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Vestnik MGSU 2012/10

DOI : 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10

Articles count - 40

Pages - 304

GENERAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION-RELATED SCIENCES AND OPERATIONS

IMPLEMENTATION AND APPLICATION OF EUROCODES

  • Holický Milan - Klokner Institute, Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) Doctor of Philosophy, Professor, Deputy Director, Klokner Institute, Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Solinova 7, 166 08, Prague 6, Czech Republic; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Markova Jana - Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU) Assoc. Prof., researcher, Klokner Institute, +420 2 2435 3501, Czech Technical University in Prague (CTU), Solinova 7, 166 08 Prague 6, Czech Republic; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 11 - 19

Technical and editorial problems may be encountered during the implementation of Eurocodes into the systems of national standards. The main technical problems to be solved include specification of the target reliability levels of different types of construction works, definition of characteristic values, partial and combination factors and load combination rules for structures and geotechnical design. It is expected that in the next generation of Eurocodes further harmonisation and reduction of NDPs on the basis of technical assessment will be provided.
Present generation of Eurocodes encompass a suite of 58 Parts which represents a great achievement in European harmonization of structural codes. The key role in the design of new and existing structures represents the concept of reliability differentiation of construction works and the selection of target reliability level. Recommended target reliability level, expressed commonly by reliability index b = Φ-1(), where Φ denotes the standardized normal distribution function and the failure probability, are provided in several documents.
Load combination rules for verification of geotechnical design (ULS of type GEO) give three alternative approaches leading in some cases to considerably different results. For example, resulting dimensions of common footing may have differences about 20 to 40 %.
Other technical problems of implementation include lack of guidance for application of different design situations. For example a structure under fire should be verified according to the accidental design situation for which alternative combination factors are indicated in EN 1990. During subsequent repair the structure should comply with the requirements for the transient design situation, for which, up to now, there are no explicit rules for existing structures provided by Eurocodes.
Another problem is a unified definition of the characteristic values for variable actions, particularly for imposed and climatic actions, when 0.98 fractile for time dependent components should be supplemented by probabilistic specification of resulting action effect (for example, for imposed load and wind).
System of Eurocodes constitutes a great achievement in harmonization of European standards for structural design. In national implementation, it is strongly recommended to specify a unique (unambiguous) variant chosen from recommended options. Terminology and translation should be adapted to the sense of the original English version. Other manner of translations may be confusing or misleading.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.11-19

References
  1. Probabilistic model code. JCSS. 2008. http://www.jcss.byg.dtu.dk/publications.
  2. ISO 2394. General principles on reliability for structures. ISO. Geneva, 1998.
  3. ISO 13824. General principles on reliability for structures. ISO. Geneva, 1998.
  4. Guideline on Risk Assessment. Principles, System Representation & Risk Criteria. JCSS. 2008. http://www.jcss.byg.dtu.dk/publications.
  5. Gulvanessian H., Calgaro J.-A., Holick? M. Designer’s Guide to EN 1990, Eurocode: Basis of Structural Design. Thomas Telford, London, 2002, 192 pp. (Russian translation published by MGSU, Moscow, 2011).
  6. Holick? M. Reliability analysis for structural design. ISBN 978-1-920338-11-4, SUN MeDIA, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 2009, 199 p.
  7. Holick? M., Markova J. Calibration of partial factors for design of concrete structures. ICASP 2011, Curych.
  8. EN 1990. Basis of structural design. CEN, 2002.
  9. EN 1991-1-1. Action on structures – Part 1-1 General actions — densities, self-weight, imposed load for buildings. CEN, 2002.
  10. EN 1991-1-4 Action on structures – Part 1-4 Wind actions. CEN, 2005.
  11. EN 1991-1-7 Action on structures – Part 1-7 Accidental actions from impact and explosion. CEN, 2006.
  12. Calgaro J.A. The Eurocodes and Construction Industry. Medium-Term Strategy. 2008—2013. CEN/TC 250, 2010.
  13. Construction Norms and Rules 2.01.07—85. Collection of Rules: Loads and Actions. Construction Rules 20.13330.2011.

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ARCHITECTURE AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT. RESTRUCTURING AND RESTORATION

STATUS, PROBLEMS AND PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF DISTRICT, URBAN PLANNING AND ARCHITECTURE IN BULGARIA IN EARLY 21ST CENTURY (AGAINST THE BACKGROUND OF THE MARKET ECONOMY AND THE UPCOMING FINANCIAL AND ECONOMIC CRISIS). PART 1

  • Kovachev Atanas Dimitrov - University of Forestry Doctor of Sciences, Professor of Architecture, Dean, Faculty of Ecology and Landscape Architecture, Corresponding Member of Bulgarian Academy of Sciences +3592 91907 (393, 396, 473); +3592 868 85 49, University of Forestry, 10 Kl. Ohridski Boul., 1756, Sofia, Bulgaria; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 20 - 36

The author provides an overview of the main urban planning trends in the present-day Bulgaria. The author also demonstrates principal approaches to area planning and provides examples of master plans of major cities of the country. The author emphasizes the need to resolve the environmental problems of urban territories, to develop their public transportation networks, resorts, landscape gardening, and a special role of historic and archeological monuments in the present-day cities.
Today, multiple hierarchically arranged plans of districts and towns are being developed in accordance with the Law on area arrangement of 2001. There are three levels of area planning in Bulgaria: strategic, tactical and operative/applied. The level of strategic planning covers the territory of the whole country (or its major parts, including regions and clusters of communities). The second level of area planning represents a tactical level. It is applied to smaller sections of the territory (communities, towns) and it converts into more detailed planning of the territory if compared to the top level of area planning. The general structure of the territory is developed at this level of planning. This level includes master plans of cities and towns. The third level, the level of operative/ applied planning, is applied to separate parts of populated areas, even particular sites. This level is characterized by detailed elaboration and it serves as a link to architectural planning. This level incorporates detailed area plans.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.20-36

References
  1. Atanasov A. Ustroystveni i normativni problemi. V B“lgarski arkhitekt. Izdanie na S“yuza na arkhitektite v B“lgariya 2004, Izv“nreden broy, 2.11.2004, p. 3.
  2. Atanasov A. Regionalnata politika na Republika B“lgariya v usloviyata na prekhoda. Problemi na regionalnoto razvitie. Ministerstvo na teritorialnoto razvitie, zhilishchnata politika i stroitelstvoto. Natsionalen tsent“r po teritorialno razvitie i zhilishchna politika, 1992, pp. 5—27.
  3. Kalinkov K. Nedvizhima sobstvenost. Teoretiko-prakticheski, pravni, ustroystveni i ikonomicheski aspekti. Varna, IK-Gea-print publ., 2008, 496 p.
  4. Kalinkov K. Urbanisnika. Teorii i modeli za razvitie na gradovete i ustroystvo na teritoriyata. Varna, IK — Gea-print print, 2010, 496 p.
  5. Kovachev A. Gradoustroystvo. Ch. 1. Osnovi na teoriyata i praktikata na gradoustroystvoto. Sofiya-M, RENSOFT, 2009, 494 p.
  6. Kovachev A. Gradoustroystvo. Ch. 2. Aktualni problemi na s“vremennoto gradoustroystvo. Sofiya-M, RENSOFT, 2009, 390 p.
  7. Kovachev A. Zelenata sistema na Sofi ya. Urbanistichni aspekti (Istorichesko razvitie, s“vremenno s“stoyanie, problemi i tendentsii, prognozi i strategiya). Sofiya-M, RENSOFT, 2005, 368 p.
  8. Kovachev A. Teritorialno ustroystvo (Vtoro osnovno preraboteno i dop“lneno izdanie). Sofiya-M, RENSOFT, 2009, 403 p.
  9. Kovachev A., Kalinkov K. Tezaurus po arkhitektura, urbanistika, teritorialno ustroystvo, mestno samoupravlenie, nedvizhima sobstvenost. Sofiya-Varna, IK-Gea-print publ., 2011, 448 p.
  10. Petkov M. Proekt za nova teritorialna ustroystvena skhema. Informatsionen byuletin „B“lgarski arkhitekt”. Izd. na Izdanie na S“yuza na arkhitektite v B“lgariya. 2010, no. 32, 8.12.2010, pp. 4—6.
  11. http://aedesstudio.com
  12. http://www.address.bg/
  13. http://www.archelite.com/
  14. http://www.archmodule.com/
  15. http://www.bggolftours.com/bg/
  16. http://www.buildingoftheyear.bg/
  17. http://www.burgas.bg/
  18. http://www.businesspark-sofi a.com/
  19. http://cityarch.bg/
  20. http://www.cityplan-bg.com/
  21. http://www.forton.bg/bg/
  22. http://www.lpgroup.bg/
  23. http://mall.start.bg/
  24. http://www.metropolitan.bg/bg/
  25. http://www.moew.government.bg/
  26. http://www.mrrb.government.bg/
  27. http://www.mtitc.government.bg/
  28. http://www.ncrdhp.bg/
  29. http://www.proarh-bg.com/
  30. http://www.smolyan.bg/
  31. http://www.sofia-agk.com/
  32. http://www.sofproect.com/
  33. http://stroitelstvo.info/
  34. http://www.tpovarna.com/
  35. http://www.yavlena.com/

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ARCHITECTURAL PLACEMAKING OF TECHNOLOGY PARKS: ENCOURAGEMENT OF CREATIVE THINKING

  • Rykov Kirill Nikolaevich - Southern Federal University (UFU), Research and Design Organization "Southern Urban Planning Centre", Limited Liability Company (OOO «NPO YuRGTs») postgraduate student, Institute of Architecture and Arts, Southern Federal University (UFU), Research and Design Organization "Southern Urban Planning Centre", Limited Liability Company (OOO «NPO YuRGTs»), 39 pr. Budennovskiy, Rostov-Don, 344082, Russian Federation, 121/262A Gazetnyy per., Rostov-Don, 344000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 37 - 44

The present-day postindustrial or information-oriented society features an ever growing role of creative and intellectual abilities. This trend facilitates transformation of the workforce, as the portion of manual labor is reduced, while the one of intellectual labor goes up. As a result, architectural placemaking has to meet the new requirements driven by the specific nature of social and physiological constituents of the headwork. The aim of the article is the identification of new challenges that the high-quality architecture has to meet in its efforts to service the intellectual labour environment. For illustrative purposes, the author has chosen research and technology parks as the most typical postindustrial facilities.
According to the author, intellectual constituents of the architectural practice represent systematic and research components. This division is the result of the analysis of research and technology parks. The author has made an attempt to identify special conditions of effective creativity in architectural practice. They include comfort, availability, information system development, calm, sociality, significance and variability.
The list of conditions and general methods of their implementation presented by the author can be used in a wide range of project goals connected with the architectural design of research and technology parks and stimulation of creative potential of the people involved.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.37-44

References
  1. Toffler E. Tret’ya volna [The Third Wave]. Moscow, AST Publ., 1999, 261 p.
  2. Dyadichkin I.P. Obshchie mekhanizmy fiziologicheskogo obespecheniya umstvennogo i fizicheskogo truda [General Mechanisms of Physiological Support of Intellectual and Physical Labour]. Ìoscow, 1990, 351 p.
  3. Markov V.V. Osnovy zdorovogo obraza zhizni i profilaktiki bolezney [Basics of Healthy Lifestyle and Diseases Prevention]. Moscow, Akademiya Publ., 2001, 320 p.
  4. Revzin G.I. Zhurnal i+u [I+U Magazine]. 2011, no. 1, September 2011, pp. 14—15.
  5. Rykov K.N. Vliyanie na arkhitekturnuyu organizatsiyu universitetskogo tekhnoparka sotsial’nykh effektov i dinamiki vnutrennikh protsessov [Infl uence of Social Effects and Dynamics of Internal Processes on Architectural Organization of a University Technology Park]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton. News of Institutions of Higher Education]. 2011, no. 3(35). Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2011_3/3. Date of access: 3.09.2012.
  6. Rykov K.N. Osobennosti arkhitekturnoy organizatsii struktur tekhnoparkov [Peculiarities of Architectural Structure of Technology Parks]. Arkhitekton: izvestiya vuzov [Architecton. News of Institutions of Higher Education]. 2010, no. 31. Available at: http://archvuz.ru/2010_3/4. Date of access: 3.09.2012.

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COMBINED EFFECT OF THE AIRBORNE AND IMPACT NOISE PRODUCED ONTO THE SOUND INSULATION OF INSERTED FLOORS OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: THEORETICAL ASPECTS

  • Saltykov Ivan Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Architecture of Civil and Industrial Buildings, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 45 - 50

The indoor environment of residential buildings is a complex system. It consists of diverse though related elements. An optimal correlation of parameters of the indoor space converts into the appropriate equilibrium and harmonious human living free from any stimulating or irritating factors that interfere with any working and/or relaxation processes. The author has selected the following three principal factors of the indoor environment. They include heat, daylight and sound.
The research has revealed a strong linkn between these factors. Noise pollution of residential houses is taken into account through the introduction of the airborne insulation index and the impact sound index underneath the inserted floor. The findings of theoretical researches and experiments have proven a strong functional relationship between airborne and impact sound values.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.45-50

References
  1. Heckl M., Rathe E.J. Relationship between the Transmission Loss and Impact Noise Isolation of Floor Structures. J.A.S.A., vol. 35 (1963), pp. 1825—1830.
  2. V?r I.L. Relation Between the Normalized Impact Sound Level and Sound Transmission Loss. J.A.S.A., Vol. 50, ¹6 (Part. 1), 1971, pp. 1414—1417.
  3. Kreytan V.G. Zashchita ot vnutrennikh shumov v zhilykh domakh [Protection from Indoor Sounds in Residential Buildings]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1990, 260 p.
  4. Osipov G.L. Zashchita zdaniy ot shuma [Noise Protection of Buildings]. Moscow, Izd-vo literatury po stroitel’stvu publ., 1972, 215 p.
  5. SNiP [Construction Norms and Rules] 23-03—2003. Zaschita ot shuma [Sound Protection]. Moscow, Gosstroy Rossii publ., 2004.
  6. Kovrigin S.D. Arkhitekturno-stroitel’naya akustika [Architectural and Building Acoustics]. Moscow, Vysch.shk. publ., 1980, 184 p.
  7. Zaborov V.I. Teoriya zvukoizolyatsii ograzhdayushchikh konstruktsiy [Theory of Sound Proofing of Enclosures]. Moscow, Gosstroyizdat Publ., 1969.
  8. J?rgen Gunnar ?. Praktisk Veiledning om Lydisolering I Bygninger. Norges Byggforskningsinstitutt handbok 21, Oslo, 1970.
  9. Sholokhov A.P. Izolyatsiya udarnogo shuma polami na uprugikh prokladkakh s uchetom izmeneniya ikh dinamicheskikh kharakteristik v protsesse ekspluatatsii [Impact Sound Isolation of Elastic Padding Floors with Consideration for Their Dynamic Characteristics in the Process of Operation]. Moscow, NIISF Publ., 1991.
  10. Gerasimov A.I., Kovalenko K.N. Reguliruemye konstruktsii polov, ispol’zuemykh v praktike stroitel’stva i rekonstruktsii grazhdanskikh zdaniy [Adjustable Floors in Construction and Renovation of Civil Buildings]. Krovel’nye i izolyatsionnye materialy [Roofi ng and Insulation Materials]. 2012, no. 3, pp. 24—26.

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SOCIAL ADAPTATION OF PERSONS WITH DISABILITIES THROUGH ESTABLISHMENT OF PUBLIC REHABILITATION CENTRES

  • Tesler Kirill Igorevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Architectural Sciences, Senior Lecturer, Department of Design of Buildings, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 51 - 55

Despite the ever improving living conditions and the quality of medical care, the percentage of disabled people in the society is now as high as it was in the past. Social adaptation and accessibility of the urban environment for people with disabilities remains the most important problem of contemporary architecture.
The solution is to establish public rehabilitation centres that perform recreational, educational, sports, cultural, social, technological and production functions. This solution is most needed for blind and visually impaired people, because they experience particular problems in travelling in the urban environment. Establishment of the barrier-free environment can solve the problem of socialization of disabled people, because it contemplates all functional processes that they need. Integration of various functional units within public rehabilitation centres helps improve the living conditions of disabled people, and at the same time it contributes to the profitability of these centres as a whole and provides the necessary impetus boosting the development of techniques and technologies required for low mobility groups of people.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.51-55

References
  1. Materials of the “2011 Statistical Yearbook of Russia” composed by the Federal State Statistics Service]. Available at: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b11_13/Main.htm. Date of access: 16.04.12.
  2. Materials of the website of the Ministry of Health and Social Development of Russian Federation. Available at: http://www.minzdravsoc.ru. Date of access: 6.06.12.
  3. Semenova S.A., Shreyber A.A. Kompleksnaya otsenka gorodskoy sredy s uchetom potrebnostey malomobil’nykh grupp naseleniya i invalidov [Multi-component Appraisal of the Urban Environment with Account for the Needs of Low Mobility and Disabled People]. Arkhitektura i gradostroitel’stvo [Architecture and Urban Planning]. 2011, no. 5(37), pp. 73—78.
  4. Korobeynikova A.A., Tesler K.I. Printsipy sozdaniya obshchedostupnoy sredy v bol’shikh gorodakh na primere g. Moskvy [Principles of Arrangement of the Publicly Accessible Environment in Big Cities Exemplifi ed by Moscow]. Collected reports of the university conference covering the research projects implemented by students in 2011/2012, pp. 71—74.
  5. Gerhard Loeschcke, Lothar Marx, Daniela Pourat. Barrier-free Construction. 2011, BeuthVerlagGmbH Berlin-Wien –Zurich, vol. 1, 296 p.
  6. Kicherova M.N. Sotsial’naya reabilitatsiya invalidov v Zapadnosibirskom regione: osnovnye podkhody, puti razvitiya [Social Rehabilitation of Disabled Persons in Western Siberia: Basic Approaches, Patterns of Development]. Tyumen, 2009, 199 p.
  7. Stepanov V.K. Spetsializirovannye uchebno-lechebnye tsentry [Specialized Training and Treatment Centres]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1987, 200 p.
  8. Philipp Meuser, Christoph Schirmer. New Hospital Buildings in Germany. Vol. 1. General Hospitals and Health Centres. DOM Publ., 2006, 304 p.

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DESIGNING AND DETAILING OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. MECHANICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

STATIONARY PROBLEM OF MOISTURE-INDUCED ELASTICITY OF HETEROGENEOUS THICK-WALLED CYLINDERS

  • Andreev Vladimir Igorevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, corresponding member of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, chair, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Aversh'ev Anatoliy Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) master student, Institute of Fundamental Educatio, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 56 - 61

Many problems of identification of the stress-strain state against the background of the heat and mass transfer are solved through the application of constant (averaged) values of mechanical properties (elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio) and derivation of differential equations with constant coefficients. Due to irregular distribution of temperature and other factors of impact, including the moisture content, mechanical properties of many materials change significantly; therefore, the problems in question are solved within the framework of mechanics of heterogeneous bodies.
In this paper, the authors solve the classical problem of the steady-state moisture-induced elasticity of a thick-walled cylinder by taking account of the changes in the value of the elastic modulus caused by the influence of moisture. In this case, the problem is reduced to a differential equation with variable coefficients, which makes the solution more complicated though more accurate. It is proven that due regard for the heterogeneity leads to a significant increase in stresses, if compared to the solution based on the mean values of the modulus of elasticity.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.56-61

References
  1. Abelev M.Yu. Stroitel’stvo promyshlennykh i grazhdanskikh zdaniy na vodonasyshchennykh gruntakh [Construction of Industrial and Civil Buildings on Saturated Soil]. Moscow, 1982, 247 p.
  2. Vyalov S.S. Reologicheskie osnovy mekhaniki gruntov [Rheological Fundamentals of Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 1976, 447 p.
  3. Ter-Martirosyan Z.G. Mekhanika gruntov [Soil Mechanics]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2005, 488 p.
  4. Andreev V.I. Nekotorye zadachi i metody mekhaniki neodnorodnykh tel [Some Problems and Methods of Mechanics of Heterogeneous Bodies]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2002, 288 p.
  5. Andreev V.I., Potekhin I.A. Optimizatsiya po prochnosti tolstostennykh obolochek [Optimization of Strength of Thick-walled Envelopes]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011, 86 p.
  6. Andreev V.I. Metod resheniya nekotorogo klassa trekhmernykh zadach dlya uprugogo radial’no neodnorodnogo tsilindra [Method of Resolving a Class of Three-dimensional Problems for an Elastic Radial Heterogeneous Cylinder]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. [News of Institutions of Higher Education. Construction and Architecture]. 1985, no. 8, pp. 28—31.
  7. Andreev V.I. Priblizhennyy metod resheniya smeshannoy kraevoy zadachi dlya neodnorodnogo tsilindra [Approximate Method of Resolving the Mixed Boundary Value Problem for a Heterogeneous Cylinder]. Stroitel’naya mekhanika i raschet sooruzheniy [Structural Mechanics and Analysis of Structures]. 1989, no. 2, pp. 8—11.
  8. Andreev V.I., Frolova I.I. Temperaturnye napryazheniya v neodnorodnom massive so sfericheskoy polost’yu [Thermal Stresses in a Heterogeneous Body with a Spherical Cavity]. Collected works of Higher School of Engineering. Poland, Opole, 1991, pp. 14—18.
  9. Davydov V.A. Osobennosti izyskaniy i proektirovaniya avtomobil’nykh dorog v rayonakh vechnoy merzloty [Peculiarities of Surveys and Design of Motor Roads in Permafrost Areas]. Omsk, Omskiy PI Publ., 1979, pp. 44—56.
  10. ODN 218.046—01. Proektirovanie nezhestkikh dorozhnykh odezhd [Design of Non-rigid Road Pavements]. 2000, 93 p.

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SOLUTION TO THE THERMOELASTIC PLATE VIBRATION PROBLEM IF THE THREE PLATE EDGES ARE SIMPLY SUPPORTED AND THE FOURTH ONE IS RIGIDLY FIXED

  • Egorychev Oleg Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Egorychev Oleg Olegovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor 8 (495) 287-49-14, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Jaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russia; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Fedosova Anastasia Nikolaeva - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Senior Lecturer, Department of Higher Mathematics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 62 - 68

Operating conditions of uneven heating can cause changes in the physical and mechanical properties of materials. Awareness of the values and nature of thermal stresses are required for a comprehensive structural strength analysis. The authors propose their solution to the problem of identification of natural frequencies of vibrations of rectangular plates using a thermal factor.
The introductory part of the paper covers the derivation of equations of (a) the thermoelastic vibration of a plate, (b) initial and boundary conditions.
In the next part of the paper, the authors describe a method of frequency equation derivation for plates exposed to special boundary conditions, if the two opposite edges of the plate are simply supported, the temperature of the plate surface is equal to zero degrees Celsius, while the two other edges have an arbitrary type of fixation and an arbitrary thermal mode.
The authors have derived a general solution for the above boundary conditions, and by altering the method of fixation of the two edges of a plate, the authors obtain transcendental trigonometric equations reducible to algebraic frequency equations by using expanding in series. Thus, derivation of frequency equations different from the general solution is feasible for various types of boundary conditions.
The final part of the paper contains a derivation of the solution to the selected problem using the proposed method. The results demonstrate that the thermoelastic plate has four natural frequencies, two of them being equal to the frequencies of a plate free from the temperature influence, while the other two are close to the frequency of free vibrations of a plate.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.62-68

References
  1. Abo-el-nour N., Abd-alla, Nadia A. Askar. The Numerical Computation for Anti-symmetric Modes of Vibration of a Transversely Isotropic Generalized Thermoelastic Plate. International Journal of Mathematical Archive. 2012, no. 3(3), pp. 1091—1101.
  2. Hetnarski Richard B., Eslami M. Reza. Thermal Stresses – Advanced Theory and Applications. Series: Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Springer Science + Business Media, 2009, vol. 158, XXXIV, 562 p.
  3. Beknazarov M.N., Blazhevich S.V., Nemtsev S.N. K voprosu o termouprugikh kolebaniyakh tonkoy ellipticheskoy plastinki, vozbuzhdaemykh impul’snym puchkom zaryazhennykh chastits [Concerning Thermal Elastic Vibrations of a Thin Elliptical Plate Caused by a Pulsed Beam of Charged Particles]. Vzaimodeystvie zaryazhennykh chastits s kristallami [Interaction of Charged Particles with Crystals]. Proceedings of the 38th International Conference. 2007, Moscow, May 29-31, pp. 27—28.
  4. Bondarenko N.S. Termouprugoe sostoyanie transversal’no-izotropnykh plastin pri sosredotochennykh teplovykh vozdeystviyakh [Thermoelastic State of Transversely Isotropic Plates Exposed to Concentrated Thermal Effects]. Donetsk National University, Donetsk, 2010, 169 p.
  5. Filippov I.G., Cheban V.G. Matematicheskaya teoriya kolebaniy uprugikh i vyazkouprugikh plastin i sterzhney [Mathematical Theory of Vibrations of Elastic and Viscoelastic Plates and Rods]. Kishinev, Shtiintsa Publ., 1988, 190 p.
  6. Podstrigach Ya.S., Kolyano Yu.M. Obobshchennaya termomekhanika [Generalized Thermal Mechanics]. Kiev, Naukova Dumka Publ., 1976, 311 p.
  7. Egorychev O.A., Egorychev O.O., Fedosova A.N. Vliyanie granichnykh usloviy na reshenie zadachi o termouprugom kolebanii plastiny [Infl uence of Boundary Conditions onto Resolution of the Problem of Thermoelastic Vibration of a Plate]. Vestnik grazhdanskikh inzhenerov [Bulletin of Civil Engineers]. 2011, no. 4, pp. 26—30.
  8. Egorychev O.O. Issledovaniya kolebaniy ploskikh elementov konstruktsiy [Research of Vibrations of Flat Elements of Structures]. Ìoscow, Arkhitektura-S Publ., 2009, 320 p.
  9. Bogdanov A.V., Poddaeva O.I. Sobstvennye kolebaniya uprugoy trekhsloynoy plastiny, dva protivopolozhnykh kraya kotoroy sharnirno zakrepleny, a dva drugikh svobodny ot zakrepleniya [Natural Vibrations of an Elastic Three-layer Plate, If Its Two Opposite Edges are Pinned, While the Other Two Are Not Fixed]. Teoriya i praktika rascheta zdaniy, sooruzheniy i elementov konstruktsiy. Analiticheskie i chislennye metody [Theory and Practice of Analysis of Buildings, Structures and Structural Elements. Analytical and Numerical Methods]. Proceedings of the 3rd International Scientific Conference, Moscow, 2010, pp. 81—87.
  10. Bogdanov A.V., Poddaeva O.I. Vyvod chastotnogo uravneniya sobstvennykh kolebaniy uprugoy trekhsloynoy plastiny, dva protivopolozhnykh kraya kotoroy sharnirno zakrepleny, a dva drugikh zhestko zakrepleny (analiticheskiy metod resheniya) [Derivation of the Frequency Equation of Natural Vibrations of an Elastic Three-layer Plate, If Its Two Opposite Edges Are Pinned, While the Other Two Edges Are Rigidly Fixed (an Analytical Solution). Teoriya i praktika rascheta zdanii, sooruzhenii i elementov konstruktsii. Analiticheskie i chislennye metody [Theory and Practice of Analysis of Buildings, Structures and Structural Elements. Analytical and Numerical Methods]. Proceedings of the 2nd International Scientific Conference, Moscow, 2009, pp. 65—69.

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MODELING OF STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOUR OF AN INDUSTRIAL BUILDING WITH ACCOUNT FOR THE VARIATION OF RIGIDITY IN THE COURSE OF ITS OPERATION

  • Zolina Tat'yana Vladimirovna - Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AISI) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, First Vice-Rector, Astrakhan Institute of Civil Engineering (AISI), 18 Tatishchev St., Astrakhan, 414056, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sadchikov Pavel Nikolaevich - State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU") Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Automated Design and Modeling Systems, State Autonomous Educational Institution of the Astrakhan area of higher education "Astrakhan State Architectural and Construction University" (JSC GAOU VPO "AGASU"), 18 Tatishcheva str., Astrakhan, 414000, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 69 - 76

The number of accidents at construction facilities has increased dramatically over the recent years. The engineering analysis of the reasons of accidents in the Russian Federation has revealed that the majority of accidents are caused by the loss of stability of specific structural elements, and a substantial reduction of the bearing capacity of structures. At the same time, no proper methodologies of processing and analyzing the results of inspections of structures, or methodologies of assessing the residual service life of structures are available, although advanced diagnostic tools are at hand. Therefore, advanced methods of accident risk analysis assume importance.
A quantitative assessment of the risk exposure of buildings and structures at any stage (design, construction and operation) can only be made through the employment of probabilistic calculations, especially if extreme loads are in the focus. Probabilistic methods are more robust as they evaluate the safety as the possibility of failure. Parameters are treated as stochastic variables.
Based on the research completed by the authors, a 3D computational model of a single-storey industrial building has been developed. The software programme developed by the authors is designated for the resolution of a wide range of problems of reliability, durability, stability and accident risk analysis in respect of buildings exposed to various internal and external loads.
The software may be used to resolve both direct and inverse problems. This feature is highly relevant in assessing structural behaviour. Their structures may constitute defects that affect their rigidity, strength and stability. The behaviour pattern of a loaded structure may be identified by means of an experiment, and thereafter, its rigidity may be identified by resolving the inverse problem in order to assess the life span of the structure.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.69-76

References
  1. Avarii zdaniy i sooruzheniy na territorii Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2003 godu [Accidents of Buildings and Structures in the territory of the Russian Federation in 2003]. All-Russian Public Fund “Centre of the Construction Quality”. Moscow. 2004. Available at: http://www.stroyplan.ru. Date of access: 04.08.12.
  2. Ulitskiy V.M., Lisyuk M.B. Otsenka riska i obespechenie bezopasnosti v stroitel’stve [Risk Assessment and Construction Safety]. Rekonstruktsiya gorodov i geotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Urban Restructuring and Geotechnical Engineering] Internet Journal. 2002, no. 5. Available at: http://www.georec.spb.ru/journals. Date of access: 04.08.12.
  3. Dykhovichnyy A.A., Vishnevetskiy A.I. Eksperimental’nye issledovaniya uprugikh sistem i matematicheskoe modelirovanie [Experimental Research of Elastic Systems and Mathematical Modeling]. Soprotivlenie materialov i teoriya sooruzheniy [Strength of Materials and Theory of Structures]. Kiev, Budivel’nik Publ., 1980, no. 36, pp. 107—110.
  4. Bakhvalov N.S., Zhidkov N.P., Kobel’kov G.M. Chislennye metody [Numerical Methods]. Binom. Laboratoriya znaniy. [Binom. Laboratory of Knowledge]. Moscow, 2003, 600 p.
  5. Zolina T.V. Raschet odnoetazhnykh promyshlennykh zdaniy, oborudovannykh mostovymi kranami, na gorizontal’noe kranovoe vozdeystvie s uchetom prostranstvennoy raboty [Analysis of Single-storey Industrial Buildings Equipped with Overhead Cranes with Account for Horizontal Effects of Crane Operations]. Moscow, MISI Publ., 1989, 242 p.
  6. Zolina T.V. Raschet promyishlennyih zdaniy na kranovyie nagruzki [Analysis of Exposure of Industrial Buildings to Crane Loads]. Astrakhan, AISI Publ., 2004, 156 p.
  7. Gordeev V.N., Lantukh-Lyashchenko A.I., Pashinskiy V.A., Perel’muter A.V., editor. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na zdaniya i sooruzheniya [Loads and Actions on Buildings and Structures]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2007, 482 p.
  8. Pshenichkina V.A., Belousov, A.S., Kuleshova A.N., Churakov A.A. Nadezhnost’ zdaniy kak prostranstvennykh sostavnykh sistem pri seysmicheskikh vozdeystviyakh [Reliability of Buildings as Spatial Composite Systems Exposed to Seismic Impacts]. Volgograd, VolgGASU Publ., 2010, 224 p.
  9. STO 36554501-014—2008 «Nadezhnost’ stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy i osnovaniy». [Standards of Organizations 36554501-014—2008 “Reliability of Structures and Beddings”]. Approved by Federal State Unitary Enterprise “Construction” Research Centre on September 23, 2008.

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ANALYTICAL AND NUMERICAL RESEARCH OF WAVE LOADS ON A SHORT VERTICAL WALL

  • Kantarzhi Igor' Grigor'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MSUCE), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Long Giang Tran - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 77 - 87

The problem of wave loads on a relatively short wall is related to the issue of the general design of the structure at the stage of its construction, particularly, if the structure is build offshore. The physical nature of interaction between waves and vertical walls that have different lengths is the subject matter of this paper. It is assumed that the wall is absolutely rigid. The comparison of numerical test results and an analytical calculation based on a short wall model is made. As a result, wave forces identified through the employment of the above two models demonstrate their satisfactory convergence. The difference is substantial for longer walls, and it increases along with the increase of the wall length. The conclusion is that a short wall is exposed to the wave load that is not accompanied by any diffraction, therefore, a related method of design may be recommended. Numerical models may be considered as the universal ones.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.77-87

References
  1. Brebbia K., Uoker S. Dinamika morskikh sooruzheniy [Dynamics of Offshore Structures]. Leningrad, Sudostroenie Publ., 1983.
  2. Din R.G., Kharleman D.R.F. Vzaimodeystvie mezhdu volnami i beregovymi sooruzheniyami [Interaction between Waves and Coastal Structures]. Gidrodinamika beregovoy zony i estuariaev [Hydrodynamics of the Coastal Zone and Estuaries]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1970, pp. 167—228.
  3. Tran L.G., Kantarzhi I.G. Volnovye nagruzki i ustoychivost’ ekraniruyushchey stenki portovogo mola v period stroitel’stva [Wave Load and Stability of the Port Mole Wall in the Period of Construction]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 5, pp. 48—53.
  4. Tran L.G., Kantarzhi I.G. Eksperimental’nye issledovaniya obtekaniya volnami vertikal’noy stenki konechnoy dliny [Experimental Study of the Water Flow in the Area of the Finite Length Vertical Wall]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 7, pp. 101—108.
  5. Lappo D.D, Strekalov S.S., Zav’yalov V.K. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya vetrovykh voln na gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzheniya [Effects and Loads of Wind Waves on Hydraulic Structures]. Lennigrad, VNIIG Publ., 1990, pp. 38—48.
  6. SNiP 2.06.04—82*. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzhenya (volnovye, ledovye i ot sudov). [Construction Rules and Regulations 2.06.04—82*. Loads and Impacts on Hydraulic Structures (Waves, Ice and Vessels). Moscow, GOSSTPOY SSSR Publ., 1989.
  7. Shakhin V.M., Shakhina T.V. Metod rascheta difraktsii i refraktsii voln [Method of Analysis of Diffraction and Refraction of Waves]. Okeanologiya [Oceanology]. 2001, no. 5, vol. 41, pp. 674—679.

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ASSESSMENT OF SPECTRAL DENSITY OF THE AERODYNAMIC FACTOR OF FRONT RESISTANCE

  • Kir'yanova Lyudmila Vladimirovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Physics and Mathematics, Associate Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Usmanov Anton Ravil'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) student, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 88 - 94

The subject matter of this article encompasses a detailed study of spectral density through the employment of narrow-band filters. The article is composed of the two sections. The theoretical section contains a theoretical estimation of spectral density and its theoretical substantiation. Further, we assume that the spectrum is constant. We have also made an intermediate conclusion that the estimation of spectral density will be ergodic if the two conditions are simultaneously satisfied. The strength of this method is that any estimates made on its basis are ergodic.
In the second practical part the estimations are entered into the Matlab software and applied to the aerodynamic factor of front resistance. Before the entry of estimations, statistical checks have been made. No spectral analysis is possible absent of the above checks.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.88-94

References
  1. Venttsel’ E.S., Ovcharov L.A. Teoriya sluchaynykh protsessov i ee inzhenernye prilozheniya [Theory of Stochastic Processes and Its Engineering Applications]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 2000, pp. 331—350.
  2. Bendat Dzh., Pirsol A. Prikladnoy analiz sluchaynykh dannykh [Applied Analysis of Random Data]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1989, pp. 276—280.
  3. Liptser R.Sh., Shiryaev A.N. Statistika sluchaynykh protsessov [Statistics of Random Processes]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. Publ., 1974, pp. 19—43.
  4. Sveshnikov A.A. Prikladnye metody teorii sluchaynykh funktsiy [Applied Methods of the Theory of Random Functions]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1968, pp. 401—413.
  5. Dzhenking G., Vatts D. Spektral’nyy analiz i ego prilozheniya [Spectral Analysis and Its Applications]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1971, pp. 255—263.
  6. Marpl S.L. Tsifrovoy spektral’nyy analiz i ego prilozheniya [Digital Spectral Analysis and Its Applications]. Moscow, Mir Publ., 1990, pp. 146—159.
  7. Tikhonov V.I. Statisticheskaya radiotekhnika [Statistical Radio Engineering]. Radio i svyaz’ [Radio and Communications]. Moscow, 1982, no. 2, pp. 515—546.
  8. Simchera V.M. Metody mnogomernogo analiza statisticheskikh dannykh [Methods of Multivariate Statistical Analysis]. Moscow, Finansy i statistika publ., 2008, pp. 104—115.
  9. Afanas’eva I.N. Sravnitel’nyy analiz rezul’tatov chislennogo i eksperimental’nogo modelirovaniya turbulentnogo vozdushnogo potoka v zone pryamougol’noy prizmy [Comparative Analysis of Results of Numerical and Experimental Modeling of a Turbulent Air Stream in the Zone of a Rectangular Prism]. Mezhdunarodnyy zhurnal po raschetu grazhdanskikh i stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy [International Journal of Analysis of Civil and Building Structures]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 3—6.
  10. Anufriev I.E., Smirnov A.B., Smirnova E.N. MATLAB 7 [MATLAB 7]. St.Petersburg, BKhV-Peterburg Publ., 2005, pp. 241—477.

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STABILITY OF TRUNCATED CIRCULAR CONICAL SHELL EXPOSED TO AXIAL COMPRESSION

  • Litvinov Vladimir Vital'evich - Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (RGSU) Director, Laboratory of Department of Strength of Materials, 8 (863) 201-91-36, Rostov State University of Civil Engineering (RGSU), 162 Sotsialisticheskaya St., Rostov-Don, 344022, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Andreev Vladimir Igorevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, corresponding member of Russian Academy of Architecture and Construction Sciences, chair, Department of Strength of Materials, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Chepurnenko Anton Sergeevich - Don State Technical University (DGTU) Candidate of Engineering Science, teaching assistant of the strength of materials department, Don State Technical University (DGTU), 162 Sotsialisticheskaya str., Rostov-on-Don, 344022; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 95 - 101

The problem of stability of a freely supported truncated circular conical shell, compressed by the upper base of a uniformly distributed load per unit length , referred to the median shell surface and directed along the generatrix of the cone, was solved by the Ritz-Timoshenko energy method. The orthogonal system of curvilinear coordinates of the points of the middle surface of the shell was adopted to solve the problem. Possible displacements were selected in the form of double series approximation functions. The physical principle of inextensible generatrix of the cone exposed to buckling at the moment of instability was employed. In addition, the fundamental principle of continuum mechanics, or the principle of minimal total potential energy of the system, was taken as the basis. According to the linear elasticity theory, energy methods make it possible to replace the solution of complex differential equations by the solution of simple linear algebraic equations. As a result, the problem is reduced to the problem of identifying the eigenvalues in the algebraic theory of matrices. The numerical value of the critical load was derived through the employment of the software.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.95-101

References
  1. Vol’mir A.S. Ustoychivost’ deformiruemykh sistem [Stability of Deformable Systems]. Nauka Publ., 1967, 984 p.
  2. Birger I.A., Panovko Ya.G. Prochnost’. Ustoychivost’. Kolebaniya [Strength. Stability. Vibrations]. Reference book. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1968, vol. 3, 568 p.
  3. Alfutov N.A. Osnovy rascheta na ustoychivost’ uprugikh sistem [Fundamentals of Analysis of Stability of Elastic Systems]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1991, 336 p.
  4. Gol’denveyzer A.L. Teoriya tonkikh uprugikh obolochek [Theory of Thin Elastic Shells]. Moscow – Leningrad, Gostekhizdat Publ., 1953, 544 p.
  5. Mushtari Kh.M. Priblizhennoe reshenie nekotorykh zadach ustoychivosti tonkostennoy konicheskoy obolochki krugovogo secheniya [Approximate Solution of Some Problems of Stability of Thin-walled Conical Shell with Circular Cross Section]. Prikladnaya matematika i mekhanika [Applied Mathematics and Mechanics]. 1943, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 155—166.
  6. Grigolyuk E.I., Kabanov V.V. Ustoychivost’ obolochek [Stability of Shells]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1978.
  7. Timoshenko S.P. Ustoychivost’ uprugikh system [Stability of Elastic Systems]. Moscow, Gostekhizdat Publ., 1946.
  8. Baruch M., Harari O., Singer J. Low Buckling Loads of Axially Compressed Conical Shells. Trans. ASME, Ser. E., 1970, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 384—392.
  9. Shtaerman I.Ya. Ustoychivost’ obolochek [Stability of Shells]. Works of Kiev Institute of Aviation. 1936, no. 1, pp. 12—16.
  10. Bryan G.N. Application of the Energy Test to the Collapse of a Thin Long Pipe under External Pressure. Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 1988, vol. 6, pp. 287—292.

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NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE STRESS-STRAIN STATE OF EARTH DAMS THAT HAVE THIN RIGID SEEPAGE CONTROL ELEMENTS

  • Sainov Mikhail Petrovitch - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Associate Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 102 - 108

The research project covered by this article consists in the assessment of the accuracy of the findings of the analysis of the stress-strain state of earth dams that have thin rigid seepage control elements, if performed using the finite elements method. The testing procedure has demonstrated that the modeling of the stress-strain state of the earth dams that have a reinforced concrete face require high-order finite elements; otherwise, the results are distorted. The employment of finite elements with a quadratic approximation of displacements provides a sufficient accuracy in terms of the final solution. In order to simplify the problem-solving procedure that involves high-order elements, the author suggests using these elements only in the modeling of the thin rigid seepage control element. The testing procedure has demonstrated that high-quality results need non-linear finite elements applicable to both a thin rigid structure and the adjacent areas.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.102-108

References
  1. Gu Gan Chen. Trekhmernyy nelineynyy staticheskiy i dinamicheskiy analiz kamenno-nabrosnykh plotin s zhelezobetonnymi ekranami metodom konechnykh elementov [Three-dimensional Non-linear Static and Dynamic Analysis of Rockfill Dams That Have Reinforced Concrete Faces Using the Finite Elements Method]. Nankin, Hohai University, 1990.
  2. Belostotskiy A.M. Chislennoe modelirovanie kompleksnogo napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya konstruktsiy i sooruzheniy energeticheskikh ob”ektov [Numerical Modeling of the Integrated Stress-Strained State of Structures of Power Plants]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 1999, no. 8/9, pp. 88—93.
  3. Vladimirov V.B., Zaretskiy Yu.K., Orekhov V.V. Matematicheskaya model’ monitoringa kamenno-zemlyanoy plotiny gidrouzla Khoabin’ [Mathematical Model for the Monitoring of a Rockfill Dam of Hoabin Hydraulic Engineering Structure]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2003, no. 6, pp. 47—52.
  4. Nguen Than Dat. Napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyanie kamennykh plotin s zhelezobetonnym ekranom [Stress-Strained State of Rockfill Dams That Have Reinforced Concrete Faces]. Moscow, 2004.
  5. Orekhov V.V. Prognoznoe matematicheskoe modelirovanie napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya gruntovykh plotin i skal’nykh massivov [Predictive Mathematical Modeling of the Stress-Strained State of Earth Dams and Rock Massifs]. Moscow, 2003.
  6. Orekhov V.V. Kompleks vychislitel’nykh programm [«Zemlya-89» Software]. Issledovaniya i razrabotki po komp’yuternomu proektirovaniyu fundamentov i osnovaniy [Research and Development in the Area of Computer-aided Design of Foundations and Beddings]. Collected works of universities. Novcherkassk, 1990, pp. 14—20.
  7. Rasskazov L.N., Sainov M.P. Chislennye issledovaniya nadezhnosti vysokoy kamennoy plotiny s zhelezobetonnym ekranom i podekranovoy zonoy iz gruntotsementobetona [Numerical Research of Reliability of a High Rockfill Dam That Has a Reinforced Concrete Face and a Sub-face Area Made of Soil and Cement Concrete]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2012, no. 2, pp. 30—34.
  8. Sainov M.P. Osobennosti raschetov napryazhenno-deformirovannogo sostoyaniya kamennykh plotin s zhelezobetonnymi ekranami [Analysis of the Stress-Strained State of Rockfill Dams That Have Reinforced Concrete Faces]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2006, no. 2, pp. 78—86.
  9. Vybornov K.A., Sainov M.P. Vliyanie raboty shvov na prostranstvennoe napryazhenno-deformirovannoe sostoyaniye kamennoy plotiny s zhelezobetonnym ekranom [Influence of Behaviour of Joints onto the Three-dimensional Stress-strained State of a Rockfill Dam That Has a Reinforced Concrete Face]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 5, pp. 12—17.
  10. Gol’din A.L., Rasskazov L.N. Proektirovanie gruntovykh plotin [Design of Earth Dams]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2001, 384 p.
  11. Rasskazov L.N., Dzhkha Dzh. Deformiruemost’ i prochnost’ grunta pri raschete vysokikh gruntovykh plotin [Soil Deformability and Strength within the Framework of Analysis of High Earth Dams]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 1997, no. 7, pp. 31—36.

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DESIGN OF STRUCTURAL ELEMENTS IN THE EVENT OF THE PRE-SET RELIABILITY, REGULAR LOAD AND BEARING CAPACITY DISTRIBUTION

  • Tamrazyan Ashot Georgievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, full member, Russian Engineering Academy, head of the directorate, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe Shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 109 - 115

Accurate and adequate description of external influences and of the bearing capacity of the structural material requires the employment of the probability theory methods. In this regard, the characteristic that describes the probability of failure-free operation is required. The characteristic of reliability means that the maximum stress caused by the action of the load will not exceed the bearing capacity.
In this paper, the author presents a solution to the problem of calculation of structures, namely, the identification of reliability of pre-set design parameters, in particular, cross-sectional dimensions. If the load distribution pattern is available, employment of the regularities of distributed functions make it possible to find the pattern of distribution of maximum stresses over the structure.
Similarly, we can proceed to the design of structures of pre-set rigidity, reliability and stability in the case of regular load distribution. We consider the element of design (a monolithic concrete slab), maximum stress which depends linearly on load . Within a pre-set period of time, the probability will not exceed the values according to the Poisson law.
The analysis demonstrates that the variability of the bearing capacity produces a stronger effect on relative sizes of cross sections of a slab than the variability of loads. It is therefore particularly important to reduce the coefficient of variation of the load capacity. One of the methods contemplates the truncation of the bearing capacity distribution by pre-culling the construction material.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.109-115

References
  1. Lychev A.S. Sposoby vychisleniya veroyatnosti otkaza v kompozitsii raspredeleniy prochnosti i nagruzki [Methods of Calculation of the Probability of Failure within the Framework of the Distribution of Strength and Load]. Trudy mezhdunarodnoy nauchno-tekhnicheskoy konferentsii [Collected works of the international scientific and technical conference]. Samara, 1997, pp. 33—37.
  2. Tichy M. In the Reliability Measure. Struct. Safety. 1988, vol. 5, pp. 227—232.
  3. Araslanov A.S. Raschet elementov konstruktsiy zadannoy nadezhnosti pri sluchaynykh vzaimodeystviyakh [Calculation of Structural Elements with the Pre-set Reliability If Exposed to Random Interactions]. Moscow, 1986, 268 p.
  4. Tamrazyan A.G. Otsenka riska i nadezhnosti nesushchikh konstruktsiy i klyuchevykh elementov — neobkhodimoe uslovie bezopasnosti zdaniy i sooruzheniy [Assessment of Risk and Reliability of Bearing Structures and Key Elements as the Necessary Condition of Safety of Buildings and Structures]. Vestnik TsNIISK [Bulletin of Central Research and Development Institute of Building Structures]. 2009, no. 1, pp. 160—171.
  5. JSO/TK 98 ST 2394. General Principles on Reliability for Structures. 1994, pp. 50.
  6. Rayzer V.D. Teoriya nadezhnosti v stroitel’nom proektirovanii [Theory of Reliability in Structural Design]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 1998, 304 p.

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FATIGUE STRENGTH OF A STRUCTURAL ELEMENT EXPOSED TO ICE LOADING

  • Uvarova Tat'yana Erikovna - Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Theory of Buildings and Structures, School of Engineering, 8 (423) 245-16-18, Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU), Office 407, 66 prospect Krasnogo Znameni, Vladivostok, 690014, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Pomnikov Egor Evgen'evich - Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU) postgraduate student, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Theory of Buildings and Structures, School of Engineering, 8 (423) 245-16-18, Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU), Office 407, 66 prospect Krasnogo Znameni, Vladivostok, 690014, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 116 - 121

The cyclic nature of effects of ice loading contributes to the formation of non-reversible deformations and defects of structural elements that may cause loss of the bearing capacity of the structure due to the accumulation of fatigue damages in dangerous sections. The damages in question are caused by moderate loads of multiple repeatability. In order to assess the number of cycles of ice loading that the structure may be exposed to without any substantial damages, the authors have developed a simulation model of ice load formation that serves as the basis for the analysis of the loading pattern that the structure is exposed to. This loading pattern is the initial one for the purposes of calculation of the fatigue resistance of structural elements to ice load effects. In the research, the authors provide for the joint application of the simulation model of ice load formation and the model of accumulation of fatigue damages to assess the ice resistance of a platform and its reliability from the viewpoint of its failure.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.116-121

References
  1. Daley C.G. Ice Edge Contact — an Iterative Failure Process Model. Report no. M-103 by the Laboratory of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, 1990, 65 p.
  2. K?rn? T. Finite Ice Failure Depth in Penetration of a Vertical Indentor into an Ice Edge. Annals of Glaciology, 1993, vol. 19, pp. 114—120.
  3. Timco G.W. Indentation and Penetration of Edge-Loaded Freshwater Ice Sheets in the Brittle Rang. Proceedings of the 5th Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Tokyo, 1986, pp. 444—452.
  4. Sodhi D. Ice Structure Interaction with Segmented Indentors. Proceedings of IAHR Ice Symp., Banff, Canada, 1992, pp. 909—929.
  5. Uvarova T.E. Metodika opredeleniya kolichestva tsiklov i rezhima nagruzheniya sooruzheniya dreyfuyushchim ledyanym pokrovom [Methodology of Identification of the Number of Cycles and the Drifting Ice Cover Loading Mode That the Structure Is Exposed to]. Vladivostok, 1999, 22 p.
  6. Kogaev V.P. Raschet na prochnost’ pri napryazheniyakh peremennykh vo vremeni (Biblioteka raschetchika) [Analysis of Strength in the Event of Time-variable Stresses (Library of a Computing Engineer)]. Moscow, Mashinostroenie Publ., 1977, 232 p.

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NORMATIVE PROCEDURES OF GLOBAL ICE LOAD CALCULATION

  • Uvarova Tat'yana Erikovna - Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Theory of Buildings and Structures, School of Engineering, 8 (423) 245-16-18, Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU), Office 407, 66 prospect Krasnogo Znameni, Vladivostok, 690014, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Pomnikov Egor Evgen'evich - Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU) postgraduate student, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Theory of Buildings and Structures, School of Engineering, 8 (423) 245-16-18, Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU), Office 407, 66 prospect Krasnogo Znameni, Vladivostok, 690014, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Shamsutdinova Gyuzel' Radikovna - Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU) master student, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Theory of Buildings and Structures, School of Engineering, 8 (423) 245-08-90, Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU), Office 407, 66 prospect Krasnogo Znameni, Vladivostok, 690014, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Narkevich Anastasiya Sergeevna - Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU) master student, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Theory of Buildings and Structures, School of Engineering, 8 (423) 245-08-90, Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU), Office 407, 66 prospect Krasnogo Znameni, Vladivostok, 690014, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Protsenko Viktoriya Vladimirovna - Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU) Assistant Lecturer, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Theory of Buildings and Structures, School of Engineering, 8 (423) 245-08-90, Far Eastern Federal University (DVFU), Office 407, 66 prospect Krasnogo Znameni, Vladivostok, 690014, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 122 - 127

The authors argue that the availability of substantial hydrocarbon reserves in the waters of oceans and growing needs for this type of resources boosts the development of mining operations in the shelves of seas and oceans. The majority of continental shelves of the Russian Federation are located in the areas of freezing seas; therefore, the calculation of ice loads is an important issue. Analysis of ice loads that the offshore structures are exposed to represents a major problem. A significant reduction in the construction costs is attainable through rational design that contemplates a pressing need for simple and reliable methods of calculation. The paper represents an attempt to consolidate and analyze the main normative procedures that govern the calculation of ice loads, and to present them in the form that may be easily processed by the software.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.122-127

References
  1. Grigorenko Yu.N., Margulis L.S., Novikov Yu.N., Sobolev Yu.S. Morskaya baza uglevodorodnogo syr’ya Rossii i perspektivy ee osvoeniya [Offshore Deposits of Hydrocarbon Resources of Russia and Prospects for Their Assimilation]. Neftegazovaya geologiya. Teoriya i praktika. [Geology of Oil and Gas. Theory and Practice]. 2007, vol. 2. Available at: www.ngtp.ru/rub/4/002.pdf. Date of access: 12.06.2012.
  2. VSN 41—88. Vedomstvennye stroitel’nye normy (eksperimental’nye) proektirovaniya ledostoykikh statsionarnykh platform [VSN 41-88. Industrial (Experimental) Construction Norms of Design of Offshore Ice-resistant Fixed Platforms]. Moscow, 1988.
  3. SNiP 2.06.04—82*. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzheniya (volnovye, ledovye i ot sudov). [Construction Norms and Regulations. Loads and Actions on Hydraulic Engineering Structures (Waves, Ice, and Vessels)]. Moscow, 1995.
  4. STO Gazprom 2-3.7-29—2005. Raschet ledovykh nagruzok na ledostoykuyu statsionarnuyu platformu. [Standard of Organizations. Gasprom. 2-3.7-29—2005. Calculation of Ice Loads on Ice-resistant Fixed Platforms]. Moscow, 2005.
  5. API RP 2N. Recommended Practice for Planning, Designing and Constructing Structures and Pipelines for Arctic Conditions. Amer. Petroleum Inst. Bulletin. Dallas, 1995.
  6. CAN/CSA-S471—92. General Requirements, Design Criteria, Environment, Loads. National Standard of Canada, 2004.
  7. Danish Standard 410. Code of Practice for Loads for the Design of Structures. 1998.
  8. L. Fransson, L. Bergdahl. Recommendations for Design of Offshore Foundations Exposed to Ice Loads. Elforsk rapport 09:55. April 2009, 43 p.
  9. Germanischer Lloyd. Oil and Gas GmbH: General Terms and Conditions. Hamburg, 2005.
  10. ISO/CD 19906. Petroleum and Natural Gas Industries – Arctic Offshore Structures.
  11. US Army Corps of Engineers. Engineering and Design-Ice Engineering. USACE Engineer Manual EM 1110-2-1612, 2006.

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IDENTIFICATION OF OPTIMAL PARAMETERS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES WITH ACCOUNT FOR THE PROBABILITY OF FAILURE

  • Filimonova Ekaterina Aleksandrovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Re- inforced Concrete and Masonry Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 128 - 133

The principal mission of structural design consists in the development of economical though reliable structures. Any safety-related improvements boost the cost of a structure, while any reduction of costs involves higher risks. The objective of any structural designer is to pinpoint the optimal structural parameters among the whole variety of solutions that fall within the range of the pre-set design requirements and minimal risks. Selection of the optimality criteria applicable to reinforced concrete structures is to be based on a set of requirements, including low costs, technological efficiency, safety and observance of limits imposed onto the expenditure of material resources and the workforce.
The author suggests splitting the aforementioned parameters into the two groups, namely, natural parameters and value-related parameters that are introduced to assess the costs of development, transportation, construction and operation of a structure, as well as the costs of its potential failure. The author proposes a new improved methodology for the identification of the above parameters that ensures optimal solutions to non-linear objective functions accompanied by non-linear restrictions that are critical to the design of reinforced concrete structures. Any structural failure may be interpreted as the bounce of a random process associated with the surplus bearing capacity into the negative domain. Monte Carlo numerical methods make it possible to assess these bounces into the unacc eptable domain.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.128-133

References
  1. Tamrazyan A.G. K otsenke riska chrezvychaynykh situatsiy po osnovnym priznakam ego proyavleniya na sooruzhenie [Concerning the Assessment of the Risk of Emergencies on the Basis of Their Principal Features Demonstrated by the Structure]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 2001, no. 5, pp. 8—10.
  2. Pichugin S.F., Semko A.V., Makhin’ko A.V. K opredeleniyu koeffitsienta nadezhnosti po naznacheniyu s uchetom riskov v stroitel’stve [Identification of the Reliability Ratio with Account for Construction-related Risks]. Izv. vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. [News of Higher Education Institutions. Civil Engineering.] 2005, no. 11—12, pp. 105—109.
  3. Huang C., Kroplin B. Optimum Design of Composite Laminated Plates via a Multi-objective Function. International Journal of Mechanical Science. 1995, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 317—326.
  4. Falso S.A., Afonso S.M.B., Vaz L.E. Analysis and Optimal Design of Plates and Shells under Dynamic Loads – II: Optimization. Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization, 2004, vol. 27, no. 3, pð.197—209.
  5. Bezdelev V.V., Dmitrieva T.L. Ispol’zovanie mnogometodnoy strategii optimizatsii v proektirovanii stroitel’nykh konstruktsiy [Employment of the Multi-methodological Strategy for the Optimization in the Design of Building Structures]. Izv. vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. [News of Higher Education Institutions. Civil Engineering.] 2010, no. 2, pp. 90—95.
  6. Yarov V.A., Prasolenko E.V. Proektirovanie kruglykh monolitnykh plit perekrytiy ratsional’noy struktury s ispol’zovaniem topologicheskoy i parametricheskoy optimizatsii [Design of Circular In-situ Floor Slabs of Rational Structure through the Employment of Topological and Parametric Optimization]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo arkhitekturno-stroitel’nogo universiteta [Proceedings of Tomsk State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 3, pp. 89—102.
  7. Tamrazyan A.G., Filimonova E.A. Metod poiska rezerva nesushchey sposobnosti zhelezobetonnykh plit perekrytiy [Methodology of Identification of the Surplus Bearing Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Floor Slabs]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 3, pp. 23—25.

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ESTIMATION OF LIQUEFACTION FROM CASE HISTORIES

  • Jahromi Ghaffarpour Saeed - Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU) Assistant Professor, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Civil Department, +98 21 2383 2227, Shahid Rajaee Teacher Training University (SRTTU), Lavizan, Tehran, Iran; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 134 - 141

A critical parameter in the evaluation of the liquefaction of soils is the residual or liquefi ed
shear strength. Liquefaction of granular soils can have extremely detrimental effects on the stability
of soil slopes and deposits, and on structures founded on them. This liquefi ed shear strength determines
the magnitude of the deformation that the soil will undergo once it has liquefi ed. Current procedures
for estimating the liquefi ed shear strength are based on laboratory testing programs or from
the back-analysis of case histories of liquefaction failures where in-situ test data were available. The
case-histories approach is the procedure that is preferred in practice. However, it has several limitations
including the very limited amount of data available, the signifi cant uncertainties involved in the
back-calculation of the liquefi ed shear strengths, and the lack of consistent and rational methods in
the use of the available data. To address these current limitations, this paper proposes new probabilistic
liquefi ed shear strength criteria for liquefi able soils from case histories.
The paper presents probabilistic undrained residual or liquefi ed shear strength values of liquefi
able soils as function of SPT blow count. The liquefi ed shear strengths were back-calculated
using slope stability analysis of previous case histories of fl ow liquefaction failures. Probabilistic procedures,
including the First-Order Reliability Method (FORM) and Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS)
were used in combination with limit equilibrium methods to analyze case histories of fl ow failure presented
in the deterministic companion paper. Depending on the post-failure geometry of the case
history, either the simplifi ed infi nite slope stability analysis or the more general Spencer method of
slices analysis was used in the back analysis. The Beta Probability Density Function was used to
model the statistical distributions and uncertainties in the geotechnical parameters involved in the
probabilistic analyses. For FORM, a Bayesian Mapping procedure is used where values of PF are
computed from the probability density function of the reliability indices of fl ow failure. The logistic
mapping function is obtained by relating the deterministic factor of safety to for the liquefi ed
shear strength relationships. A parameter 1 was introduced to account for model uncertainty in the
reliability calculations.
Probabilistic versus minimum (1)60 criteria were presented for contours corresponding
to 2 %, 16 %, and 50 %. It was shown that the = 50 % relationship is very close to the
best fi t relations obtained from the deterministic analysis of the case histories. The probabilistic
versus minimum (1)60 criteria provide a more rational procedure for estimating the postliquefaction
stability of cohesionless soils deposits by providing estimates of the probability of failure
in addition to traditional values of factor of safety. The probability of failure can account for the different
uncertainties in the back calculation of the liquefi ed shear strength values from case histories,
and the natural variability and uncertainties and properties of soil deposits.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.134-141

References
  1. Fear C.E. and McRoberts E.C. 1995. Reconsideration of initiation of liquefaction in sandy soils, Journal of Geotechnical Engineering ASCE, vol. 121(3), pp. 249—261.
  2. Finn W.D.L. 2000. Post-liquefaction fl ow deformations, Soil Dynamics and Liquefaction 2000, R.Y.S. Pak and J. Yamamuro (eds.), ASCE Geotechnical Special Publication, no. 107, pp. 108—122.
  3. Ishihara K. 1993. Liquefaction and fl ow failure during earthquakes -33rd Rankine Lecture, Geotechnique, vol. 43(3), pp. 351—415.
  4. Juang C.H., Jiang T. and R.D. Andrus 2002. Assessing probabilitybased methods for liquefaction potential evaluation, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenviromental Engineering ASCE, vol. 128(7), pp. 580—589.
  5. Low B.K. and Tang W.H. 1997. Reliability analysis of reinforced embankments on soft ground, Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 34, pp. 672—685.
  6. Low B.K. and Tang W.H. 2004. Reliability analysis using object-oriented constrained optimization, Structural Safety, vol. 26, pp. 69—89.
  7. Olson S.M. and Stark T.D. 2003. Liquefi ed strength ratio from liquefaction fl ow failure case histories. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 39, pp. 629—647.
  8. Palisade Corporation, 1996. RISK: Risk analysis and simulation addin for Microsoft Excel or Lotus 1-2-3, Palisade Corporation, Newfi eld, N.Y.
  9. Poulos S.J. 1981. The steady-state of deformation, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenviromental Engineering ASCE, vol. 107(5), pp. 553—562.
  10. Rackwitz R. and Fiessler B. 1978. Structural reliability under combined random load sequences, Computers and Structures, vol. 9, pp. 484—494.
  11. Rocscience Inc. 2006. SLIDE version 5.025: 2-D limit equilibrium analysis of slope stability, Rocscience, Inc., Toronto, Ontario.
  12. Seed H.B. 1987. Design problems in soil liquefaction, Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenviromental Engineering ASCE, vol. 113(8), pp. 827—845.
  13. Spencer E. 1967. A method of analysis of the stability of embankments assuming parallel interslice forces, G?otechnique, vol. 17(1), pp. 11—26.
  14. Stark T.D., Kramer S.L. and Youd T.L. 1997. Post-liquefaction shear strength of granular soils, Proceedings NSF Workshop Postliquefaction Shear Strength of Granular Soils, National Science Foundation Grant CMS-95-31678, unpublished.
  15. Wride (Fear) C.E., McRoberts E.C. and Robertson, P.K. 1999.
  16. Reconsideration of case histories for estimating undrained shear strength in sandy soils. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, vol. 36, pp. 907—933.

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RESEARCH OF BUILDING MATERIALS

USING SOLAR ENERGY IN HEAT TREATMENT ОF CONCRETE IN THE REPUBLIC OF KAZAKHSTAN

  • Aruova Lyazat Boranbaevna - Kyzylorda State University Named after Korkyt Ata (Korkyt Ata KSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Architecture and Construction, Kyzylorda State University Named after Korkyt Ata (Korkyt Ata KSU), 29A Ayteke bi str., Kyzylorda, 120014, Kazakhstan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Dauzhanov Nabi Tokmurzaevich - Kyzylorda State University named after Korkyt Ata Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, 87015660731, Kyzylorda State University named after Korkyt Ata, 29A Ayteke bi st., Kyzylorda, 120014, Kazakhstan; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 142 - 146

In the article, the authors consider heat and mass transfer inside reinforced concrete structures, and their impact on the mechanical properties of the latter.
The authors argue that humidity is an important factor of concrete hardening. As a rule, concrete-to-environment mass transfer, as well as the mass transfer inside concrete products, cause fast dehydration in the course of hardening, thus, leading to the insufficiency of strength. This phenomenon may be exemplified by prefab concrete products hardened in the hot and dry climate. The findings of the authors constitute a simple though efficient solution that consists in the employment of solar chambers equipped with an intermediate, or supplementary, heat carrier. Solar chambers are to be installed inside production premises.
Reinforced concrete products manufactured in accordance with the technology proposed by the authors feature high strength and durability. The concrete structure and properties (namely, compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity and cold resistance) even exceed those of the concrete products hardened within 28 days in the regular temperature and humidity environment.
Theoretical principles and experimental research findings of the authors have been invested into the year-round technology of manufacturing of reinforced concrete products inside production premises, where products are treated by the solar energy and a supplementary source of energy. The concrete mix is poured into the form and compacted there; thereafter, the product surface is smoothed. Immediately after that a cover is fixed onto the form and tightly attached to the form walls. The process is to be initiated at 8 a.m. to maximize the period of solar energy consumption and to accelerate the process of concrete hardening.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.142-146

References
  1. Abhat A., Aboul–Enein S., Malatidis N. Heat-of-fusion Storage Systems for Solar Heating Applications in Lifter, no. 132, pp. 157—172.
  2. Cease M.E., White D.H. Emulsification of Thermal Energy Storage Materials in an Immiscible Fluid. International Journal of Energy Resources. 1983, no. 2, vol. 7, p. 25.
  3. Lu Changgeng. Industrial Production of Concrete Components in China. Betonwerk+Fertigteil-Technik (Concrete Precasting Plant and Technology), 1986, no. 5, p. 56.
  4. Malhotra V.M. In-place Evaluation of Concrete. Jour. of Constr. Div. Proc. of Am. Soc. of Civ. Engr. 1975, vol. 101, p. 45.
  5. Krylov B.A., Zasedatelev I.B., Malinskiy E.N. Izgotovlenie sbornogo zhelezobetona s primeneniem gelioform [Production of Prefab Reinforced Concrete Using Solar Hardening Forms]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1984, no. 3, pp. 17—18.
  6. Krylov B.A., Chkuaselidze L.G., Topil’skiy G.V., Rybasov V.P. Vododispersionnye plenkoobrazuyushchie sostavy dlya betona v usloviyakh sukhogo zharkogo klimata [Water-dispersible Film-forming Concrete Compositions in Hot Dry Climates]. Beton i zhelezobeton [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. 1992, no. 6, p. 15.
  7. Krylov B.A., Zvezdov A.I. Vliyanie temperatury na ego strukturu i tverdenie [Temperature Influence on Concrete Structure and Hardening]. International Symposium in Japan E&FN Spook. 1995, vol. 2, pp. 917—925.
  8. Abhat A. Low Temperature Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage. Heat Storage Materials. Solar Energy. 1983, no. 4, vol. 30, p. 65.
  9. Commission 42-CEA. Properties Set Concrete at Early Ages. State-of-the-art-report. Materiaux et Constructions. 1981, no. 84, vol. 14, p. 15.
  10. Kalt A.C. Speicherung Thermischer Energie in Anlagen dur Nulzung der Sonnenenergie. Oel+Gasfeuerung. 1980, no. 11, vol. 25, p. 55.

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ANALYSIS OF DEPENDENCE OF THE FLOW TEMPERATURE OF THE PLASTICIZED POLYMER ON THE CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND CONCENTRATION OF THE POLYMER AND THE PLASTICIZER

  • Askadskiy Andrey Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Honoured Scientist of the Russian Federation, Professor, 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 3143, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Popova Marina Nikolaevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Chemical Sciences, Professor 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 3076, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Volodina Aleksandra Evgen'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 3143, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 147 - 153

Polymeric materials are widely used in construction. The properties of polymeric construction materials vary to a substantial extent; their durability, thermal stability, frost resistance, waterproof and dielectric properties are particularly pronounced. Their properties serve as the drivers of the high market demand for these products. These materials are applied as finishing materials, molded sanitary engineering products and effective thermal insulation and water proofing materials.
The authors analyze the influence of the chemical structure and structural features of polymers on their properties. The authors consider flow and vitrification temperatures of polymers. These temperatures determine the parameters of polymeric products, including those important for the construction process.
The analysis of influence of concentration of the plasticizer on the vitrification temperature is based on the two basic theories. In accordance with the first one, reduction of the vitrification temperature is proportionate to the molar fraction of the injected plasticizer. According to the second concept, reduction of the vitrification temperature is proportionate to the volume fraction of the injected solvent. Dependencies of the flow temperature on the molecular weight and the molar fraction of the plasticizer are derived for PVC. As an example, two plasticizers were considered, including dibutyl sebacate and dioctylftalatalate. The basic parameters of all mixtures were calculated through the employment of "Cascade" software programme (A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelemental Connections, Russian Academy of Sciences).

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.147-153

References
  1. Askadskiy A.A., Matveev Yu.I. Khimicheskoe stroenie i fizicheskie svoystva polimerov [The Chemical Structure and Physical Properties of Polymers]. Moscow, Khimiya Publ., 1983. 248 p.
  2. Tager A.A. Fiziko-khimiya polimerov [Physical Chemistry of Polymers]. Moscow, Nauchnyy mir publ., 2007. 573 p.
  3. Askadskii A.A. Computational Materials Science of Polymers. Cambridge, Cambridge International Science Publishing, 2003, 650 p.
  4. Askadskiy A.A., Tishin S.A., Kazantseva V.V., Kovriga O.V. O mekhanizme deformatsii teplostoykikh aromaticheskikh polimerov (na primere poliimida) [About the Mechanism of Deformation of Heatresistant Aromatic Polymers (Exemplifi ed by Polyimide)]. Vysokomolekulyarnykh soedineniya [Macromolecular Compounds]. 1990, vol. 32, series a, no. 12, pp. 2437—2445.
  5. Odinokova I.A., Shevelev A.Yu., Zelenev Yu.V. Prognozirovanie mekhanicheskikh svoystv chastichno-kristallicheskikh polimerov po ikh teplofizicheskim kharakteristikam [Forecasting of Mechanical Properties of Semicrystalline Polymers Based on Their Thermalphysic Characteristics]. Plasticheskie massy [Plastic Masses]. 1988, no. 3, pp. 25—26.
  6. Prokopchuk N.R., Tolkach O.Ya., Paplevko I.G. O temperaturnoy zavisimosti energii aktivatsii destruktsii plastmass, volokon i rezin [About the Temperature Dependence of the Energy of Activation of Decomposition of Plastic Masses, Fibres and Rubber]. Reports of National Academy of Sciences of Belarus, 1998, vol. 42, no. 5, pp. 67—71.
  7. Bicerano J. Prediction of Polymers Properties. New-York, Marcel-Dekker Inc., 1996. pp. XVII+528.
  8. Askadskiy A.A., Popova M.N., Pakhneva O.V. Struktura i svoystva vtorichnykh poliolefinov [Structure and Properties of Secondary Polyolefines]. Collected works of International Scientific Conference “Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education”]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., vol. 2, 2011. pp. 3—7.
  9. Askadskiy A.A., Popova M.N., Solov’eva E.V., Popov A.V. Poluchenie i svoystva vtorichnogo polivinilkhlorida [Recovery and Properties of Recycled Polyvinylchloride]. Collected works of International Scientific Conference “Integration, Partnership and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., vol. 2, 2011. pp. 8—11.
  10. Popova M.N. Tekhnologiya izgotovleniya i fiziko-khimicheskie kharakteristiki stroitel’nykh materialov na osnove vtorichnogo PVKh [Production Technology and Physicochemical Characteristics of Construction Materials Made of Recycled PVC]. Konstruktsii iz kompozitsionnykh materialov [Structures Made of Composite Materials]. 1998, no. 3.

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INFLUENCE OF WATER-TO-CEMENT RATIO ON AIR ENTRAILMENT IN PRODUCTION OF NON-AUTOCLAVED FOAM CONCRETE USING TURBULENCE CAVITATION TECHNOLOGY

  • Gorshkov Pavel Vladimirovich - Ivanovo State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (ISUACE) postgraduate student, Department of Engineering Structures, Ivanovo State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (ISUACE), 20 8ogo Marta St., Ivanovo, 153037, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 154 - 158

Non-autoclaved foam concrete is an advanced thermal insulation material. Until recently, foam concrete production has been based on separate preparation of foam and solution, followed by their blending in a mixer. The situation changed when high-quality synthetic foaming agents and turbulence cavitation technology appeared on the market. Every model provides a dependence between the foam concrete strength and the water-to-cement ratio. According to the water-cement ratio we can distinguish strong concrete mixtures (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.3…0.4) and ductile ones (with the water-to-cement ratio equal to 0.5…0.7). Strong concrete mixtures are more durable. The lower the water-to-cement ratio, the higher the foam concrete strength.
However super-plastic substances cannot be mixed by ordinary turbulent mixers. Foam concrete produced using the turbulence cavitation technology needs air-entraining, its intensity being dependent on several factors. One of the main factors is the amount of free water, if it is insufficient, the mixture will not be porous enough. A researcher needs to identify the optimal water-to-cement ratio based on the water consumption rate. Practical production of prefabricated concrete products and structures has proven that the reduction of the water-to-cement ratio improves the strength of the product. The task is to find the water-to-cement ratio for the foam concrete mixture to be plastic enough for air entraining. An increase in the ratio causes loss in the strength. The ratio shall vary within one hundredth points. Super-plasticizers are an alternative solution.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.154-158

References
  1. Babkov V.V., Bazhenov Yu.M., Bykova A.A. Tsementy, betony, stroitel’nye rastvory i sukhie smesi [Cements, Concretes, Mortars and Dry Mixes]. St.Petersburg, NPO Professional Publ., 2007, Part I, 804 p.
  2. GOST 25485—89. Betony yacheistye tekhnicheskie usloviya [Cellular Concretes. Specifi cations].
  3. Gorshkov P.V. Penobeton i ego rol’ v sovremennom stroitel’stve [Foam Concrete and Its Role in Contemporary Construction]. Informatsionnaya sreda VUZa [Information Environment of Institutions of Higher Education]. Ivanovo, 2011, no. 17, pp. 507—510.
  4. Spravochnik stroitelya. Stroitel’naya tekhnika, konstruktsii i tekhnologii [Builder’s Reference Book. Machinery, Structures and Technologies]. Moscow, 2007, Tekhnosfera Publ., vol. 1, 520 p.
  5. Kholmyanskiy M.M. Beton i zhelezobeton: deformativnost’ i prochnost’ [Concrete and Reinforced Concrete: Deformability and Strength]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1997, 576 p.
  6. Merkin A.P., Zayfman M.I. Seriya 8. Promyshlennost’ avtoklavnykh materialov i mestnykh vyazhushchikh [Series 8. Production of Autoclaved Materials and Local Binders]. Moscow, VNIIESM Publ., 1982, no. 2.
  7. Muradov E. G. Materialy dlya prigotovleniya betonnoy smesi i stroitel’nogo rastvora [Materials for Preparation of a Concrete Mix and Building Mortar]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 1987, 110 p.
  8. Ruzhinskiy S.I. Vse o penobetone [Everything about Foam Concrete]. St.Petersburg, Stroy Beton Publ., 2006, 630 p.
  9. Evdokimov N.I., Matskevich A.F., Sytnik V.S. Tekhnologiya monolitnogo betona i zhelezobetona [Technology of In-situ Concrete and Reinforced Concrete]. Moscow, Vyssh. shk. publ., 1980, 355 p.
  10. Nevill’ A.M. Svoystva betona [Properties of Concrete]. Moscow, Izd-vo literatury po stroitel’stvu publ., 1972, 344 p.

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EFFICIENT NANO-SCALE ADMIXTURE FOR FOAM STABILITY IMPROVEMENT OF CELLULAR CONCRETES

  • Grishina Аnna Nikolaevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Junior Researcher, Scientific and Education Centre for Nanotechnologies, 8 (499) 188-04-00, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Vice-rector for Academic Affairs, Director, Scientific and Educational Centre for Nanotechnologies, 8 (499) 188-04-00, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 159 - 165

The authors present their methodology of synthesis of a nano-scale additive designated for the stabilization of synthetic foaming agents. The nano-scale admixture is composed of iron hydroxide (III) sol and aqueous sodium hydro silicates (water glass). Besides the above method, the topological structural model of the nano-scale additive is proposed. The additive stability was assessed upon its one-day storage (with the foaming agent added), and the assessment data are provided in the article. The authors have discovered that it is advisable to use an iron chloride solution in the concentration of 1 % to manufacture the iron hydroxide (III) sol.
The authors have also discovered that the rate of jellification goes up in the process of injecting the foaming agent into the foam that contains the nano-scale admixture developed by the authors. Dependence between the amount of sodium hydro silicate and the viscosity of the system composed of the water glass and the sol of iron hydroxide (III) is examined in detail. The authors have identified that the average water glass viscosity curve demonstrates an extreme nature. The additive is used for the stabilization of the foam generated by synthetic foaming agents. The injection of the proposed additive improves foam stability. It is noteworthy that this positive result is free from any negative side effects.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.159-165

References
  1. Svatovskaya L.B., Sycheva À.Ì., Eliseeva N.N. Patent ¹ 2377207 Composite Admixture. Applicant and patentee: St.Petersburg State University of Railroad Engineering. Date of publication: 27.12.2009.
  2. Svatovskaya L.B., Sycheva À.Ì., Eliseeva N.N. Patent ¹ 2400443 Composite Admixture. Applicant and patentee: St.Petersburg State University of Railroad Engineering. Date of publication: 27.09.2010.
  3. Svatovskaya L.B., Sycheva À.Ì., Eliseeva N.N.. Patent ¹ 2393127 Composite Admixture for Foam Concretes. Applicant and patentee: St.Petersburg State University of Railroad Engineering. Date of publication: 27.06.2010.
  4. Eliseeva N.N. Penobetony neavtoklavnogo tverdeniya na osnove dobavok nanorazmera [Non-Autoclaved Foam Concretes with Nano-scale Admixtures]. St.Petersburg, 2010, 22 p.
  5. Lebedeva Ò.À. Yacheistye stenovye materialy na osnove mineralizovannykh pen iz zhidkogo stekla [Porous Walling Materials Made of Mineralized Water Glass Foams]. Bratsk, 2004, 201 p.
  6. Svatovskaya L.B., Sycheva A.M., Eliseeva N.N. Povyshenie kachestva neavtoklavnogo betona dobavkami nanorazmera [Improvement of the Non-autoclaved Foam Concrete Quality by Nano-scale Additives]. Nanotekhnologii v stroitel’stve [Nanotechnologies in Civil Engineering]. 2011, no. 1, pp. 50—62. Available at: http://nanobuild.ru.
  7. Svatovskaya L.B., Sycheva À.Ì., Eliseeva N.N. Patent ¹ 2443647 Composite Admixture for Foam Concretes. Applicant and patentee: St.Petersburg State University of Railroad Engineering. Date of publication: 27.02.2012.
  8. Svatovskaya L.B., Solov’eva V.Ya., Stepanova I.V., Korobov N.V., Starchuk D.S., Belyaev P.V., Chertkov M.V., Ivanova A.Y. Patent ¹ 2433099 High-strength Concrete. Applicant and patentee: St.Petersburg State University of Railroad Engineering. Date of publication: 10.11.2011.
  9. Komokhov P.G. Zol’-gel’ kak kontseptsiya nanotekhnologii tsementnogo kompozita, struktura sistemy i puti ee realizatsii [Sol-gel as a Concept of Nanotechnology of a Cement Composite Material. Structure of the System and Methods of Its Implementation]. Available at: http://rudocs.exdat.com/docs/index-319653.html. Date of access: 12.06.2012.
  10. Voyutskiy S.S. Kurs kolloidnoy khimii [A Course of Colloid Chemistry]. Moscow, Khimiya Publ., 1975, 512 p.

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INFLUENCE OF THE CEMENT TYPE ON THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE MINERAL FOAM APPLICABLE IN FOAMED CERAMIC TECHNOLOGIES

  • Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Director of Research and Educational Centre for Nanotechnologies, 8 (499) 188-04-00, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Beregovoy Vitaliy Aleksandrovich - Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PSUAC) 8 (8412) 9-29-501, Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PSUAC), 28 G. Titova St., Penza, 440028, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kostin Dmitriy Sergeevich - Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PGUAS) postgraduate student, Department of Building Materials, 8 (8412) 92-94-10, Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PGUAS), 28 Titova St., Penza, 440028, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 166 - 170

The subject of the research is the influence of the type of Portland cement, as well as the nature and concentration of additives that represent electrolytes and polymers, onto the foam stability. The project is implemented within the framework of the research of foamed ceramic. Detailed explanation of the influence pattern is provided.
The research performed by the authors has generated the following findings. Besides the rheological properties of the solution, chemical interaction between the mix components must be taken into account in the course of development of the best foamed ceramic mix composition, as chemical processes produce a substantial influence onto the foam stability. Polymer additives based on liquid carbamyde-formaldehyde and polyacrylamide substantially improve the quality of the foam mineralized by the particles of the cement binder. They also assure the foam stability rate sufficient for the formation of a high-quality foamed material.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.166-170

References
  1. Shakhova L.D. Nekotorye aspekty issledovaniy strukturoobrazovaniya yacheistykh betonov neavtoklavnogo tverdeniya [Some Aspects of Research of Structurization of the Non-autoclaved Foamed Concrete]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials], 2003, no. 2 (The Supplement), pp. 4—7.
  2. Beregovoy V.A., Proshina N.A., Korolev E.V., Beregovoy A.M., Bolotnikova O.V. Zharostoykie penobetony [Hear-resistant Foamed Concretes]. Penza, PGUAS Publ., 2007, 111 p.
  3. Gorin V.M., Sukhov V.Yu., Nekhaev P.V., Khlystov A.I., Riyazov R.T. Legkiy zharostoykiy beton yacheistoy struktury [Lightweight Heat-resistant Concrete That Has a Foamed Structure]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials], 2003, no. 8, pp. 17—19.
  4. Beregovoy V.A., Korolev E.V., Bazhenov Yu.M. Effektivnye teploizolyatsionnye penokeramobetony [Effective Heat-insulating Foamed Ceramic Concretes]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011, 264 p.
  5. Tikhomirov V.K. Peny. Teoriya i praktika ikh polucheniya i razrusheniya [Foams. Theory and Practice of Generation and Destruction]. Moscow, Khimiya Publ., 1975, 264 p.
  6. Kondo R., Daymon M. Fazovyy sostav zatverdevshego tsementnogo testa [Phase Composition of the Cured Cement Grout]. VI Mezhdunarodnyy kongress po khimii tsementa [6th International Congress on Cement Chemistry]. Moscow, 1976, book 1, vol. 2, pp. 244—258.
  7. Kuznetsova T.V. Alyuminatnye i sul’foalyuminatnye tsementy [Aluminate and Sulfoaluminate Cements]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 208 p.
  8. Kruglyakov P.M., Ekserova D.R. Pena i pennye plenki [Foam and Foam Films]. Moscow, Khimiya Publ., 1990, 432 p.
  9. Velichko E.G., Komar A.G. Retsepturno-tekhnologicheskie problemy penobetona [Problems of the Foamed Concrete Formulation and Technology]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2004, no. 3, pp. 27—31.
  10. Lotov V.A., Mitina N.A. Vliyanie dobavok na formirovanie mezhporovoy peregorodki v gazobetone neavtoklavnogo tverdeniya [Influence of Additives onto Formation of Interpore Partitions in the Non-autoclaved Foamed Concrete]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2003 (The Supplement), no. 3, pp. 2—6.

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COMPOSITE SOLUTIONS IN RAILROAD ENGINEERING

  • Panfilova Marina Ivanovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Ustinova Marina Vladimirovna - Moscow State University of Railroad Engineering (MIIT) Senior Lecturer, Department of Safety of the Technosphere, 8 (495) 799-95-50, Moscow State University of Railroad Engineering (MIIT), 22/2 Chasovaya St., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Zubrev Nikolay Ivanovich - Moscow State University of Railroad Engineering (MIIT) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Safety of the Technosphere, 8 (495) 799-95-50, Moscow State University of Railroad Engineering (MIIT), 22/2 Chasovaya St., Moscow, 125993, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 171 - 177

Present-day methods of recovery of used wooden railway ties, including burial, chemical neutralization, gasification and subsequent burning, utilization in the capacity of composite materials, are expensive and unsafe for the environment. The authors propose a new method of their utilization. Ash generated in the course of their burning may replace a portion of cement in composite solutions and act as an additive to grouting mortars designated for the filling of the annulus space of manifold tunnels. The chemical composition of the ash was identified by the x-ray method applied to three samples taken during various periods of time from out of a dry-type dust collector.
The level of human health/environmental hazard of the ash is based on its chemical composition. Changes in the rheological properties of composite solutions that contained concrete fractions, various ratios of ash, and 5% of liquid glass were studied in the course of the research. The experiments have proven that in the event of replacement of 20% of cement by ash, the strength of the composite solution is approximately the same as the one of the benchmark sample; therefore, this ash content ratio is deemed acceptable. The finding demonstrate that the ash has no toxic effect, and the ecological safety of this solution is thus confirmed. The authors have proven that 20% of cement may be replaced by the ash generated in the course of burning of waste railway ties.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.171-177

References
  1. Gonopol’skiy A.M., Dygan M.M., Timofeeva A.A. Nekotorye fiziko-khimicheskie svoystva zoloshlakovykh otkhodov musoroszhigatel’nykh zavodov [Some Physicochemical Properties of Ash and Slam Waste Products of Waste Burning Plants]. Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii [Ecology and Industry of Russia]. 2008, no. 7, pp. 36—39.
  2. Makarova E.I., Sycheva A.M. Novye ekozashchitnye tekhnologii na zheleznodorozhnom transporte [New Ecological Technologies in Railroad Transport]. Moscow, Centre for Training and Methodology of the Railroad Transport Network. 2007, p. 13.
  3. Gubanov A.V. Utilizatsiya derevyannykh shpal: metody i vozmozhnye resheniya [Recycling of Wooden Cross Ties: Methods and Potential Solutions]. Put’ i putevoe khozyaystvo [Railroads and Railroad Economy]. 2009, no. 10, pp. 22—30.
  4. Lyapidevskiy B.V., Nikitin A.V., Rodina G.P., Badamshin S.O. In”ektsionnye sostavy dlya zablochnogo i zatrubnogo prostranstva kollektornykh tonneley [Injections for the Annulus Space of Manifold Tunnels]. Nauka — Moskovskomu stroitel’stvu. Sb. tekhnicheskoy informatsii [Collection of technological information “Research Contribution to the Moscow Construction Industry”]. 2008, no. 2, pp. 52—53.
  5. Ustinova M.V., Zubrev N.I. Ispol’zovanie letuchey zoly v in”ektsionnykh rastvorakh [Adding Flue Ash into Injections]. Collected papers of the 2nd International Scientific and Practical Conference “Relevant Problems of Economic, Social and Ecological Safety of the Volga Region”. Moscow, MIIT Publ., 2009, pp. 135—140.
  6. Ustinova M.V., Zubrev N.I. Bentonity dlya in”ektsionnykh rastvorov [Bentonites for Injections]. Collected papers of the 3d International Scientific and Practical Conference “Relevant Problems of Economic, Social and Ecological Safety of the Volga Region”. Moscow, MIIT ROAT Publ., 2009, pp. 44—49.
  7. Ustinova M.V., Zubrev N.I. Ispol’zovanie zoly musoroszhigatel’nogo zavoda v transportnom stroitel’stve [Use of Combustion Plant Ash in Railroad Engineering]. Collection of Materials of the 3d International Scientific and Practical Conference of Students and Young Scientists “Problems of Life Safety and Industrial Ecology”. Ul’yanovsk, UlGTU Publ., 2010, pp. 46—49.
  8. Ustinova M.V., Zubrev N.I. Modifi katsiya reologicheskikh svoystv bentonitovykh suspenziy [Modification of Rheological Properties of Bentonite Suspensions]. Collection of works of the 4th Interuniversity Scientific and Practical Conference “Relevant Problems of Economic, Social and Environmental Security of the Volga Region”. Kazan, MIIT Kazan branch, 2011, pp. 20—26.
  9. Ustinova M.V., Zubrev N.I., Aksenov V.A., Medvedev V.M. Ispol’zovanie zoly ot szhiganiya otrabotannykh derevyannykh shpal na termicheskoy ustanovke po obezvrezhivaniyu otkhodov [Feeding Waste Wooden Tie Ash into the Thermal Decontamination Machine]. Setevoe soveshchanie rukovoditeley prirodookhrannykh podrazdeleniy zheleznykh dorog «Problemy kompleksnoy utilizatsii otkhodov i puti ikh resheniya». Tezisy dokladov. [Problems of Comprehensive Recycling and Methods of Their Resolution. Network meeting of executives of nature protection departments of railroad administrations. Abstracts of reports.]. Kaliningrad, 2011, pp. 174—176.
  10. Aksenov V.A., Zubrev N.I., Ustinova M.V. Rasshirenie oblasti ispol’zovaniya zoly ot utilizatsii otrabotannykh derevyannykh shpal [New Areas of Application of Wooden Tie Ash]. Nauka i tekhnika transporta [Transport-related Research and Machinery]. 2011, no.3, pp. 12—14.

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MODIFICATION OF FOAMED CEMENT-CLAY MORTARS BY STABILIZERS

  • Panfilova Marina Ivanovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Chemical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Physics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Fomina Marina Vasil'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Professor, Department of Physics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 178 - 181

Use of a special injection aimed at the partial replacement of cement by ash generated in the course of combustion of waste wooden crossties may solve two problems: recycling of a toxic
by-product generated in the course of combustion of crossties, and reduction of the cement consumption rate. The authors have identified that ash added into the injection does not cause any deterioration of the mortar strength; rather, it assures its structural stability and prevents any leaching of heavy metals that it contains. The authors have identified that adding 20 to 26 % of flue ash into the injection reduces the mortar hardening time by 30 %, while the strength of the mortar that has 20 % of ash is almost equal to the one of the benchmark sample. However, any higher ash content causes deterioration of the hardening strength of the mortar. Therefore, the authors have discovered that 20 % of the cement may be replaced by the ash generated in the course of combustion of waste crossties. This replacement is to be performed in the course of preparation of mortars, and it is aimed at the strengthening of the soil. This operation is to be performed in the incinerator to preserve the solution properties. This technology reduces the amount of hazardous by-products through their recycling.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.178-181

References
  1. Zubrev N.I., Panfilova M.I. Primenenie vspenennykh sistem pri stroitel’stve zheleznykh dorog [Application of Foamed Mortars in Railroad Engineering]. Bezopasnost’ dvizheniya poezdov. Tezisy dokladov nauchno-prakticheskoy konferentsii MGUPS (MIIT). [Railroad Traffic Safety. Proceedings of Scientific and Practical Conference. University of Railroad Engineering (MIIT)]. Moscow, MGUPS Publ., 2003, 35 p.
  2. Zubrev N.I., Goryaynova S.K., Panfilova M.I. Otverzhdennye glino-tsementnye rastvory v transportnom stroitel’stve [Hardened Clay-cement Mortars in the Transport Construction]. Vysshee professional’noe zaochnoe obrazovanie na zheleznodorozhnom transporte: nastoyashchee i budushchee. Sb. nauch. tr. po materialam mezhdunar. konf. [Collected works of International Conference “Higher Professional Distance Education in Railroad Engineering”]. Moscow, 2001, 287 p.
  3. Cheng Fa, Hou Gui. Synthesis and Properties of Sulfonated Starch as Super-plasticizer. Fine Chem. 2006, no. 7, vol. 23, pp. 711—716.
  4. Hollo J., Szejtli J. Die Saurehydrolyse der Starke. Berlin, Kl. Chem., Geol., Biol., 1965, no. 1, pp. 3—118.
  5. Miller J.N. Acid Hydrolysis and Other Lytic Reactions of Starch. Zitat, Bd. I., pp. 495—520.
  6. Zubrev N.I. Stabilizator dlya vspenennykh glinotsementnykh rastvorov [Stabilizer for Foamed Clay-cement Mortars. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo. [Bulletin of Institutions of Higher Education. Civil Engineering]. 1993, no. 2, pp. 53—56.
  7. Zubrev N.I., Goryaynova S.K., Panfilova M.I. Stabiliziruyushchiy kompleks issledovaniya fiziko-khimicheskikh svoystv stabilizatora neustoychivykh gruntov [Stabilization Methods. Research of Physicochemical Properties of a Stabilizer of Unstable Soils]. Aktual’nye problemy i perspektivy razvitiya zheleznodorozhnogo transporta. Sb. nauch. tr. po materialam V mezhvuzovskoy nauch.-metod. konf. [Collected papers of the 5th International Scientific and Methodological Conference “Relevant Problems and Prospects for Development of Railroad Transportation Systems”]. Moscow, 2000, RGOTUPS Publ., p. 94.
  8. Gonopol’skiy A.M., Dygan M.M., Timofeeva A.A. Nekotorye fi ziko-khimicheskie svoystva zoloshlakovykh otkhodov musoroszhigatel’nykh zavodov [Some Physicochemical Properties of Ash and Slam Waste Products of Waste Burning Plants]. Ekologiya i promyshlennost’ Rossii [Ecology and Industry of Russia]. 2008, no. 7, pp. 36—39.
  9. Ustinova M.V., Zubrev N.I. Ispol’zovanie letuchey zoly v in”ektsionnykh rastvorakh [Adding Flue Ash into Injections]. Aktual’nye problemy ekonomicheskoy i sotsial’no-ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti Povolzhskogo regiona. Sb. po materialam II Mezhvuzovskoy nauch.-prakt. konf. [ Collected papers of the 2nd International Scientific and Practical Conference “Relevant Problems of Economic, Social and Ecological Safety of the Volga Region”]. Moscow, MIIT Publ., 2009, pp. 135—140.
  10. Ustinova M.V., Zubrev N.I. Bentonity dlya in”ektsionnykh rastvorov [Bentonites for Injections]. Aktual’nye problemy ekonomicheskoy i sotsial’no-ekologicheskoy bezopasnosti Povolzhskogo regiona. Sb. po materialam III Mezhvuzovskoy nauch.-prakt. konf. [Collected papers of the 3d International Scientific and Practical Conference “Relevant Problems of Economic, Social and Ecological Safety of the Volga Region”]. Moscow, MIIT ROAT Publ., 2009, pp. 44—49.

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PROPERTIES OF LIGHTWEIGHT MASONRY MORTARS WITH HOLLOW GLASS MICROSPHERES FOR WINTER CONDITIONS

  • Semenov Vyacheslav Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Materials, 8 (495) 287- 49-14, ext. 3092, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Office 515 ULK, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Oreshkin Dmitriy Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Chair, Department of Building Materials, 8 (499) 183-32-29, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Office 135 KMK, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Rozovskaya Tamara Alekseevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Building Materials, 8 (495) 287-49-14, ext. 3092, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Office 515 ULK, 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 182 - 190

The authors provide their research findings concerning lightweight masonry mortars with hollow glass microspheres and antifreeze admixtures. These mortars are used in the construction of filler structures at negative temperatures. The application of multilayer filler structures causes reduction of their thermal homogeneity factor. Therefore, single-layer filler structures have the strongest potential. There is a need to employ lightweight masonry mortars to ensure the thermal homogeneity of structures made of lightweight concrete blocks. The masonry mortar that has traditional weight
reduction fillers (such as inflated pearlite, vermiculite etc.) demonstrate low strength properties, as such fillers have a high water content. Hollow glass (or ceramic) microspheres are known as efficient fillers for lightweight mortars. Multiple research undertakings contain information on the masonry mortar that has the following properties: average density of dry mortar - 450 kg/m3, thermal conductivity factor - 0.17 W/(m·°C), compressive strength at the age of 28 days - 3.2 MPa, water retention rate - over 90 %.
The climatic conditions of Russia determine the need to perform masonry works at negative temperatures. Adding antifreeze admixtures is an easy and cheap method that guarantees hydration of the Portland-cement at negative temperatures. The subject of this research covers masonry mortars that have a 15 % hollow glass microsphere content and antifreeze admixtures. Contemporary antifreeze admixtures are multifunctional. Therefore, traditional antifreeze admixtures such as sodium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium formate, potash were used in the research. The per-cent content of antifreeze admixtures was calculated. The following properties of masonry mortars with a 15 % content of hollow glass microspheres and antifreeze admixtures were identified: average mortar and mortar mixture density, setting time, water retention, compressive and bending strength, and water absorption. Standard research methods were employed.
Every mortar has an 8 cm mobility. The benchmark mixture has an average density of 1.085 kg/ m3, average cement stone density of 980 kg/m3, compressive strength at the age of 28 days - 19.8 MPa, water retention rate - 97 %, setting time - 4.5 hours.
The attention was driven to the strength analysis of mortars with hollow glass microspheres and antifreeze admixtures at positive and negative temperatures. The authors proved that antifreeze admixtures demonstrated a negative influence on the strength and setting time of the mortar if hardened at 20 °C. The strength of mortars with antifreeze admixtures was below that of the benchmark mortar. Mortars that had sodium nitrite and sodium chloride demonstrated better results, while the mortar with calcium chloride showed the lowest strength.
Sodium nitrite, sodium formate and potash were mostly efficient at negative temperatures. The mortar with sodium nitrite demonstrated the highest strength, as it had hardened at the positive temperature. Optimal mixtures for the temperature of -10 °C were developed by the math planning method.
The results of the microstructure analysis for optimized mixtures are provided in the article. The finding of the authors are that at the temperature of -10 °С the following mixtures have the best properties: lightweight masonry mortars with hollow glass microspheres and sodium nitrite (7 %), or sodium formate (5 %), or potash (7 %) with a setting retarder added.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.182-190

References
  1. Kirillov K.I. Sverkhlyegkie tsementnye kladochnye i tamponazhnye rastvory [Superlight Cement Masonry and Grouting Mortars]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2006, 159 p.
  2. Kozlov V.V. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi [Dry Packs]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2000.
  3. Korneev V.I., Zozulya P.V. Sukhie stroitel’nye smesi [Dry Packs]. Moscow, RIF Stroymaterialy Publ., 2010, 320 p.
  4. Oreshkin D.V., Belyaev K.V., Semenov V.S. Vysokokachestvennye stroitel’nye i tamponazhnye rastvory s polymi steklyannymi mikrospherami [High-quality Building and Grouting Mortars with Hollow Glass Microspheres]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2010, no. 10, pp. 53—58.
  5. Semenov V.S. Effektivnye oblegchyennye kladochnye i tamponazhnye rastvory dlya surovykh klimaticheskikh usloviy [Effi cient Light-weight Masonry and Grouting Mortars for Severe Climatic Conditions]. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011, 242 p.
  6. Semenov V.S. Protivomoroznye dobavki dlya oblegchyennykh tsementnykh sistem [Antifreeze Compounds for Light-weight Cement Systems]. Stroitel’nye materialy [Construction Materials]. 2011, no. 5, pp. 16—19.
  7. GOST 28013—98. Rastvory stroitel’nye. Obshchie tekhnicheskie usloviya. [State Standard 28013—98. Construction Mortars. General Specifications]. Moscow, MNTKS Publ., 1998.
  8. GOST 5802—86. Rastvory stroitel’nye. Metody ispytaniy. [State Standard 5802–86. Mortars. Testing Methods]. Moscow, Minstroy Rossii, 1998.
  9. SP 82–101—98. Prigotovlenie i primenenie rastvorov stroitel’nykh. [Construction Regulations 82–101–98. Preparation and Application of Building Mortars]. Moscow, Gosstroy Rossii Publ., 1998.
  10. Mironov S.A., Lagoyda A.V. Betony, tverdeyushchie na morose [Concretes That Harden in the Frost]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1975, 266 p.
  11. GOST 3045—2008. Dobavki dlya betonov i stroitel’nykh rastvorov. Opredelenie i otsenka effektivnosti [State Standard 30459–2008. Admixtures for Concretes and Mortars. Identification and Efficiency Assessment]. Moscow, Standartinform Publ., 2010.

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STIMULATION OF PROCESS OF MUNERAL POWDER GRINDING THROUGH INTRODUCTION OF ADMIXTURES

  • Tarasov Roman Viktorovich - Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PGUAS) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Dean of the Faculty of Technology, 8 (8412) 92-94-78, Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PGUAS), 28 G. Titova St., Penza, 440028, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Makarova Ludmila Victorovna - Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PGUAS) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, 8 (8412) 92-94-78, Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PGUAS), 28 G. Titova St., Penza, 440028, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Satyukov Anton Borisovich - Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PGUAS) volunteer postgraduate student, 8 (8412) 92-94-78, Penza State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (PGUAS), 28 G. Titova St., Penza, 440028, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Korolev Evgeniy Valer'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Adviser, Russian Academy of Architectural and Building Sciences (RAACS), director, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; +7-499-188-04-00; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 191 - 198

The status of nanotechnologies in material science predetermines development of nanotechnology-intensive products that demonstrate pre-set properties of modified materials. The presence of nano-size particles of substances makes it possible to benefit from their physical and chemical potential and to overcome some negative developments that accompany the structure formation process (at interphase boundaries). The barrier properties are variable, which is quite important in terms of the increase of the asphalt concrete durability. Production of a modifier (that has nano-particles of the pre-set chemical composition) to be added into asphalt concrete mixes is also of interest.
The authors present their findings concerning the nano-scale modifier that has a chemically inert component and a hydraulically active substance. The method of de-aggregation is used to produce the nano-scale modifier. By-products are often welcomed as mineral components of the asphalt concrete, as they reduce its cost.
The findings of the authors concerning the influence of the grinding mode on the integrated characteristics of the powder are presented in the paper. It is proven than dependence of integrated dispersion indicators is nonlinear due to processes leading to aggregation of mineral powder particles.
The analysis of the experimental data collected in the course of "wet" grinding proves that surface-active substances stimulate the process of grinding. The type and concentration of an additive that improves the grinding efficiency is also identified.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.191-198

References
  1. Rudenskiy A.V. Opyt stroitel’stva dorozhnykh asfal’tobetonnykh pokrytiy v raznykh klimaticheskikh usloviyakh [Construction of Asphalt Concrete Pavements in Various Climatic Conditions]. Moscow, Transport Publ., 1983, 64 p.
  2. Podol’skiy V.P., Erokhin A.V. Korrozionnaya ustoychivost’ asfal’tobetonov s ispol’zovaniem mineral’nogo poroshka iz uglerodsoderzhashchikh materialov [Corrosion Resistance of Asphalt Concretes: Using Mineral Powder of Carbonaceous Materials]. Nauchnyy Vestnik VGASU. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. [Scientific Herald of VGASU. Construction and Architecture]. 2008, no. 1, pp. 249—252.
  3. Chernousov D.I., Podol’skiy Vl.P., Trufanov E.V. Issledovanie ustalostnoy dolgovechnosti asfal’tobetona na osnove shungitovogo mineral’nogo poroshka [Research of Fatigue Life of Asphalt Concrete That Contains Schungite Mineral Powder]. Nauchnyy Vestnik VGASU. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. [Scientific Herald of VGASU. Construction and Architecture]. 2011, no. 1(21), pp. 75—80.
  4. Podol’skiy Vl.P., Chernousov D.I., Usachev S.M. Issledovaniya fiziko-mekhanicheskikh svoystv bitumno-shungitovogo vyazhushchego na skaniruyushchem mikroskope [Research of Physical and Mechanical Properties of Bituminous Binders through Employment of a Scanning Microscope]. Nauchnyy Vestnik VGASU. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. [Scientific Herald of VGASU. Construction and Architecture]. 2010, no. 4(20), pp. 93—99.
  5. Chernousov D.I., Shcherbinina S.E. Obosnovanie vozmozhnosti primeneniya mineral’nogo poroshka iz shungita v asfal’tobetonnykh smesyakh [Feasibility of Adding Schungite Mineral Powder into Asphalt Concrete Mixes]. Nauka i tekhnika v dorozhnoy otrasli [Science and Technology in Road Building]. 2009, no. 2, pp. 34—35.
  6. Podol’skiy Vl.P., Bykova A.A., Chernousov D.I. Vliyanie shungitovogo mineral’nogo poroshka na ustoychivost’ struktury peschanogo asfal’tobetona v usloviyakh uvlazhneniya [Influence of Schungite Mineral Powder on Structural Stability of Sand Asphalt Concrete in Moisture Conditions]. Collected works of the First Russian Road Building Congress, 2009, pp. 219—222.
  7. Gezentsvey L.B. Asfal’tovyy beton iz aktivirovannykh mineral’nykh materialov [Bituminous Concrete Made of Activated Mineral Materials]. Moscow, 1971, 225 p.
  8. Korolev I.V. Model’ stareniya bitumnoy plenki na mineral’nykh zernakh v asfal’tobetone [Model of Aging of the Bitumen Film on Mineral Grains of Bituminous Concrete]. Izvestiya vuzov. Stroitel’stvo i arkhitektura. [News of Higher Education Institutions. Construction and Architecture]. 1981, no. 8, pp. 63—67.
  9. Official site of Scientific and Educational Centre “Nanotechnologies”. Available at: www.nocnt.ru. Date of access: 04.06.2012.

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SAFETY OF BUILDING SYSTEMS. ECOLOGICAL PROBLEMS OF CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS. GEOECOLOGY

APPROACHES TO DEVELOPMENT OF THE METHODOLOGY OF RECONSTRUCTION OF WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANTS

  • Gogina Elena Sergeevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Waste Water Treatment and Water Ecology, 8 (495) 730-62-53, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), Room 318g 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 199 - 205

The article has the author's analysis of the status of the sector of wastewater treatment and the condition of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). It is pointed out that a big number of
WWTPs fail to perform proper treatment due to their being worn-out and obsolete. However a tougher legislation accelerates their reconstruction. Approaches to the WWTP reconstruction should demonstrate a strong economic and technological base. The author proposes a new algorithm for their reconstruction.
A sensible combination of the principles of WWTP restructuring, development of new fine wastewater cleaning methods, and assimilation of new materials and chemical agents will help resolve the vital problem of waste water discharge into Russia's water bodies. This is the first methodology of reconstruction of WWTPs developed on the basis of the above concept and supported by practical implementation.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.199-205

References
  1. SanPiN 2.1.5.980—00. Gigienicheskie trebovaniya k okhrane poverkhnostnykh vod, utv. v RF s 22.06.2000. [Sanitary Rules and Norms 2.1.5.980-00. Hygienic Requirements Applicable to Protection of Water, approved in the RF as of 22.06.2000].
  2. Verordnung ?ber Anforderungen an das Einleiten von Abwasser in Gew?sser AbwV – Abwasserverordnung, vom 17. Juni 2004, Deutschland.
  3. Water Environmental Federation, Design of Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant, USA, 1992.
  4. Tserashchuk M. Erforschung der Grundlagen der Abbauvorg?nge beim Belebungsverfahren bei tiefen Temperaturen unter Ber?cksichtigung der russischen Abwasserbeschaffenheit. Deutschland, Bochum.
  5. Gogina E.S. Issledovanie tekhnologicheskoy skhemy biologicheskoy ochistki stochnykh vod dlya rekonstruktsii ochistnykh sooruzheniy [Research of the Schematic Procedure of Biological Treatment of Waste Water within the Framework of Restructuring of WWTPs]. Vodosnabzhenie i sanitarnaya tekhnika [Water Supply and Sanitary Engineering]. 2011, no. 11, pp. 25—33.
  6. Gogina E.S., Salomeev V.P., Makisha N.A. Reshenie voprosov udaleniya biogennykh elementov iz stochnykh vod [Removal of Biogenic Elements from the Waste Water]. Vodosnabzhenie i kanalizatsiya [Water Supply and Sewerage]. 2011, no. 6, pp. 23—27.
  7. Gogina E.S., Salomeev V.P. Primenenie odnoilovoy sistemy denitrinitrifikatsii dlya rekonstruktsii biologicheskikh ochistnykh sooruzheniy [Application of the Silt Denitrification System in Reconstruction of Biological Wastewater Treatment Structures]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 32—36.
  8. Gogina E.S., Salomeev V.P, Ryzhkov A.D. Problema udaleniya biogennykh elementov iz bytovykh stochnykh vod [The Problem of Removal of Biogenic Elements from Domestic Waste Water]. Ekologiya [Ecology]. 2008, no. 2.

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FIRE EVACUATION FROM HIGH-RISE BUILDINGS

  • Korol'chenko Aleksandr Yakovlevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 50 Olimpiyskiy prospect, Moscow Region, Mytishchi, 141006, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Dinh Cong Hung Dinh Cong Hung - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Fire Safety, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 206 - 212

The authors argue that no collapse of structures is likely in the event of a fire emergency in multistoried buildings, rather, other fire-related factors may endanger the lives of people inside high-rise buildings exposed to the fire emergency, including open fire, sparks, high ambient temperature, smoke and toxic combustion products, reduced concentration of oxygen, and combined influence of various factors.
In case of fire, the temperature inside buildings reaches 1100 °С. It exceeds the temperature of the ambient air acceptable for humans by far (70 °С).
The experiments demonstrate that combustion products contain hundreds of toxic chemical compounds. The most hazardous of them include carbon oxide, carbon dioxide, chloride and cyanic hydrogen, aldehydes and acrolein. The author provides the pattern of their influence on the human body.
The smoke consists of unburned particles of carbon and aerosols. The size of particles fluctuates within 0.05-50 MMK. Smoke produces a physiological and psychological impact on human beings.
It has been proven that dangerous fire factors emerge within the first five to ten minutes of the emergency situation. Evacuation is the principal method of safety assurance. However, the velocity of propagation of smoke and heat is so high that even if the fire prevention system is in operation, people may be blocked both on the floors that are exposed to the fire and those that escape its propagation.
New evacuation and rescue methods are recommended by the author. Various ways and methods of use of life-saving facilities are also provided.
Safe evacuation is feasible from buildings where the number of stories does not exceed 10- 12. During evacuation, high density human streams are formed inside buildings, therefore, the period of stay in a burning building is increased. The calculations have proven that a two-minute delay of evacuation converts into a safe evacuation of only 13-15% of people. Low reliability of smoke detectors can make the evacuation of people from high-rise buildings impossible. Special design of smoke detectors is needed for high-rise buildings.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.206-212

References
  1. Federal‘nyy zakon ¹ 123 ot 22 iyulya 2008 g. Tekhnicheskiy reglament o trebovaniyakh pozharnoy bezopasnosti. [Federal Law no. 123 of July 22, 2008. Technical Regulations of Fire Safety].
  2. Danilenko A., Artem‘ev N., Terebnev V., Chirko V. Dlya rascheta potrebnogo napora [Analysis of Water Head]. Pozharnoe delo [Fire Sciences]. 1985, no. 9, 23 p.
  3. Rekomendatsii po ustroystvu sistem opoveshcheniya i upravleniya evakuatsiey lyudey pri pozharakh v zdaniyakh i sooruzheniyakh [Recommendations concerning Arrangement of Notification Systems and Evacuation of People from Buildings and Structures in case of Fire]. Moscow, VNIIPO Publ., 1985, 19 p.
  4. Chyong Din‘ Khong. Sovershenstvovanie upravleniya tusheniem pozharov i spasaniem lyudey v zdaniyakh povyshennoy etazhnosti gorodov V‘etnama [Improvement of Fire Extinguishing and Rescue of People from High-rise Buildings of Vietnamese Towns]. 2008, pp. 16—25.
  5. Cavin M., Klein B., Hosticca S., Floyd D. Rukovodstvo pol‘zovatelya «Programma FDS–versiya 5» [FDS Software. Version 5. User Manual]. National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA. 2007, 201 p.
  6. Kevin M., Baum H., Rehm R., Mell W., McDermott R. Fire Dynamics Simulator (version 5). Technical Reference Guide-NIST Special Publication 1018-5. National Institute of Standards and Technology, 2009, 117 p.
  7. Koshmarov Yu.A., Bashkirtsev M.P. Termodinamika i teploperedacha v pozharnom dele [Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer in Fire Sciences]. Moscow, VIPTSh MVD SSSR Publ., 1987, 444 p.

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ENGINEERING PROTECTION OF TERRITORIES AFFECTED BY LOESSIAL PSEUDOKARST

  • Lavrusevich Andrey Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Geologo-Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khomenko Viktor Petrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Geological and Mineralogical Sciences, Professor, Department of Engineering Geology and Eco-geology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 213 - 220

Loessial pseudokarst is the result of hydrodynamic, gravitational, physicochemical, and biogenic failure of loess or loess-like soils due to their watering. This dangerous geological phenomenon is mainly caused by anthropogenic reasons, and it manifests itself as cavities, swallow holes, collapse sinks, gullies, etc. Their sudden formation is no less serious problem for a civil engineer than a well-known collapse of loessial and loess-like soils; therefore, there is a need to mitigate the consequences of the above phenomena to protect buildings, structures, roads, railways, and agricultural lands from the consequences of the loessial pseudokarst. Many protective actions are identical to those aimed at protection from karst, and they can be attributed to the passive or active type. The first one does not influence the formation of the loess pseudokarst, but the second does.
Passive actions include planning and designing of subsidence-resistant structures, as well as monitoring of their condition. Dewatering of loess or loess-like soil, control over irrigation, organization of the surface water runoff, erection of waterproof screens and hydraulic curtains, filling of pseudokarst cavities and holes, and improving loess or loess-like soil by injecting the grout represent active mitigation actions. Some of them can only be implemented before the construction is initiated, others can be implemented as operative actions in the course of or in the aftermath of the construction, but most of them can have a double nature.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.213-220

References
  1. Zaporozhchenko E.V. Suffozionnye deformatsii v lessovykh porodakh Predkavkaz’ya [Suffosion Failure of Loessial Soils in Ciscaucasia]. Voprosy stroitel’stva gidrotekhnicheskikh sooruzheniy na prosadochnykh gruntakh [Issues of Hydraulic Engineering on Collapsing Soils]. Baku, 1969, pp. 108—115.
  2. Lavrusevich A.A. Nekotorye osobennosti inzhenerno-geologicheskikh izyskaniy na territoriyakh, porazhennykh lessovym psevdokarstom [Some Peculiarities of Geological Engineering Surveys in the Areas Affected by Loessial Pseudokarst] Inzhenernye izyskaniya [Engineering Surveys]. 2010, no. 10, pp. 20—23.
  3. SNiP 22-02—2003. Inzhenernaya zashchita territoriy, zdaniy i sooruzheniy ot opasnykh geologicheskikh protsessov. Osnovnye polozheniya. [Engineering Rules and Regulations of the Russian Federation 22-02—2003. Engineering Protection of Territories, Buildings and Structures from Dangerous Geological Processes. Basic Provisions]. Moscow, FGUP PNIIIS Publ., 2004, 40 p.
  4. SNiP 2.01.09—91. Zdaniya i sooruzheniya na podrabatyvaemykh territoriyakh i prosadochnykh gruntakh. [Engineering Rules and Regulations 2.01.09—91. Buildings and Structures in Mining Areas and on Collapsing Soils]. Moscow, GUP TsPP Publ., 1999, 34 p.
  5. Tolmachev V.V., Troitskiy G.M., Khomenko V.P. Inzhenerno-stroitel’noe osvoenie zakarstovannykh territoriy [Civil Engineering Assimilation of Karsted Areas]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1986, 117 p.
  6. Khomenko V.P. Zakonomernosti i prognoz suffozionnykh protsessov [Regularities and Forecast of Suffosion Processes]. Moscow, GEOS Publ., 2003, 216 p.
  7. Vyzgo M.S. Konsol’nye perepady [Cantilever-type Drops]. Trudy Sredneaziatskogo nauchno-issledovatel’skogo instituta irrigatsii [Proceedings of Central Asian Research Institute of Irrigation]. 1932, no. 5, pp. 16—38.

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BASIC APPROACHES TO THE RESEARCH OF RENEWABLE SOURCES OF ENERGY AS THE ENERGY POTENTIAL OF TERRITORIES AND BUILT-UP AREAS

  • Poddaeva Olga Igorevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director, Training, Research and Production Laboratory of Wind-tunnel and Aeroacoustic Testing of Civil Engineering Structures; Director, Centre for Research and Innovative Activities, Associate Professor, Department of Theoretical Mechanics and Aerodynamics, 8 (495) 739-33-02, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Dunichkin Ilya Vladimirovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Senior Researcher, Training, Research and Production Laboratory of Wind-tunnel and Aeroacoustic Testing of Civil Engineering Structures, Associate Professor, Department of Design of Buildings and Urban Development, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Kochanov Oleg Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Design of Buildings and Urban Development; engineer, Training, Research and Production Laboratory of Wind-tunnel and Aeroacoustic Testing of Civil Engineering Structures, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 221 - 228

The authors have analyzed the energy potential of the Russian regions based on the planning of territories through the employment of renewable sources of energy, their incorporation into architectural solutions applicable to buildings and structures. The authors also provide their comparative analysis of different sources of renewable energy, of which windmills are covered in more detail.
Urban development of Russia is accompanied by environmental changes and substantial growth of power consumption caused by the expansion of urban clusters that feature high concentration of population and housing density. Against this background, optimization of energy consumption through the incorporation of energy efficient technologies and renewable sources of energy into the process of construction and operation of buildings is of particular importance. The principal
renewable sources of energy include water, sun, and wind. Wind power engineering best fits the conditions of the Russian territories. However, experts believe that the wind power is to be backed by other sources due to the irregularity of its generation. This approach to the power generation and planning of territories coupled with the integration of renewable energy technologies into architectural designs of buildings and structures will make it possible to identify the prerequisites for the energy generation specialization of the subjects of the Russian Federation on the basis of their climatic conditions and urban development patterns. Private investments into renewable sources of energy will assure sustainable population settlement patterns and optimal energy generation and consumption.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.221-228

References
  1. Dunichkin I.V., Kochanov O.A. Ustoychivoe razvitie ekoposelka. Kontseptsiya „GENOM“ [Sustainable Development of an Ecovillage. The Genome Concept]. Genome Budownictwo o Zoptymalizowanym Potencjale Energetycznym. Czestochowa, Poland, WPC, 2011, pp. 35—45.
  2. Popel’ O.S. Avtonomnye energoustanovki na vozobnovlyaemykh istochnikakh energii [Autonomous Energy Generators Based on Renewable Sources of Energy]. Energosberezhenie [Energy Efficiency]. 2006, no. 3, pp. 60—65.
  3. Gridnev D.Z. Proektirovanie prirodno-ekologicheskogo karkasa v sostave gradostroitel’noy dokumentatsii [Environmental Design within the Framework of Urban Development Documentation]. Problemy regional’noy ekologii [Problems of Regional Ecology]. 2009, no. 6, pp. 18—25.
  4. Fortov V.E., Popel’ O.S. Energetika v sovremennom mire [Energy Engineering in the Present-day World]. Moscow, Intellekt Grupp Publ., 2011, 168 p.
  5. Il’ichev V.A., Kolchunov V.I., Bersenev A.V., Pozdnyakov A.L. Nekotorye voprosy proektirovaniya poseleniy s pozitsii biosfernoy sovmestimosti [Some Issues of Design of Settlements from the Viewpoint of Biospheric Compatibility]. Akademiya [The Academy], 2009, no. 1, pp. 50—57.
  6. Shepovalova O.V., Dunichkin I.V. Energopotentsial zdaniy i territoriy ekoposelkov na osnove vozobnovlyaemykh istochnikov energii. Elementy sistem energoobespecheniya kak chast’ konstruktsiy zdaniy. [The Energy Potential of Buildings and Territories of Ecovillages Based on Renewable Sources of Energy. Elements of Energy Supply Systems as Part of Building Structures]. International Scientific Conference “Integration, Partnership, and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education” Vol. 1. Moscow, MGSU Publ., 2011, pp. 337—341.
  7. Web site of Creative Media Centre, a public organization. Available at: www.creativ.pp.ua/?p=3547 Date of access: September 10, 2012.

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PARTICULAR ASPECTS OF APPLICABILITY OF PROVISIONS OF THE PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL THEORY OF EFFECTIVE STRESSES TO SANDY SOILS

  • Potapov Aleksandr Dmitrievich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Head, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Potapov Ivan Aleksandrovich - Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy engineer, Scientific and Research Institute of Emergency Healthcare named after N.V. Sklifosovskiy, .
  • Shimenkova Anastasiya Anatolevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) engineer, Department of Engineering Geology and Geoecology, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 229 - 239

The authors consider several aspects of applicability of the new approach to formation of effective stresses in soils in relation to sands, as it was set out in the theory developed by academician
V.I. Osipov. The analysis of several genetic types of quaternary sands, performed by the authors, makes it possible to use the number of contacts to identify the morphology of sand grains within the framework of the analysis of soils.
The authors demonstrate that the employment of the formulas developed by academician V.I. Osipov in the calculation of the number of contacts between particles in natural sandy soils is virtually impossible due to the fact that no natural sand particles can boast an ideal spherical shape. The number of contacts between the sand particles may increase due to the defects of their shape and the nature of the particle surface.
In this study, the shape and nature of the surface of sand grains represent those of the sands of various origins. The authors have employed a composite index of morphology that takes account of the shape and nature of the surface throughout the amount of sand under research. Similar calculations that take account of the morphology of grains were performed for selected fractions of sands to eliminate the influence of grain size on the packing of sands.
The analysis of provisions of the physical and chemical theory of effective stresses of soils and the study of multiple types of natural sands demonstrate that further research of formation and phases of coagulation contacts between particles of soil requires a detailed study of structural features of sands. These structural features include the grain size, homogeneity, the shape and nature of the surface of sand grains.
Both individual particles of sand and sandy soil are to be subjected to morphological assessments. The parameters to be assessed will include density and composition of sandy soils, as the soil porosity affects the formation of true contacts between particles of sand and determines their number. Mineral composition is an important factor affecting the shape and nature of the surface of sand grains. The research performed by the authors contemplates the study of the morphology of monogene, polymineral, oligomictic and polymictic sands. However quartz is the principal mineral in the structure of sand under research. Further research will cover other minerals to obtain more information about the formation of contacts between sand grains.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.229-239

References
  1. Osipov V.I. Fiziko-khimicheskaya teoriya effektivnykh napryazheniy v gruntakh [Physical and Chemical Theory of Effective Stresses of Soils]. Moscow, IGE RAN Publ., Moscow, 2012, 74 p.
  2. Potapov A.D. Morfologicheskoe izuchenie peskov v inzhenerno-geologicheskikh tselyakh [Morphological Study of Sands for the Purposes of Engineering Geology]. Moscow, PNIIIS Publ., 1981, 243 p.
  3. Friedman E. Packing Unit Squares in Squares. Elec. J. Combin. DS7, 1—24, Oct. 31, 2005. Available at: http://www.combinatorics.org/Surveys/ds7.html.
  4. Bely L.D, Doudler I.V., Mosiakov E.F., Potapov A.D., Julin A.N. Research Methods and Evaluation of Various Genesis Sand Grain Morphology Role in Formation of Their Geological-engineering Properties. Bulletin of IAEG, no. 11, 27-31, Krefeld, 1975.
  5. Doudler I.V., Mosiakov E.F., Potapov A.D. Influence of Characteristic Moisture Content Values on Physical-chemical Properties of Sands of Various Genesis. Moscow Institute of Civil Engineering, no. II, April 1974, pp. 14—17.
  6. Platov N.A., Potapov A.D., Lebedeva M.D. Peschanye grunty [Sandy Soils]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2010. 254 p.
  7. Potapov I.A., Shimenkova A.A., Potapov A.D. Zavisimost’ suffozionnoy ustoychivosti peschanykh gruntov razlichnogo genezisa ot tipa fil’trata [Dependence of Suffosion Stability of Sandy Soils of Various Geneses on the Type of Filtrate]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 5, pp. 79—86.

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THE ROLE OF THE REGIONAL FACTOR IN THE MECHANISMS OF WASTE MANAGEMENT (EXEMPLIFIED BY CENTRAL FEDERAL DISTRICT)

  • Shilova Lyubov' Andreevna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Management, 8 (495) 287-49-19, ext. 1356, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 240 - 247

The problem of waste collection and disposal is one of the oldest in the history of mankind. Currently, the main purpose of waste management consists in the prevention of the harmful effect on the human health and the environment.
The author discusses the current situation in the area of use and disposal of waste in Russia. The author proposes a new methodological approach to the calculation and introduction of waste disposal fees to consolidate the ecological and economic constituents of the problem. This approach requires modification of the local legislation and introduction of the local geo-ecological stress factor to take account of the environmental status of regions, as well as the social and economic situation of regions. The geo-ecological stress factor is based on the local terrain and the population figures.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.240-247

References
  1. «Slovo» [“Word”] Educational Portal. Available at: http://www.portal-slovo.ru/impressionism/41496.php?PRINT=Y. Date of access: 07.12.2012.
  2. Zhilishchnoe khozyaystvo i bytovoe obsluzhivanie naseleniya v Rossii [Residential Housing and Consumer Services in Russia]. Statistical Yearbook, Moscow, Rosstat Publ., 2010, 326 p.
  3. Vorob’ev A.E.; D’yachenko V.V., editor. Osnovy prirodopol’zovaniya: ekologicheskie, ekonomicheskie i pravovye aspekty [Fundamentals of Environmental Management: Environmental, Economic and Legal Aspects]. Rostov-Don, Feniks Publ., 2006, 544 p.
  4. Kuraev S.N., Mamin R.G. Ekologicheskaya konversiya i ustoychivoe razvitie Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Ecological Conversion and Sustainable Development of the Russian Federation]. Moscow, TISSO Publ., 2003, 88 p.
  5. Official website of the President of the Russian Federation. Available at: http://kremlin.ru/news/15177. Date of access: 07.12.2012.
  6. Strategy for Social and Economic Development of Central Federal District of the Russian Federation through 2020, approved by the RF Governmental Decree no. 1540-r issued on September 6, 2011.
  7. Okhrana okruzhayushchey sredy v Rossii [Environmental Protection in Russia]. 2010, Statistical Yearbook, Moscow, Rosstat Publ., 2010, 303 p.

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ECONOMICS, MANAGEMENT AND ORGANIZATION OF CONSTRUCTION PROCESSES

IMPROVEMENT OF COMPETITIVE STABILITY OF CONSTRUCTION ENTERPRISES WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF THE ACCESSION OF RUSSIA TO THE WTO

  • Gorobnyak Angelina Anatol'evna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, assistant, Department of Economics and Management in the Construction Industry, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 248 - 253

The article is focused on the main problems of competitive stability of construction organizations in connection with the accession of Russia to the WTO. Now Russian construction organizations should work on an equal footing with more developed foreign competitors.
A construction organization should be competitive to ensure its successful operation in the global market. Competitive stability is the ability of a organization to implement its economic development strategy and to strengthen its competitive positions in the market environment. Competitive stability improvement requires improvement of the innovative capacity.
The author develops an Innovative Audit method to improve the innovative capacity of a construction organization. An innovative audit incorporates 5 stages:
1. Choice of innovations and formation of the bank of innovations.
2. Choice of innovations corresponding to the innovative capacity level of a specific construction organization.
3. Definition of the innovative capacity level of a construction organization.
4. Reconciliation of the innovative capacity against the bank of innovations.
5. Approval of the final decision concerning the implementation of a specific strategy of innovations.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.248-253

References
  1. Russia and the WTO. Available at: http://www.wto.ru/. Date of access: 12.06.2012.
  2. Bakrunov Yu.O. Strategiya povysheniya konkurentnoy ustoychivosti stroitel’nykh predpriyatiy [Strategy for Improvement of Competitive Stability of Construction Enterprises]. Moscow, 2004, 188 p.
  3. Putyatin A.E. Strategiya povysheniya konkurentnoy ustoychivosti predpriyatiya [Strategy for Improvement of Competitive Stability of an Enterprise]. Moscow, 2000, 216 p.
  4. Ofitsial’nyy sayt Federal’noy sluzhby gosudarstvennoy statistiki Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Official Website of the Federal State Statistics Service of the Russian Federation]. Available at: http://gks.ru/. Date of access: 17.06.2012.
  5. Bystrov G.M. Rossiya i VTO: aktual’nye problemy vneshnetorgovoy politiki [Russia and the WTO: Relevant Problems of the Foreign Trade Policy]. Kazan’, Otechestvo Publ., 2009, 293 p.
  6. Romanov A.N., Maksimtsov M.M., Gorfinkel' V.Ya. Proizvodstvennyy menedzhment [Management of Production Enterprises]. Moscow, Prospekt Publ., 2012, 400 p.
  7. Goncharov V.S. Ekonomicheskie aspekty upravleniya razvitiem innovatsionnykh protsessov na stroitel’nykh predpriyatiyakh [Facilitating Innovative Processes at Construction Enterprises: Economic Aspects of Management]. Moscow, 2008, 185 p.
  8. Potaev V.S. Metodicheskie aspekty otsenki innovatsionnogo potentsiala regiona [Methodological Aspects of the Assessment of the Innovative Potential of a Region]. Izvestiya IGEA [IGEA News Bulletin]. 2012, no. 3. Available at: http://eizvestia.isea.ru/reader/article.aspx?id=12807. Date of access: 31.06.2012.
  9. Khvorostov V.A. Issledovanie metodov otsenki potentsiala predpriyatiya [Research of Methods of Assessment of the Potential of an Enterprise]. Collected works of NGTU. 2005, no. 3, pp. 1—6.
  10. Novikov V.Yu. Razvitie metodov otsenki innovatsionnogo potentsiala i innovatsionnykh proektov v stroitel’noy sfere [Development of Methods of Assessment of the Innovative Potential and Innovative Projects in the Construction Industry]. Moscow, 2010.

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ANALYSIS OF REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO THE PRICING SYSTEM IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

  • Lyapin Anton Valer'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director, Institute of Engineering Expertise, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Lyapin Valeriy Yur'evich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Hydraulics, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 254 - 259

Formation of the pricing system and underlying investment and construction activities were analyzed by the authors in their research. It is noteworthy that the pricing system has a common basis with other human systems, as it incorporates such constituents as process, people, software, etc. Correct interaction between these elements ensures conformity between the anticipated and the practical performance of the system. The basis for the effective operation of the existing system and reduction of potential risks consists in early identification and analysis of requirements set by the user. Absent of implementation of an effective requirement management process, the pattern of the system development will look chaotic and unpredictable. In the process of the data analysis, the data set is converted into a set of the user requirements describing the anticipated behavior of the system in the course of its interaction with the operating environment.
The requirements of users comprise an important constituent of the system design. They affect the entire development process from the beginning to the very end. In accordance with the principles of the system engineering, the authors have identified the key pricing system parameters; their implementation assures the appropriate functionality with a view to the formation of the contract price at various stages of the life-cycle of the investment project. Analysis of the above requirements makes it possible to convert them into a technical vision of the desired product that can demonstrate the required functionality.
The methodology proposed by the authors contemplates decomposition of the levels of requirements; therefore, the authors employ a three-level model that describes the expected functionality of the system. The model includes an organizational level (basic processes, participants, information flows), a methodological level (method of calculating the cost of design, construction and operation, regulatory and methodological documents) and a technology level (information systems and technologies). A three-level functional decomposition of the system is used to simplify the comparison of the elements of the system architecture and the user acceptance.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.254-259

References
  1. Gryunshtam V.A. Kontseptsiya smetnogo tsenoobrazovaniya v stroitel’stve [The Concept of Estimate-based Pricing in the Construction Industry]. TsiSN 6s-2009 Publ., pp. 1—41.
  2. ISO/MEC 15288:2002 Systems Engineering. Process Life Cycle. Switzerland, International Organization for Standardization, 2002, 72 p.
  3. ISO/IEC 15288:2002, Systems Engineering — System Life Cycle Processes. Switzerland, International Organization for Standardization, 2002, 72 p.
  4. Hull E., Jackson K., Dick J. Requirements Engineering. 2005, Springer, 229 p.
  5. Metodika opredeleniya stoimosti stroitel’noy produktsii na territorii Rossiyskoy Federatsii (MDS 81-35. 2004). [Method of Determining the Cost of Construction Products in the Russian Federation (MDS 81-35. 2004)].
  6. Ardzinov V.D. Tsenoobrazovanie i sostavlenie smet v stroitel’stve [Pricing and Cost Estimation in the Construction Industry]. St.Petersburg, Piter Publ., 2006, 234 p.
  7. Stepanov I.S. Ekonomika stroitel’stva [Construction Economics]. Moscow, Yurayt-izdat Publ., 2007, 620 p.
  8. Ginzburg A.V., Mazur I.I., Shapiro V.D. Investitsionno-stroitel’nyy inzhiniring: spravochnik dlya professionalov [Investment and Construction Engineering. Handbook for Professionals]. Moscow, Ekonomika Publ., 2007, 1216 p.
  9. Dikman L.G., Dikman D.L. Organizatsiya stroitel’stva v SShA [Construction Organization in the USA]. Moscow, ASV Publ., 2004, 376 p.
  10. Liberman I.A. Upravlenie zatratami v stroitel’nom komplekse [Cost Management in the Construction Industry]. Moscow, Mart Publ., 2005, 304 p.

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CONDITIONS OF SUSTAINABILITY OF INVESTMENT BUILDING PROJECTS BASED ON THE RISK MANAGEMENT CONCEPT

  • Morozenko Andrey Aleksandrovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU) Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Thermal and Nuclear Power Objects Construction, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (National Research University) (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 260 - 266

The author considers and analyzes different types of risks that an investment building project may be exposed to, as well as the influence of risks on the project life cycle; sustainability of organizations is studied in the context of risk as an attribute of uncertainty-related parameters of the external environment. The conceptual approach to managerial solutions based on (1) the criterion of flexibility, and (2) the rate of change of characteristics of external actions is proposed.
The proposed approach serves as the basis for the following conclusions:
the nature of project management as a system is based on the velocity of changes that affect the project sustainability environment;
the methodology of risk management applicable to investment building projects based on decision making under conditions of ambiguity fails to guarantee the viability of the project in the turbulent environment, namely, the environment that demonstrates intensively changing characteristics;
effective project implementation requires a reasonable combination of principles of optimal and extreme risk management;
minimization of risky situations requires reduction of the project implementation period;
development of domestic methodologies and standards of project risk management tailored to the conditions of our construction industry is a relevant assignment.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.260-266

References
  1. Loginova M.A. Teoreticheskie aspekty risk-menedzhmenta investitsionno-stroitel’noy deyatel’nosti [Theoretical Aspects of Risk Management within the Framework of Investment Building Activities]. Molodezh’ i nauka [Youth and Science]. Collected materials of the 6th All-Russian Conference of Students, Postgraduates and Young Scientists. Krasnoyarsk, 2011. Available at: http://conf.sfu-kras.ru/sites/mn2010/pdf/11/119_11.pdf. Date of access: 06.06.2012.
  2. Popova A.Yu. Metody otsenki riska investitsionnogo proekta [Methods of Assessment of Investment Project Risks]. Polimatematicheskiy setevoy elektronnyy zhurnal Kubanskogo gosudarstvennogo agrarnogo universiteta [Multi-mathematical Network Journal of Kuban State University of Agriculture]. 2007. Available at: http://ej.kubagro.ru/a/viewaut.asp?id=274. Date of access: 27.06.2012.
  3. Doug De Carlo Ekstremal’noe upravlenie proektami [Extreme Project Management]. Moscow, 2005, 588 p.
  4. Morozenko A.A., Telichenko V.I. Otsenka gibkosti investitsionno-stroitel’nogo proekta na osnove informatsionnogo podkhoda [Assessment of Flexibility of Investment Building Projects on the Basis of the Information-intensive Approach]. Promyshlennoe i grazhdanskoe stroitel’stvo [Industrial and Civil Engineering]. 2012, no. 4, pp. 62—65.

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ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF FORMATION AND OPERATION OF THE PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP AND PROSPECTS FOR ITS IMPLEMENTATION N THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY

  • Subbotin Artem Sergeevich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) postgraduate student, Department of Technology, Organization and Management in Construction Industry, Assistant Lecturer, Department of Architectural and Structural Design, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sborshikov Sergey Borisovich - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Professor, Department of Technology, Organization and Management in the Construction Industry, 8 (495) 583-47-52, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 267 - 271

The authors argue that successful development and implementation of major infrastructural projects require special arrangements between the government authorities and the private sector. The authors have developed their proposals concerning models of interaction and strengths of the above arrangements that apply to the organizational structure of the management of infrastructural projects as a step towards the formation of an advanced and progressive model of interaction between public and private sectors. Public-Private Partnership (PPP) is the model in question.
Great Britain is the pioneer of the public private partnership model that was later picked up in the USA, Canada, Australia and the EU constituent states.
PPP and the construction industry have strong links in terms of the involvement of the private sector in the resolution of public problems of the urban infrastructure, namely, restructuring of airfields, railways, public healthcare facilities, kindergartens, schools, etc.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.267-271

References
  1. Subbotin A.S. O vozmozhnosti ispol’zovaniya klasternoy modeli chastno-gosudarstvennogo partnerstva v ramkakh stroitel’noy otrasli [Prospects for the Implementation of the Cluster Model of the Public Private Partnership in the Construction Industry]. International Scientific Conference “Integration, Partnership, and Innovations in Civil Engineering Sciences and Education”. Collection of works of the international conference. 2011, Moscow, MGSU Publ., vol. 2, pp. 547—548.
  2. Sborshchikov S.B. Teoreticheskie zakonomernosti i osobennosti organizatsii vozdeystviy na investitsionno-stroitel’nuyu deyatel’nost’ [Theoretical Patterns and Peculiarities of Organization of Influence on Investment Operations in the Construction Industry]. Vestnik MGSU [Proceedings of Moscow State University of Civil Engineering]. 2009, no. 2, pp. 183—187.
  3. Deryabina M.A. “Theoretical and Practical Problems of Public and Private Partnership”. Report made at the section of the meeting of the academic council of the school of theoretical economics. Available at: http://www.inecon.ru/ru/index.php?go=Content&id=29. Date of access: 03.05.2012.
  4. Varnavskiy V.G. Partnerstvo gosudarstva i chastnogo sektora: formy, proekty, riski [Partnership between the State and the Private Sector: Forms, Projects, Risks]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 2005, pp. 28—36.
  5. Likhachev V.N., Azanov M.V. Prakticheskiy analiz sovremennykh mekhanizmov gosudarstvenno-chastnogo partnerstva v zarubezhnykh stranakh, ili kak realizovat’ GChP v Rossii [Practical Analysis of Modern Mechanisms of the Public Private Partnership in Foreign Countries or How to Implement PPP in Russia]. Finansy, ekonomika, bezopasnost’ [Finance, Economy, Security]. 2005, no. 1(6), pp. 2—8.
  6. Linev I.V. Kontsessiya kak forma gosudarstvenno-chastnogo partnerstva [Concession as the Form of Public Private Partnership]. Vestnik AGTU. Seriya: ekonomika. [Proceedings of Astrakhan State University of Technology. Economics Series]. 2011, no. 2, pp. 49—54.
  7. Amunts D.M. Gosudarstvenno-chastnoe partnerstvo. Kontsessionnaya model’ sovmestnogo uchastiya gosudarstva i chastnogo sektora v realizatsii fi nansovoemkikh proektov [Public Private Partnership. Concession Model of Joint Involvement of Public and Private Sectors in the Implementation of Capital-intensive Projects]. Spravochnik rukovoditelya uchrezhdeniya kul’tury [Reference Book for Top Managers of Institutions of Culture]. 2005, no. 12, pp. 16—24.
  8. Lityushkin V.V. Ekonomicheskie aspekty bezopasnogo infrastrukturnogo zhizneobespecheniya [Economic Aspects of Safe Infrastructure]. Stavropol State University Publ., 2010, 172 p.
  9. Belitskaya A.V. Gosudarstvenno-chastnoe partnerstvo: ponyatie, soderzhanie, pravovoe regulirovanie [Public Private Partnership: Concept, Maintenance, Legal Framework]. Lomonosov Moscow State University Publ., 2011.

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INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND LOGISTICS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING

ADJUSTMENT OF MORPHOMETRIC PARAMETERS OF WATER BASINS BASED ON DIGITAL TERRAIN MODELS

  • Krasil'nikov Vitaliy Mikhaylovich - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) assistant lecturer, Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il'inskaya st., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Sobol' Il'ya Stanislavovich - Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Hydraulic Engineering Structures, Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il'inskaya st., Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 272 - 280

The authors argue that effective use of water resources requires accurate morphometric characteristics of water basins. Accurate parameters are needed to analyze their condition, and to assure their appropriate control and operation. Today multiple water basins need their morphometric characteristics to be adjusted and properly stored.
The procedure employed so far is based on plane geometric horizontals depicted onto topographic maps. It is described in the procedural guidelines issued in respect of the «Application of water resource regulations governing the operation of waterworks facilities of power plants». The technology described there is obsolete due to the availability of specialized software. The computer technique is based on a digital terrain model.
The authors provide an overview of the technique implemented at Rybinsk and Gorkiy water basins in this article. Thus, the digital terrain model generated on the basis of the field data is used at Gorkiy water basin, while the model based on maps and charts is applied at Rybinsk water basin.
The authors believe that the software technique can be applied to any other water basin on the basis of the analysis and comparison of morphometric characteristics of the two water basins.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.272-280

References
  1. Metodicheskie ukazaniya po sostavleniyu pravil ispol’zovaniya vodnykh resursov vodokhranilishch gidrouzlov elektrostantsiy [Guidelines for the Compilation of Rules Governing the Use of Water Resources of Water Basins of Hydraulic Power Plants]. Ministerstvo topliva i energetiki Rossiyskoy Federatsii RAO «EES Rossii» [Ministry of Fuel and Energy, RAO UES of Russia]. 2000.
  2. Avakyan A.B., Saltykin V.P., Sharapov V.A. Vodokhranilishcha [Water Basins]. Moscow, Mysl’ Publ., 1987, 325 p.
  3. Regulations of State Monitoring of Water Bodies no. 219, issued by the RF Government on 10.04.2007.
  4. Sobol’ S.V., Sobol’ I.S., Sidorov N.P., Krasilnikov V.M., Hokhlov D.N. Prognoznoe modelirovanie ekologicheskoy opasnosti vodnykh ob”ektov na urbanizirovannykh territoriyakh [Predictive Modeling of the Ecological Hazard to Water Bodies in Urban Areas]. Privolzhskiy nauchnyy zhurnal [Volga Region Scientific Journal]. 2009, no. 4, pp. 158—162.
  5. Vodokhranilishcha Verkhney Volgi [Water Basins of Upper Volga]. Nizhniy Novgorod, VVBVU Publ., 2008, 156 p.
  6. Zemlyanov I.V., Gorelits O.V., Pavlovskiy A.E., Shikunova E.Yu. Ispol’zovanie geoinformatsionnykh tekhnologiy dlya otsenki sovremennykh morfologicheskikh kharakteristik vodnykh ob”ektov [Application of the GIS Technology in the Assessment of Morphological Characteristics of Water Bodies]. Research of Oceans and Seas. Works of the State Institute of Oceanography. Moscow, FGU GOIN Publ., 2009, no. 212, pp. 258—269.
  7. Sobol’ I.S., Krasil’nikov V.M., Khokhlov D.N. Sovremennye metody s”emki podvodnogo rel’efa vodokhranilishch [Modern Methods of Mapping the Underwater Terrain of Water Basins]. Privolzhskiy nauchnyy zhurnal [Volga Region Scientific Journal]. 2010, no. 2, pp. 34—40.
  8. SP 11-104—97. Inzhenerno-geodezicheskie izyskaniya dlya stroitel’stva. Ch. III. Inzhenerno-gidrograficheskie raboty pri inzhenernykh izyskaniyakh dlya stroitel’stva [Engineering and Topographical Surveys for Construction. Part III. Engineering and Hydrographic Assignments as Part of Engineering Surveys for Construction]. Moscow, PNIIS Publ., 2004, 105 p.
  9. Krasil‘nikov V.M., Tararin A.M. Verifikatsiya gidrodinamicheskoy modeli uchastka reki Volgi, s primeneniem materialov distantsionnogo zondirovaniya Zemli iz kosmosa [Verifi cation of the Hydrodynamic Model of the Site of the Volga River through Remote Sensing of the Earth from the Space] Privolzhskiy nauchnyy zhurnal [Volga Region Scientific Journal]. 2008, no. 4, pp. 94—98.
  10. Osnovnye pravila ispol’zovaniya vodnykh resursov Rybinskogo i Gor’kovskogo vodokhranilishch na r. Volge [Basic Rules Governing the Use of Water Resources of Rybinsk and Gorkiy Water Basins of the Volga River]. Moscow, Minmeliovodkhoz RSFSR Publ., 1983, 52 p.

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MODIFIED KACHUGIN METHOD OF ALTERNATIVE SOFTWARE-BASED PROJECTION OF THE PATTERN OF REORGANIZATION OF ABRASION SHORES OF WATER RESERVOIRS IN THE FLAT TERRAIN

  • Sobol' Il'ya Stanislavovich - Nizhniy Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) Candidate of Technical Sciences, Associate Professor, 8 (831) 430-42-89, Nizhniy Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il'inskaya St., N. Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Khokhlov Dmitriy Nikolaevich - Nizhniy Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU) postgraduate student, Junior Researcher, 8 (831) 430-42-89, Nizhniy Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (NNGASU), 65 Il'inskaya St., N. Novgorod, 603950, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 281 - 288

Presently, effective regulations employed in the Russian Federation recommend the use of the methods developed by E.G. Kachuchin, G.S. Zolotarev, I.A. Pecherkin, etc. for the projection of patterns of reorganization of coastlines of water reservoirs. One of these methods, developed by E.G. Kachugin, belongs to the group of power methods based on the hypothesis that the amplitudes of destruction of the coast are proportionate to the total wave energy alongside the coastline. The Kachugin method was reworked into a computer-based two-dimensional engineering model of reorganization of the abrasion shore. The model generates alternative projections. It simulates the processes of washout and accumulation of soil in the coastal area and solves the problem of predicting the potential profile of the shore within a pre-set time period or until the abrasion is smoothed away in the course of formation of coastal shallows.
The model testing has proven its efficiency in solving the engineering problems of projecting the line of reservoir abrasion shores with a high degree of reliability.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.281-288

References
  1. SP 11-105—97. Inzhenerno-geologicheskie izyskaniya dlya stroitel’stva. Chast’ II. [Construction Regulations 11-105—97. Engineering and Geological Surveys for Construction. Part II]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 2000.
  2. P 30—75. Metodicheskie rekomendatsii po prognozirovaniyu pereformirovaniya beregov vodokhranilishch. [P 30—75. Methodological Recommendations concerning Projection of the Reservoir Shore Reformation]. Leningrad, 1975, 185 p.
  3. Ikonnikov. L.B. Prognoz razrusheniya beregov pri povyshenii urovnya Cheboksarskogo vodokhranilishcha [Projections concering Destruction of Coasts Caused by the Water Level Increase of the Cheboksary Reservoir]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 1990, no. 2. pp. 11—13.
  4. Rekomendatsii po otsenke i prognozu razmyva beregov ravninnykh rek i vodokhranilishch dlya stroitel’stva [Recommendations concerning Assessment and Projection of the Washout Pattern of Plain Rivers and Reservoirs for Construction Purposes]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1987, 72 p.
  5. Rekomendatsii po razmeshcheniyu i proektirovaniyu rasseivayushchikh vypuskov stochnykh vod [Recommendations concerning Position and Design of the Scattering Outfl ow of Effluents]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1981, 216 p.
  6. Krylov Yu. M., Strekalov S.S., Tsyplukhin V.F. Vetrovye volny i ikh vozdeystvie na sooruzheniya [Wind Waves and Their Effects on Buildings]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat Publ., 1976, 256 p.
  7. SNiP 2.06.04—82*. Nagruzki i vozdeystviya na gidrotekhnicheskie sooruzheniya (volnovye, ledovye i ot sudov) [Construction Norms and Regulations 2.06.04—82*. Loads and Effects on Hydraulic Structures (Wave, Ice, and Vessels)]. Moscow, Stroyizdat Publ., 1989.
  8. Bronshteyn I.N., Semendyaev K.A. Spravochnik po matematike dlya inzhenerov i uchashchikhsya vtuzov [Handbook of Mathematics for Engineers and Students of Technical Universities]. Moscow, Nauka Publ., 1981, 720 p.
  9. Maksimchuk V. L. Ratsional’noe ispol’zovanie i okhrana beregov vodokhranilishch [Rational Use and Protection of the Coastline of Water Reserviors]. Kiev, Budivel’nik Publ., 1981, 112 p.
  10. Sobol’ I.S., Khokhlov D.N. Avtomatizatsiya inzhenernykh raschetov beregopereformirovaniy na vodokhranilishchakh kriolitozony [Automation of Engineering Designs of the Coast Reformation in the Reservoirs of the Cryolite Zone]. Proceedings of the 9th International Permafrost Engineering Symposium]. Yakutsk, 2011, pp. 115—120.
  11. Sobol’ S.V., Sobol’ I.S., Ikonnikov L.B., Khokhlov D.N. Analiz pereformirovaniya abrazionnykh beregov Gor’kovskogo vodokhranilishcha za period 1957—2010 gg. s prognozom na sleduyushchee desyatiletie [Analysis of Reorganization of Abrasion Shores of the Gorky Reservoir for the Period of 1957—2010 and the Forecast for the Next Decade]. Gidrotekhnicheskoe stroitel’stvo [Hydraulic Engineering]. 2011, no. 12, pp. 13—20.

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THREE-DIMENSIONAL TOPOLOGICAL MODELS OF BUILDINGS

  • Bil'chuk Irina Leonidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Candidate of Techniclal Sciences, Associate Professor, Department of Building Informatics, 8 (499) 188-51-10, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation.
  • Pahl Peter Jan Pahl Peter Jan - Technical University Berlin (TUB) Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult., Department of Civil Engineering, +49 (0)30 314-0; +49 (0)30 314-23222, Technical University Berlin (TUB), Straße des 17 Juni 135, D-10623, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 289 - 296

A novel data structure for the topology of three-dimensional skeletons of buildings is presented. Each face of the skeleton is mapped to two half-faces in the topological model. The boundary of a half-face consists of a cycle of half-edges. Each edge is mapped to a bundle of half-edges containing one half-edge for each half-face at the edge. The bundle is decomposed into two dihedral cycles, one for each direction of the edge, containing the half-edges ordered according to dihedral angle. The topological model is constructed by partitioning three-dimensional space. Each partition subdivides a specified cell into two convex cells. Cells can be merged if the resulting cell is convex. The partition and merge operations are efficient because they are performed on a small subset of the elements of the model in the vicinity of the affected cell and are thus independent of the size of the model.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.289-296

References
  1. Bungartz H.-J., Griebel M. and Zenger C., 2002. Einf?hrung in die Computergraphik. Wiesbaden, Vieweg Verlag.
  2. Lawson C.L. Properties of n-dimensional Triangulations. Computer Aided Geometric Design, no. 3(1986), pp. 231—246.
  3. Aurenhammer F., 1991. Voronoi diagrams-a Survey of a Fundamental Geometric Data Structure. ACM Comput. Surveys, 23 (1991), 345—406.
  4. Kettner L. Halfedge Data Structures. CGAL Open Source Project Release 4.0, March 2012, Chapter 26. Ðåæèì äîñòóïà: http://www.cgal.org. Äàòà îáðàùåíèÿ: ìàðò 2012 ãîäà.
  5. Damiand G. Combinatorial Maps. CGAL Open Source Project Release 4.0, March 2012, Chapter 27. Ðåæèì äîñòóïà: http://www.cgal.org. Äàòà îáðàùåíèÿ: ìàðò 2012 ãîäà.
  6. Pahl P.J. Topology of Buildings. Lecture Notes, Fachgebiet Bauinformatik, Technische Universit?t Berlin, 2012, 124 p.

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AN INTEGRATED MODEL OF PLANNING PROCESSES FOR BUILDING DEVALUATION AND RENOVATION

  • Muminova Svetlana Rashidovna - Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU) Research Assistant, Scientific and Educational Centre for Information Systems and Intelligent Automatics in Civil Engineering, Moscow State University of Civil Engineering (MGSU), 26 Yaroslavskoe shosse, Moscow, 129337, Russian Federation; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .
  • Pahl Peter Jan Pahl Peter Jan - Technical University Berlin (TUB) Prof. Dr. Dr. h. c. mult., Department of Civil Engineering, +49 (0)30 314-0; +49 (0)30 314-23222, Technical University Berlin (TUB), Straße des 17 Juni 135, D-10623, Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it .

Pages 297 - 304

A novel integrated mathematical model for the devaluation of buildings with time and the restoration of their value through renovation is presented. The traditional approach of treating individual building components is extended to complete buildings and groups of buildings through the introduction of classified sets and renovation groups of building components. The time history of the accumulated renovation costs is determined. It is suitable for rational planning of the renovation strategy and of an economic balance between resources assigned to new construction and resources used for the renovation of buildings.

DOI: 10.22227/1997-0935.2012.10.297-304

References
  1. Schr?der Jules: Zustandsbewertung grosser Geb?udebest?nde. Schweizer Ingenieur und Architekt Nr.17, April 1989. Seite 449—459.
  2. Schweizer Bundesamt f?r Konjunkturfragen: Impulsprogramm Bau (IP BAU). Alterungsverhalten von Bauteilen und Unterhaltskosten: Grundlagendaten f?r den Unterhalt und die Erneuerung von Wohnbauten. Bern, Dezember 1994. 110 Seiten.

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