akademii nauk [Proceedings of the Russian Academy of Sciences]. Moscow, 2013, no. 1, vol. 83, pp. 3—9.
  2. Grodach C. Urban Branding: an Analysis of City Homepage Imagery. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research. 2009, no. 26 (3), pp. 181—197. Available at: http://japr.homestead.com/files/Grodach.pdf. Date of access: 27.04.2013.
  3. Maghelal P., Natesan P., Naderi J.R., Kweon Byoung-Suk. Investigating the Use of Virtual Reality for Pedestrian Environments. Journal of Architectural and Planning Research. 2011, no. 28 (2), pp. 104—117. Available at: http://japr.homestead.com/Maghelal_Final Version111213.pdf. Date of access: 26.04.2013.
  4. Huntsinger L., Rouphail N., Bloomfield P. Trip Generation Models using Cumulative Logistic Regression. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, ASCE. 2013, no. 139(3), pp. 176–184. Available at: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/ 10.1061/%28ASCE%29UP.1943-5444.0000151. Date of access: 28.04.2013.
  5. Ozuduru B. Assessment of Spatial Dependence Using Spatial Autoregression Models: Empirical Analysis of Shopping Center Space Supply in Ohio. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, ASCE. 2013. no. 139(1), pp. 12—21. Available at: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/(ASCE)UP.1943-5444.0000129?af=R&. Date of access: 26.04.2013.
  6. Marins K., Romero M. Urban and Energy Assessment Resulting from a Systemic Approach of Urban Morphology, Urban Mobility and Buildings, Applied to Agua Branca Case Study, in Sao Paulo. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, ASCE. 2013. Available at: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/ %28ASCE%29UP.1943-5444.0000149. Date of access: 28.04.13.
  7. Yin L. Assessing Walkability in the City of Buffalo: Application of Agent-Based Simulation. Journal of Urban Planning and Development, ASCE. 2013, no. 139(3), pp. 166–175. Available at: http://ascelibrary.org/doi/abs/10.1061/%28ASCE%29UP.1943-5444.0000147. Date of access: 28.04.13.
  8. Regulations of the Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Science, Approved by the Decision of the Government of the Russian Federation, 6.05.2009, no.393. RAASN Publ. Available at: http://www.raasn.ru/aasn1.htm. Date of access: 25.03.2013.
  9. Glazychev V.L. Politicheskaya ekonomiya goroda [Political Economy of a City]. Moscow, Delo Publ., 2009, 192 p.
  10. Semenov V. Blagoustroystvo gorodov [Urban Redevelopment]. Moscow, 1912.
  11. Milyutin N. Sotsgorod: problema stroitel'stva sotsialisticheskikh gorodov [Social City: the Problems of Social Cities Construction]. Moscow-Leningrad, 1930.
  12. Osnovnye napravleniya deyatel'nosti Minregiona Rossii na 2013—2018 gody [The Main Areas of the Activity of the Ministry of Regional Development of Russia for the years 2013—2018]. Available at: http://www.minregion.ru/press_office/news/2977.html. Date of access: 31.05.13.
  13. Alekseev Yu.V., Starostina N.G., Filipenko Yu.A. Tendentsii i problematika razvitiya territoriy zastroyki 1950-kh i 1960-kh godov v Moskve [The Tendencies and Problematics of the Build-up Areas Development in 1950th and 1960th in Moscow. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering. 2011, no. 12, pp. 20—22.
  14. Alekseev Yu.V., Belyaev V.L. Podzemnye zdaniya i sooruzheniya kak sistemnyy element vzaimodeystvuyushchikh prostranstvennykh sred razvitiya gorodskoy territorii [Underground Buildings and Structures as Constituent Elements of Interacting Spatial Environments within the Urban Development Framework]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 2, pp. 6—10.
  15. Efremenko D.N. Kontseptsiya obshchestva znaniya kak teoriya sotsial'nykh transformatsiy: dostizheniya i problemy [The Concept of the Society of Knowledge as a Theory of Social Transformations: Achievements and Problems]. Voprosy filosofii [Problems of Philosophy]. 2010, no. 11, pp. 49—66.

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INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Status and prospects of designing the virtual organizational structuresof construction companies

  • Bolshakov Sergey Nikolaevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Assistant, Department of Information Systems, Technology and Automation in Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Rector, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Information Systems, Technology and Automation in Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 929-52-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 218-225

This article examines the current state of virtual organizational structures. The processes accompanying introduction of these technologies into the production environment are defined. For better disclosure of the semantic content of virtual technology their historical development and the main stages of formation are analyzed.At first there were more than enough obstacles to the development of virtual organizational structures, such as lack of fully formed legal framework, which should act as a guarantor of transparency and legitimacy for all the counterparties of virtual enterprise. Virtual organizational structures appeared abroad. Today they are increasingly penetrating the Russian market. It occurs within the framework of representative offices and branches of foreign companies, and in the structures of domestic enterprises. Increase in operation life of virtual enterprises without time binding to a specific project, creation of new forms and variations, expanding of the range of problems solved by means of new organizational forms, in other words, embrace of other sectors of the economy, cost optimization and simplification of creation and adaptation of virtual enterprises — these and many other issues need to be solved as part of the specified subject area and can serve as a basis for further research.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.218-225

References
  1. Radugin A.A. Osnovy menedzhmenta [Principles of Management]. Moscow, 2006.
  2. Serdyuk V.A. Setevye i virtual'nye organizatsii: sostoyanie i perspektivy razvitiya [Network and Virtual Organizations: State and Prospects of Development]. Menedzhment v Rossii i za rubezhom [Management in Russia and Abroad]. 2002, no. 5, pð. 91—104.
  3. Volkov A.A. Virtual'nyy informatsionnyy ofis stroitel'noy organizatsii [Virtual Information Office of a Building Company]. Stroitel'nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st century]. 2002, no. 2, pp. 28—29.
  4. Losev K.Yu., Losev Yu.G., Volkov A.A. Razvitie modeley predmetnoy oblasti stroitel'noy sistemy v protsesse razrabotki informatsionnoy podderzhki proektirovaniya [Building System Subject Area Development During the Process of Design-cals-system Work out]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1, vol. 1, pp. 352—357.
  5. Elenin A., Ponomarev I. Virtual'nye korporatsii [Virtual Corporations]. Moscow, 2001.
  6. Volkov A.A., Lebedev V.M. Proektirovanie sistemokvantov rabochikh operatsiy i trudovykh stroitel'nykh protsessov v srede informatsionnykh tekhnologiy [Designing of the System Quanta of Working Operations and Labor Building Processes in the IT environment]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 293—296.
  7. Volkov A.A. Sovremennye i perspektivnye informatsionnye tekhnologii v stroitel'stve [Modern and prospective information technologies in construction]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 9, pp. 5—6.
  8. Volkov A.A., Lebedev V.M. Modelirovanie sistemokvantov stroitel'nykh protsessov i ob"ektov [Modeling of System Quanta of Construction Processes and Projects]. Vestnik BGTU im. V.G. Shukhova [Proceedings of Belgorod State Technological University named after V.G.Shukhov]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 293—296.
  9. Asaul A.N. Fenomen investitsionno-stroitel'nogo kompleksa ili kak sokhranyaetsya stroitel'nyy kompleks strany v rynochnoy ekonomike: monografiya [Phenomenon of Construction Complex Investment or how does the Construction Complex of the Country Maintain in the Market Economy]. 2001. Available at: http://www.aup.ru/books/m65. Date of access: 16.10.2013.
  10. Volkov A.A. Ekonomicheskiy analiz tekhnicheskikh i tekhnologicheskikh innovatsiy v stroitel'stve [Economic Analysis of Technical and Technological Innovations in Construction]. Stroitel'nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st century]. 2005, no. 12, p. 54.
  11. Volkov A.A., Yarulin R.N. Avtomatizatsiya proektirovaniya proizvodstva remontnykh rabot zdaniy i inzhenernoy infrastruktury [Computer-Aided Design of Repairs of Buildings and the Engineering Infrastructure]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 9, pp. 234—240.

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Functional model of the life cycle of corporate information space in construction organozations

  • Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Rector, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Information Systems, Technology and Automation in Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 929-52-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Anikin Dmitriy Vasil'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, Department of Corporate Information Systems, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 226-233

It is common in practice that life cycle of a product is divided into four stages: design, production, operation, utilization. Considering these four stages the study of construction companies’ performance was made and the approaches to design automation were investigated. Whereupon it is concluded that the four stages (design, production, operation and utilization) can be applied in terms of the life cycle of corporate information space (CIS) with some amendments and revisions.The article graphically represents the functional model of CIS lifecycle. The major part consists of recollecting the error data, its classification, systematization, CIS element improvement after another repetition of CIS integration.System maintenance is regular and minutely updating, according to end user’s requests, which is operated by one of corporate information systems, which are aimed at or adapted for particular purposes. At the next step, we move to CIS lifecycle. Efficient CIS lifecycle is represented graphically in the form of functional model. The key objective of the efficient lifecycle functional model is in continuous control of the CIS components, in collecting new requirements, searching the standard solutions among existing set of CIS elements. In case of absence of possibility or will to solve the particular problem, the search of new developer may be necessary, who can replace CIS component and build new component in the process of efficient CIS lifecycle.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.226-233

References
  1. Koroleva E.I., Sukhorukov A.M. Model' zhiznennogo tsikla organizatsii [Model of Enterprise Lifecycle]. Vestnik Omskogo universiteta. Seriya Ekonomika [Proceedings of Omsk University. Economics Series]. 2008, no. 3, pp. 27—33.
  2. Volkov A.A. Intellekt zdaniy: formula [Intelligence of Buildings: Formula]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 54—57.
  3. Volkov A.A. Intellekt zdaniy. Chast' 1 [Intelligence of buildings. Part 1]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 186—190.
  4. Volkov A.A, Lebedev V.M. Proektirovanie sistemokvantov rabochikh operatsiy i trudovykh stroitel'nykh protsessov v srede informatsionnykh tekhnologiy [Designing of the System Quanta of Working Operations and Labor Building Processes in the IT Environment]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 293—296.
  5. Volkov A.A. Intellekt zdaniy. Chast' 2 [Intelligence of buildings. Part 2]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 213—216.
  6. Volkov A.A., Yarulin R.N. Avtomatizatsiya proektirovaniya proizvodstva remontnykh rabot zdaniy i inzhenernoy infrastruktury [Computer-Aided Design of Repairs of Buildings and the Engineering Infrastructure]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 9, pp. 234—240.
  7. Shirokova G.V. Osnovnye napravleniya issledovaniy v teorii zhiznennogo tsikla organizatsii [Research Guidelines of Enterprise Lifecycle Theory]. Vestnik Sankt-Peterburgskogo universiteta [Proceedings of Saint-Petersburg State University]. 2006, Series 8, no. 2. pp. 25—42.
  8. Dikman L.G. Organizatsiya stroitel'nogo proizvodstva [The Construction Management]. 5-th ed., Moscow, 2006, 444 p.
  9. Volkov A.A., Pikhterev D.V. K voprosu ob organizatsii informatsionnogo obespecheniya stroitel'nogo ob"ekta [On the Issue of Arrangement of Information Support of a Construction Facility]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 460—462.
  10. Pikhterev D.V., Rubtsov I.V., Kulikova E.N., Volkov A.A. Interoperabel'nost' mnogourovnevykh informatsionnykh prilozheniy v stroitel'noy otrasli [Interoperability of Multilevel Information Applications in Construction Field]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2007, no. 3, pp. 69—74.
  11. Volkov A.A., Anikin D.V., Kulikova E.N. Model' interoperabel'nosti korporativnogo informatsionnogo prostranstva stroitel'nykh organizatsiy [Model of Interoperability of Construction Companies’ Informational Space]. International Journal for Computational Civil and Structural Engineering. 2012, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 117—121.
  12. Volkov A.A. Sovremennye i perspektivnye informatsionnye tekhnologii v stroitel'stve [Modern and Prospective Information Technologies in Construction]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 9, pp. 5—6.

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Manufacturing quality control of stone walls and other enclosing structures of buildings basedon photographic images

  • Zholobova Ol'ga Aleksandrovna - Rostov state university of civil engineering (RGSU) Assistant, Department of Economics and Management In Construction, Rostov state university of civil engineering (RGSU), 162 Sotsialisticheskaya st., Rostov-on-Don, 344022, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 234-240

This article is aimed at investigating the issue of improving the quality control efficiency of stone walls and other enclosing structures of buildings in the process of their construction. As an example, the article specifies the parameters and quality characters which lie in the basis of quality control of stone structures being constructed in our country.The prospects for improving the manufacturing quality control of stone walls and other enclosing structures based on the use of digital photography have been reviewed. An opportunity of remote production control over multiple quality parameters of these structures has been proved, which is based on the photographs using methods and means of color and texture analysis of the images at any stage of construction.This elaborate method of quality control allows to automate the inspection of types and sizes of stones used, thickness, binding and form of mortar seams, interlacing of header and stretcher courses, and also reinforced joints of masonry for compliance with the project and regulatory requirements, to identify uneven and contaminated sections of wall, to determine the area of the damaged sections, etc.The use of the elaborate method will be also efficient in quality control of other enclosing structures with the surfaces, which — like masonry — tend to have seam texture, e.g. stone arch coverings and covering elements, including roof coatings made of block, sheet and roll materials.The article contains illustrations of several results of color and texture analysis of photographic images that display brick walls in the form of block diagrams and linear profiles, built with the help of special computer programs.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.234-240

References
  1. Goncharov A.K., Kozeychuk V.A., Naryshkin D.A. Opyt nablyudeniy za stroitel'stvom vysotnykh zdaniy [Observation Experience of High-Rise Buildings Construction]. Stroitel'nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2009, no. 5, pp. 65—67.
  2. Bayburin A.Kh. Metodika otsenki kachestva vozvedeniya kirpichnykh zdaniy [Method of Quality Evaluation of Brick Building Erection]. Vestnik Yuzhno-Ural'skogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Seriya: Stroitel'stvo i arkhitektura [Proceedings of South Ural State University. Series: Construction and Architecture]. 2009, no 35 (168), pp. 24—27.
  3. Davidyuk A.A. Analiz rezul'tatov obsledovaniya mnogosloynykh naruzhnykh sten mnogoetazhnykh karkasnykh zdaniy [Analysis of the Study Results of Multilayer External Walls of Multistory Frame Buildings]. Zhilishchnoe stroitel'stvo [House Construction]. 2010, no 6, pp. 21—26.
  4. Ivanova N.N., Zholobova O.A. Predlozheniya po rasshireniyu oblasti primeneniya tsifrovoy fotografii pri otsenke sostoyaniya stroitel'nykh konstruktsiy [Proposals to Expand the Application Field of Digital Photography in the Process of State Estimation of Building Structures]. Naukovedenie [Science Studies]. 2012, no. 3. Available at: http://naukovedenie.ru/sbornik12/12-95.pdf. Date of access: 16.09.2013.
  5. Gonzalez R.C., Woods R.E. Digital Image Processing, 3rd ed. Prentice Hall, 2008, 954 p.
  6. Brusser M.I., Ershov I.D. Zavisimost' tsveta dekorativnogo betona ot osnovnykh tekhnologicheskikh faktorov pri ego proizvodstve [The Dependence of Decorative Concrete Color on the Main Technological Factors during its Production]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 2004, no 4, pp. 12—14.
  7. Kol'tsov P.P. Sravnitel'noe izuchenie algoritmov vydeleniya i klassifikatsii tekstur [Comparative Study of the Algorithms for Extraction and Classification of Textures]. Zhurnal vychislitel'noy matematiki i matematicheskoy fiziki [Journal of Computational Mathematics and Mathematical Physics]. 2011, vol. 51, no. 8, pp. 1561—1568.
  8. Drimbarean A., Whelan P.F. Experiments In Colour Texture Analysis. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2001, vol. 22, no 10, pp. 1161—1167.
  9. Yang S., Hung C. Texture Classification in Remotely Sensed Images. Proceedings of the IEEE Southeast Conference. 2002, pp. 62—66.
  10. Milani G., Louren?o P.B. A Simplified Homogenized Limit Analysis Model for Randomly Assembled Blocks Out-of-plane Loaded. Computers & Structures. 2010, vol. 88, no. 11—12. pp. 690—717.

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Agent model with adaptive behavior for the problem solution of trial design of constructions

  • Kozyreva Viktoriya Viktorovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Volkov Andrey Anatol’evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Rector, Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Information Systems, Technology and Automation in Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7 (499) 929-52-29; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 240-247

Nowadays among searching methods of parametric optimization of constructions the special place is held by the bionic methods based on adaptive behavior of living organisms. These methods are called "adaptive behavior" and can be applied to a problem of optimization of constructions. In this case the process of task solution represents purposeful behavior of a group of agents, governed by a goal — the criterion of optimization. Each agent of the considered collective represents a model of an artificial organism. It consists of external and internal environment. The external environment is expressed through the values of nodal voltage and displacements that occur in an element. The internal environment consists of six functional blocks. The main characteristic of the internal environment of an agent is the condition of the agent. It is expressed through a logical function of all restrictions performance, it is equal to 1 if all the conditions are satisfied, and 0 — otherwise. The considered conditions of the agent express motives of its behavior: the intention to succeed optimization (a minimum of a construction volume) and the intention to keep load bearing capacity of a construction. Possible actions of the agent that express a choice of section size of an element correspond to motives. The process of choosing actions on the basis of two motivations represents the finite Markov process. It can be carried out by means of a reinforcement learning method. In this method the agent earns some reward for each action (positive or negative). The goal of the agent's behavior is to maximize the total reward. The agent makes an assessment of each action for planning the behavior strategy. The choice of the behavior strategy is carried out on the basis of this assessment. As all goals of agents are connected by all-system law of behavior, it allows to carry out purposeful behavior and to optimize the construction.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.240-247

References
  1. Meyer J.-A., Wilson S.W., editors. From Animals to Animats: Proceedings of the First International Conference on Simulation of Adaptive Behavior (Complex Adaptive Systems). Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England, the MIT Press, 1990.
  2. Nepomnyashchikh V.A. Animaty kak model' povedeniya zhivotnykh [Animats as the Model of Animal Behavior]. Neyroinformatika — 2002: IV Vserossiyskiyskaya nauchno-tekhnicheskaya konferentsiya [Neuroinformatics — 2002: the 4th All-Russian Scientific and Technical Conference]. Moscow, MIFI Publ., 2003, pp. 58—76.
  3. Nepomnyashchikh V.A. Poisk obshchikh printsipov adaptivnogo povedeniya zhivykh organizmov i animatov [Searching for the General Principles of Adaptive Behavior of Living Organisms and Animats]. Novosti iskusstvennogo intellekta [News of Artificial Intelligence]. 2002, no. 2, pp. 48—53.
  4. Red'ko V.G. From Animal to Animat — napravlenie issledovaniy «adaptivnoe povedenie» [From Animal to Animat — the Line of Research "Adaptive Behavior”]. Ot modeley povedeniya k iskusstvennomu intellektu [From Behavior Models to Artificial Intelligence] Moscow, KomKniga Publ., 2010, 456 p.
  5. Gorodetskiy V.I., Grushinskiy M.S., Khabalov A.V. Mnogoagentnye sistemy (obzor) [Multiagent Systems (review)]. Novosti iskusstvennogo intellekta [News of Artificial Intelligence]. 1998, no. 2, pp. 64—116.
  6. Wooldridge M., Michael J. An Introduction to MultiAgent Systems. 2nd ed. John Wiley & Sons, 2009, 484 p.
  7. Satton R.S., Barto E.G. Obuchenie s podkrepleniem [Reinforcement Learning]. Moscow, BINOM, Laboratoriya znaniy Publ., 2012, 400 p.
  8. Tarasov V.B. Ot mnogoagentnykh sistem k intellektual'nym organizatsiyam: filosofiya, psikhologiya, informatika [From Multiagent Systems to Intellectual Organizations: Philosophy, Psychology, Informatics]. Moscow, Editorial URSS Publ., 2002, 352 p.
  9. Volkov A.A. Gomeostat v stroitel'stve: sistemnyy podkhod k metodologii upravleniya [Homeostat in construction: a systems approach to management methodology]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and civil construction]. 2003, no. 6, p. 68.
  10. Volkov A.A. Osnovy gomeostatiki zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Fundamentals of Homeostatic Buildings and Structures]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel'stvo [Industrial and civil Engineering]. 2002, no. 1, pp. 34—35.
  11. Volkov A.A. Gomeostat stroitel'nykh ob"ektov. Chast' 3. Gomeostaticheskoe upravlenie [Homeostat of Construction Projects. Part 3. Homeostatic Management]. Stroitel'nye materialy, oborudovanie, tekhnologii XXI veka [Building Materials, Equipment, Technologies of the 21st century]. 2003, no. 2, pp. 34—35.
  12. Volkov A.A., Vaynshteyn M.S., Vagapov R.F. Raschety konstruktsiy zdaniy na progressiruyushchee obrushenie v usloviyakh chrezvychaynykh situatsiy. Obshchie osnovaniya i optimizatsiya proekta [Design Calculations for the Progressive Collapse of Buildings in Emergency Situations. Common Grounds and Project Optimization]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2008, no. 1, pp. 388—392.
  13. Anokhin P.K. Printsipial'nye voprosy obshchey teorii funktsional'nykh sistem [Fundamental Questions of the General Theory of Functional Systems]. Ot modeley povedeniya k iskusstvennomu intellektu [From Behavior Models to Artificial Intelligence]. Moscow, KomKniga Publ., 2010, 456 p.

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Using logic in the resolution of problems of the energy supply to buildings: particular aspectsof application of the logic of relay contact circuits in civil engineering

  • Pryadko Igor' Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Culturology, Associate Professor, Department of Political and Social Sciences, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.

Pages 248-255

The author’s objective is to drive the attention of specialists in civil engineering to the problem of application of the logic of relay contact circuits in the field of design and construction of buildings. The logic of relay contact circuits was developed by V.I. Shestakov, an outstanding Russian physicist and mathematician. The author demonstrates how the solutions based on formal logic laws can serve to optimize electric circuits. In the article, the author continues his research into the problem of logic in civil engineering initiated in his prior works concerning the logic-based research performed by N.M. Gersevanov, a hydraulic engineer. The author emphasizes the continuity of the idea of logic application in technology and civil engineering. Logical implications represented typical constituents of the works of Russian scientists who addressed the issue of the logical knowledge characterization in the 20ies—40ies of the 20th century. Yet the complexities that domestic scholars had to resolve when substantiating the priority of their discoveries were also evident.The author also considers the reasons of the poor attention of domestic and international academic communities to innovatory developments of the Russian scholar who was able to consolidate the theoretical and natural science approaches within the scope of the logic. This issue is discussed in the final section of the article. The author considers it necessary to insist on the priority of domestic developments in the area of applying logic in technology-intensive industries. The author provides examples from the history of science and technology to substantiate his viewpoint.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.248-255

References
  1. Shestakov V.I. Algebra dvupol'nykh skhem, postroennykh isklyuchitel'no iz dvukhpolyusnikov (Algebra A-skhem) [Algebra of Double Circuits Composed Solely of One-port Networks (Algebra of A-Circuits)]. Zhurnal teoreticheskoy fiziki [Journal of Theoretical Physics]. 1941, no. 6, vol. 11, pp. 532—549.
  2. Shestakov V.I. Predstavlenie kharakteristicheskikh funktsiy predlozheniy posredstvom vyrazheniy, realizuemykh releyno-kontaktnymi skhemami [Presentation of Characteristic Functions of Sentences through Expressions Implemented by the Relay Logic]. Izvestiya AN SSSR. Seriya «Matematika». [News Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Mathematics Series]. 1946, no. 10. Ñ. 25—43.
  3. Shannon C. Symbolic Analysis of relay and Switching Circuits. Trans of Amer. Institute of Electr. Engineers. 1938, vol. 57, pp. 713—723.
  4. Biryukov B.V., Verstin I.S., Levin V.I., Karpenko A.S., editor. Zhiznennyy i nauchnyy put' Viktora Ivanovich Shestakova — sozdatelya logicheskoy teorii releyno-kontaktnykh skhem [Life and Academic Career of Viktor Ivanovich Shertakov, Author of the Logical Theory of Relay Contact Circuits]. Logicheskie issledovaniya [Logic Research]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2007, no. 14, pp. 25—72.
  5. Biryukov B.V. Zhar kholodnykh chisl i pafos besstrastnoy logiki [Heat of Cold Numbers and Pathos of Unbiased Logic]. Moscow, Znanie Publ., 1985, 192 p.
  6. Levin V.I., Karpenko A.S., editor. Akira Nakashima i logicheskoe modelirovanie diskretnykh skhem [Akira Nakashima and Logical Modeling of Discrete Skeletons]. Smirnovskie chteniya po logike. 5-ya konferentsiya, 20—22 iyunya 2007 [The Smirnov Readings in Logic. The 5th Conference, 20—22 June, 2007]. Moscow, IFRAN Publ., 2007, pp. 150—153.
  7. Karlik L.N. Fransua Mazhandi [Francois Magendie]. Klinicheskaya meditsina [Clinical Medicine]. 1959, vol. 37, no. 2, p.142.
  8. Motroshilova N.V. Zenon Eleyskiy: aporii v svete problem bytiya [Zeno Eleatic: Aporias of the Problems of Existence]. Istoriya filosofii. Zapad — Rossiya — Vostok [History of Philosophy. West-Russia-East]. Moscow, Greko-latinskiy cabinet Publ., vol. 1, 1995, pp. 75—77.
  9. Proclus. Pervoosnovy teologii [Fundamentals of Theology]. Moscow, 1993.
  10. Roginskiy V.N., Glushkov V.M., editor. Releyno-kontaktnykh skhem teoriya [Theory of Relay Contact Circuits]. Entsiklopediya kibernetiki [Encyclopoedia of Cybernetics]. Kiev, 1947, vol. 2, pp. 293—295.
  11. Biryukov B.V. Logiko-matematicheskie aspekty teorii avtomatov [Logical and Mathematical Aspects of the Theory of Automatic Machines]. Nauchnye doklady vysshey shkoly. Filosofskie nauki [Research Reports of Institutions of Higher Education. Philosophical Sciences]. 1964, no. 5, pp. 44—52.
  12. Tete Fillis, Slesarev M.Yu. Primenenie nechetkikh mnozhestv v ekspertnykh sistemakh otsenki vozdeystviya stroitel'stva inzhenernykh sooruzheniy na shel'fe Gany [Using Fuzzy Sets in Expert Systems of Assessment of Influence of Engineering Structures on the Shelf of Ghana]. Otsenka riskov i bezopasnosti v stroitel'stve: Mezhdunarodnaya molodezhnaya konferentsiya. Sbornik nauchnykh trudov Instituta stroitel'stva i arkhitektury MGSU [Assessment of Risks and Safety of Construction Works: International Youth Conference. Collection of Academic Works of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2012, no. 4, pp. 255—258.

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Possibilities of gpu use in the process of construction calculations

  • Yakushev Vladimir Lavrent'evich - Institute for Computer Aided Design of Russian Academy of Sciences (ICAD RAS) Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Chief Research Associate, Department of Informational Support, Mathematic Modelling and Management, Institute for Computer Aided Design of Russian Academy of Sciences (ICAD RAS), 19/18, 2-nd Brestskaya str., Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Filimonov Anton Valer'evich - Institute for Computer Aided Design of Russian Academy of Sciences (ICAD RAS) Research Associate, Department of Informational Support, Mathematic Modelling and Management, Institute for Computer Aided Design of Russian Academy of Sciences (ICAD RAS), 19/18, 2-nd Brestskaya str., Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Soldatov Pavel Yur'evich - Institute for Computer Aided Design of Russian Academy of Sciences (ICAD RAS) postgraduate student, Department of Informational Support, Mathematic Modelling and Managemen, Institute for Computer Aided Design of Russian Academy of Sciences (ICAD RAS), 19/18, 2-nd Brestskaya str., Moscow, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 256-262

Computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided engineering (CAE) systems are significant tools in modern construction industry. More computations have to be run and handled to achieve the desired accuracy for more detailed models. Therefore, solver of sparse systems of linear algebraic equations is an important and time-consuming part of such software. Raising productivity of conventional clusters has become more complicated. Graphics processor units (GPU) may reach many folds higher productivity than standard CPU, especially in massive data operations. The paper suggests simple and productive technique of speeding up existing solver by implementation of GPU computing.The solver performs Cholesky factorization and is effectively omp-parallelized. Profiling indicated that matrix multiplications executed by standard BLAS library took up to eighty per cent of solver time running. Hence it was possible to distribute tasks between CPU and GPU dynamically by slight code modifications using standard BLAS interface.Proper matrices sizes were identified as data transfer between CPU and GPU. Data transfer takes too long, and multiplication of smaller matrices on GPU would slow down the solver. Allocation of pinned memory improved cooperation between processing units, while enabling the asynchronous transfer increased the load of the GPU. Cuda streams were associated with every omp thread to avoid queues of GPU calls. All the settings may be considerably different depending on hardware and software available, so tests were run on multiple computer configurations.Up to date the factorization time running is reduced by forty to sixty per cent. In order to further enhance the application, it is planned to implement multi-GPU and optimize matrix multiplication algorithm.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.256-262

References
  1. Cullinan C., Wyant C., Frattesi T. Computing Performance Benchmarks among CPU, GPU, and FPGA. Available at: http://www.wpi.edu/. Date of access: 26.03.2013.
  2. General-Purpose Computation on Graphics Hardware. Available at: http://www.gpgpu.org/. Date of access: 26.03.2013.
  3. Yakushev V.L., Zhuk Yu.N., Simbirkin V.N., Filimonov A.V. Realizatsiya metodov rascheta dlya bol'sherazmernykh zadach stroitel'noy mekhaniki v programmnom komplekse STARK ES. [Implementation of Calculation Methods for Major Tasks in Structural Mechanics Using STARK ES Software]. Vestnik kibernetiki [The Bulletin of Cybernetics]. 2011, no. 10, pp. 109—116.
  4. Yakushev V.L., Simbirkin V.N., Filimonov A.V. Reshenie bol'sherazmernykh zadach stroitel'noy mekhaniki metodom konechnykh elementov v programmnom komplekse STARK ES [Solution of Major Tasks in Structural Mechanics Using FE Method in STARK ES Software]. Teoriya i praktika rascheta zdaniy, sooruzheniy i elementov konstruktsiy. Analiticheskie i chislennye metody: Sbornik trudov mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii [Theory and Practice of Computations for Buildings, Structures and Structural Elements. Analytic and Numerical Methods: Proceedings of International Science-and-Practice Conference]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2010, pp. 516—526.
  5. Hogg J.D., Reid J.K., Scott J.A. Design of a Multicore Sparse Cholesky Factorization Using DAGs. STFC Technical Report RAL-TR-2009-027. Science and Technology Facilities Council, 2009.
  6. Sanders J., Kandrot E. CUDA by Example: an Introduction to General Purpose GPU Programming. Available at: http://developer.nvidia.com. Date of access: 26.03.2013.
  7. CUBLAS Library User Guide. NVIDIA Corporation. Available at: http://developer.nvidia.com. Date of access: 26.03.2013.
  8. Tan G., Li L., Triechle S., Phillips E., Bao Y., Sun N. Fast implementation of DGEMM on Fermi GPU. Proceedings of 2011 International Conference for High Performance Computing, Networking, Storage and Analysis. ACM New York, NY, USA , pp. 35:1—35:11.
  9. CUDA C Programming Guide. Available at: http://docs.nvidia.com. Date of access: 26.03.2013.
  10. CUDA C Best Practices Guide. Available at: http://docs.nvidia.com. Date of access: 26.03.2013.

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PROBLEMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

Noosphere as a philosophic category and objective reality

  • Zhigalin Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience of Russian Academy of Sciences (IGE RAN); Lomonosov Moscow State University (MGU named after M.V. Lomonosov) Candidate of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Chair, Laboratory of Time Lapse Technique, Sergeev Institute of Environmental Geoscience of Russian Academy of Sciences (IGE RAN); Lomonosov Moscow State University (MGU named after M.V. Lomonosov), 1 Leninskie gory, 119991, Moscow; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 263-267

Noosphere is considered as modern state of biosphere, which appeared as a result of scientific, artistic and labour activity of people. The theory of noosphere is a biospheric-noospheric concept of V.I. Vernadsky, which postulates transfer from biosphere to noosphere, which must definitely happen. Within the limits of each civilization the problems of energy supply, creation of favorable living environment and waste disposal — inevitable end product of antroposhere — are being solved. The latter is a separate complicated problem and the lines of approach are not found yet. Many other modern problems: political, ideological, economic — are often solved not from the perspective of rationality. Sometimes mind activity is used for destructive purposes, including modern types of weapons. Construction activity supposes the creation of something new, necessary for people. In this sense construction as philosophic category corresponds to the ideas of Vernadsky, according to which he wanted to see our future harmonical and sustainable, but not self-destructive.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2013.11.263-267

References
  1. Vernadskiy V.I. Nauchnaya mysl' kak planetnoe yavlenie [Scientific Thought as Planetary Phenomenon]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1991, 271 p.
  2. Teilhard de Chardin P. The Phenomenon of Man. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1987, 240 p.
  3. Kaznacheev V.P. Uchenie V.I. Vernadskogo o biosfere i noosfere [Vernadsky's Doctrine about Biosphere and Noosphere]. Novosibirsk, Nauka Publ., 1989, 248 p.
  4. Sulakshin S.S. Kolichestvennaya teoriya tsivilizatsionogeneza i lokal'nykh tsivilizatsiy [Quantitative Theory of Civilization Genesis and Local Civilizations]. Moscow, Nauchnyy Ekspert Publ., 2013, 176 p.

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